urban society

a system in which cities are the center of political, economic and social life




a soldier who sells his services to the highest bidder


a gift of money or property paid at the time of marriage


intellectual movement of the Renaissance based on the study of the humanities which included grammar, rhetoric, poetry, moral philosophy and history


a painting done on fresh, wet plaster with water-based paints

Christian humanism

a movement that developed in Northern Europe during the Renaissance combining classical learning (humanism) with the goal of reforming the Catholic Church


the state of being saved through faith alone or through faith and good works


a release from all or part of punishment for sin by the Catholic Church, reducing time in purgatory after death


the belief that God has determined in advance who will be saved(the elect) and who will be damned(the reprobate)


declare invalid


rebirth; a rebirth of the ancient Greek and ROman worlds from 1350-1550; began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe

Johannes Gutenberg

developed the printing press; Gutenberg Bible - the first European book produced from movable type

Ninety-five Theses

an attack on abuses in the sale of indulgences; gave rise to separate religious reform movements and to the breakdown of religious unity in Europe

Edict of Worms

made Martin Luther an outlaw within the empire; his books were to be burned, etc.; turned turned his relligious movement into a revolution

Leonardo da Vinci

Italian painter, sculptor, architect, musician, engineer, and scientist; "Last Supper"

Francesco Sforza

last Visconti ruler of Milan; conquered the city; leader of a band of mercenaries


Florence; wealthy family who controlled the government from behind the scenes

Niccolo Machiavelli

Italian author and statesman who wrote "The Prince" - concerns how to acquire, and keep, political power


father of the Italian Renaissance humanism


Italian author; "Divine Comedy" - story of a soul's journey to salvation; helped make Italian vernacular literature popular


painter, sculptor, and architect; painiting on the ceiling of the SIstine Chapel in Rome

Jan van Eyck

Flemish painter - first to use oil paint - enabled more colors to be used

Albrecht Durer

German painter- learned from the Italians; perspective


English author who wrote the "Canterbury Tales" - story of 29 pilgrims traveling to the tomb of St. Thomas a Becket; helped make English vernacular literature popular

Martin Luther

German leader of the Protestant Reformation; wrote 95 Theses in Wittenberg

Desiderius Erasmus

best known of all Christian humanists; "the philosophy of Christ"; "The Praise of Folly"

Protestant Reformation

name given to the religious reform movement that divided the western Church into Cathoic and Protestant groups

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