65 terms

Geography of north America ch 2-5


Terms in this set (...)

According to the book, the study of the environmental characteristics of earth is called _______.
Physical geography
Which well-known physical feature in North America was created by down-cutting?
The Grand Canyon
Which major physical feature in North America did continental glaciers create?
The Great Lakes
The first mountain chain that slowed the western movement of early American settlers was _______.
The Appalachian Mountains
The Fall Line is an imaginary line formed by points _______.
both along eastern rivers where there were waterfalls, and where the limit of accessibility for ocean-going ships occurred
Mount Mitchell, the highest mountain in the Appalachians, is _______ the highest peaks in the Rocky Mountains and Sierra Nevada.
much lower than
The Erie Canal was constructed to provide a water route between the Atlantic Coast and what?
The Great Lakes
Most of North America is located on which tectonic plate?
The North American Plate
The San Andreas Fault is located in which part of North America?
Another name for the process of mountain building is what?
Explosive eruptions of pyroclastic debris and gases are associated with which type of volcanoes?
Composite cone volcanoes
The lava of a shield volcano _______.
has a low viscosity and so flows across the landscape
During the maximum extent of glaciation in North America, continental glaciers extended how far south?
Sinkholes are associated with which type of landscape?
When depositional forces are dominant on a coastline, those forces produce which of the following features?
Broad beaches
The Mississippi-Missouri river basin flows _______.
South into the Gulf of Mexico
The Canadian Shield covers about how much of the area of Canada?
What does Zelinsky's theory of first effective settlement say?
That groups who are the first to successfully settle a place have the longest impacts on its cultural landscape
Before European settlement in North America, population densities of Native Americans/First Nations were the greatest in which regions?
The Pacific Northwest, California, and present-day southeastern united States
Native Americans/First Nations lived in which type(s) of settlements?
Some in migratory bands and others in villages and cities
The forceful invasion of one group of people on the territory of another, causing the conquest of the latter people and resulting in foreign rule, is known as what?
Place-names, food preferences, clothing styles, environmental attitudes, and spiritual beliefs are examples of the enduring impacts indigenous people have had on what aspect of the geography of North America?
The cultural landscape
Which of the following answers best describes why European monarchs pushed for exploration and exploitation of new lands post-1300s?
They were in debt to merchants who helped them gain power at home.
Which of the following answers best illustrates the Columbian exchange?
Europeans brought horses and European grasses to North America and returned to their homelands with tomatoes, corn, and other crops native to North America.
Many African Americans are descendants of people who were brought to North America as slaves. The movement of slaves is an example what type of migration?
Which of the following best explains why French settlers used the long lot system of land division?
This system allowed each farmer access to the river as well as farm fields.
If you were flying over North America in a plane and saw an area with an extremely regular system of square farm fields and roads running directly north-south and east-west you would recognize that the area had been surveyed with which of the following systems?
Township and range
Before the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848, most settlers living in what is now California, Arizona, and New Mexico would have been called what?
A student was asked the following essay question: "Briefly describe the Dawes Act intention and its impact on Native American communities." As an answer, this student wrote the following: "The 1887 Dawes Act forced Native American tribes to divide their communally held reservation lands so that individual tribe members each owned their own piece of the reservation. Few tribe members sold their land to Euro-American settlers because they wanted to stay on their land, but a few decided to sell. This meant that many of these individuals made enough money to start their own businesses and help their struggling communities. The Dawes Act had a positive impact on Native America communities because it allowed them to better integrate with settlers and become financially successful." How would you judge this student's answer?
The main difference between the Donation Land Claims Act and the Homestead Act was what?
The Donation Land Claims Act only applied to the Oregon Territory.
The great migration refers to the migration of which ethnic group?
African Americans to cities in the Midwest, Northeast, and West
What were the three major cultural hearths that developed in what is now the United States by the end of the colonial period?
New England-Boston, Mid Atlantic-Philadelphia, the Southern-Chesapeake Bay.
Which of the following ethnic groups faced official anti-immigration legislation in both the United States and Canada starting in the late 19th century?
The economic activities that a community relies on to generate income from elsewhere is called what?
Economic base
For many years, a mainstay of the economy in Seattle, Washington, was commercial fishing. Many people not employed in the fishing industry were employed providing goods and services to fishermen. This is an example of what?
Basic employment generating nonbasic employment
In North America the majority of workers are employed in which sector(s) of the economy?
Tertiary and quaternary
Mechanics, doctors, waiters, and massage therapists are examples of jobs in which economic sector?
The economic base traditionally identified with Detroit, Michigan, is what?
Automobile manufacturing
Cash-grain farming is associated with what part of North America?
The Midwest (Illinois, Iowa)
Petroleum and natural gas production has been associated with the economic base of which parts of North America?
The Gulf Coast, the Great Plains, and parts of northern Canada
Why have manufacturing jobs moved from their traditional center in the Rust Belt to other regions in North America and regions outside of North America?
Manufacturing jobs have moved in order to lower labor costs.
By the end of the 20th century the majority of service and retail outlets were owned by whom?
Large corporations
Which factor contributed to the growth of tourism in North America?
The mass production and distribution of the automobile
High-technology industries are often located near what?
Major research universities
What factors are more important in determining where tertiary and quaternary sector firms choose to locate?
Locating in areas with lots of amenities and relatively low cost of living
Over the course of the 20th century, population has been centered in various settings. Which of the following best describes the order of development and growth of these population centers over time?
Rural, to urban, to suburbs, to edge cities
The main difference between edge cities and suburbs is what?
Edge cities are less reliant than suburbs on the central city for employment, shopping, recreation, and cultural activities.
By the end of the twentieth century changes in urban structure in the United States meant that most of the largest cities were located in what region?
The Sun Belt
Over time, people in various areas of the United States have tended to favor either introverted or extroverted foreign policy. What is the main factor that seems to influence people's attitude toward foreign policy?
How foreign policy might impact their region's economy
NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) is a treaty about what?
Limiting tariffs and trade restrictions
Pick the response below that includes only Canadian provinces located in the Atlantic Periphery.

Prince Edward Island, Manitoba
Quebec, Ontario
New Brunswick, Nova Scotia
Newfoundland and Labrador, Ontario
New Brunswick, Nova Scotia
What is the main geomorphic process that has created the rocky, rugged coastline of the Atlantic Periphery?
Which of the following is an example of an environmental hazard that commonly disrupts transportation in the Atlantic Periphery?

Both fogs and flooding
Both heavy winter snowfall and fogs
Heavy winter snowfall
Both heavy winter snowfall and fogs
What was the first European group to build a settlement in the Atlantic Periphery?
The Norse
Which of the following contributed to the rush of British settlement in the Atlantic Periphery after 1763?

- The promise of free land
- Both the promise of free land and the growing tensions in the 13 colonies
- The growing tensions in the 13 colonies
- The French government announced that they would welcome British settlers.
- Many British settlers hoped the American revolution would spread northward.
Both the promise of free land and the growing tensions in the 13 colonies
What types of abundant natural resources attracted Europeans to the Atlantic Periphery?
Fishing, forests, and logging
Many French settlers left the Atlantic Periphery during the Great Upheaval and settled in what part of North America?
The Coastal South
Although we think of the Atlantic Periphery as primarily settled by Europeans, there are more than 20,000 people of African descent living in Nova Scotia. Which of the following is a true statement about the ancestry of these people?

- Most came from Africa during the 20th century because of drought and warfare.
- Most came from Scotland as slaves with the original Scottish settlers.
- Most emigrated from other parts of the Americas to end up in Nova Scotia.
- Most were migrant workers who ended up settling in the region.
Most emigrated from other parts of the Americas to end up in Nova Scotia.
Why is the economy of the Atlantic Periphery considered dependent?
The economy of the region is relatively weaker than those of nearby regions.
What factor has contributed to growing lobster populations in the region despite large harvests?
Overfishing of cod, which eats lobsters
Tourism, second-home development, and permanent in-migration are all having an increasing impact on the economy of the Atlantic Periphery. Where are these tourists and migrants mainly coming from?
Why have fisheries in the region declined since the 1950s?
Technological improvements have allowed fishing to take place at much faster rates than ever before.
The local people and culture in many parts of the Atlantic Periphery can be described in what way?
Highly independent and self-sufficient
As changes have come to the fishing economy of the region, the Canadian government has attempted to deal with the declines in what ways?
Both providing incentives for people to move and providing retraining
How might the economy of the Atlantic Periphery be impacted by increasing tourism and migration from wealthier nearby regions?
Local businesses will benefit and new business will be attracted by increasing population.