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Ch 5: Microbial Metabolism

Microbiology: An Introduction 11th edition Tortora
STUDY
PLAY
Which of the following is true of catabolism?

A. Catabolic reactions build up complex organic compounds from simpler ones.
B. Catabolic reactions are exergonic; they break down complex organic molecules into simpler ones.
C. An example of a catabolism is the creation of sugar from carbon dioxide and water.
D. Catabolic reactions use energy from ATP, converting it to ADP.
Catabolic reactions are exergonic; they break down complex organic molecules into simpler ones.
Which of the following statements is true about enzymes?

A. Each enzyme has a characteristic three-dimensional shape.
B. Enzymes are used up in the reactions they catalyze.
C. Enzymes have active sites that interact with a variety of different molecules.
D. Enzymes raise the activation energy of the reaction.
Each enzyme has a characteristic three-dimensional shape.
The chemical reactions involved in synthesizing proteins and cell wall peptidoglycan are examples of ________ reactions.

A. anabolic
B. autotrophic
C. photosynthetic
D. catabolic
anabolic
Which of the following statements is accurate concerning glucose metabolism?

A. Pyruvic acid, the product of glycolysis, is the starting block for both the Krebs cycle and fermentation.
B. Glucose is split in glycolysis and produces large amounts of ATP.
C. The electron transport chain is the final step for both fermentation and aerobic respiration.
D. Fermentation produces large amounts of ATP.
Pyruvic acid, the product of glycolysis, is the starting block for both the Krebs cycle and fermentation.
The complete oxidation (catabolism) of glucose typically involves three stages. The greatest amount of ATP is produced in which stage?

A. Krebs cycle
B. glycolysis
C. the electron transport chain
D. photosynthesis
the electron transport chain
Which of the following molecules carry electrons during various stages of glucose catabolism?

A. acetyl CoA
B. NADH and FADH2
C. pyruvic acid
D. glucose
NADH and FADH2
Which of the following four stages of glucose oxidation requires molecular oxygen?

A. production of acetyl CoA
B. Krebs cycle
C. oxidative phosphorylation
D. glycolysis
oxidative phosphorylation
Which of the following statements accurately describes the difference between aerobic and anaerobic respiration?

A. Aerobic respiration uses an organic molecule as the final electron acceptor, and anaerobic respiration uses an inorganic molecule as the final electron acceptor.
B. Aerobic respiration uses oxygen as the final electron acceptor, and anaerobic respiration uses either an inorganic molecule, such as nitrate ions or sulfate ions, or an organic molecule, such as an acid or alcohol.
C. Anaerobic respiration uses oxygen as the final electron acceptor, and aerobic respiration uses either an inorganic molecule, such as nitrate ions or sulfate ions, or an organic molecule, such as an acid or alcohol.
D. Aerobic respiration uses O2 as the final electron acceptor, whereas anaerobic respiration uses H2O.
Aerobic respiration uses oxygen as the final electron acceptor, and anaerobic respiration uses either an inorganic molecule, such as nitrate ions or sulfate ions, or an organic molecule, such as an acid or alcohol.
Carbon fixation occurs during __________.

A. anaerobic respiration
B. photosynthesis
C. fermentation
D. the complete oxidation of glucose
photosynthesis
Fermentation differs from anaerobic respiration in all of the following ways EXCEPT that fermentation does NOT ________.

A. oxidize NADH
B. oxidize glucose
C. use an electron transport chain
D. require molecular oxygen
use an electron transport chain
When fermentation tests are used to help identify bacteria, which of the following end-products is typically detected by a color change?

A. O2
B. NADP
C. gas
D. acid
acid
Which of the following are products of light-dependent photosynthetic reactions and are necessary for the light-independent photosynthetic reactions to occur?

A. ATP and NADPH
B. O2 and ATP
C. O2 and NADPH
D. glucose and O2
ATP and NADPH
During the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis, organisms __________.

A. produce molecular oxygen
B. use molecular oxygen to produce ATP
C. synthesize sugars
D. ferment glucose
synthesize sugars
Nitrobacter bacteria use carbon dioxide for their carbon source and nitrate ions as an energy source. This organism is a __________.

A. photoautotroph
B. photoheterotroph
C. chemoautotroph
D. chemoheterotroph
chemoheterotroph
Which group of organisms has members representing each of the following nutritional classifications: chemoheterotrophs, chemoautotrophs, photoheterotrophs, and photoautotrophs?

A. bacteria
B. animals
C. plants
D. protists
bacteria
Which of the following molecules traps energy released during oxidation reduction reactions?

A. NADP+
B. FAD+
C. ATP
D. NAD
ATP
Some amino acids are synthesized by adding an amine group to pyruvic acid or to one of the Krebs cycle intermediates. This process is known as __________.

A. amination
B. catabolism
C. carbon fixation
D. hydrolysis
amination
You inoculate a bacterial culture into a tube containing glucose and peptides. The pH indicator shows that the pH decreased after 24 hours and then increased at 48 hours. What has caused the increase in pH?

A. oxidation of glucose
B. deamination
C. compounds in the Krebs cycle
D. fermentation of glucose
deamination
Which of the following terms refers to pathways that can function both in anabolism and catabolism?

A. light-dependent pathways
B. homolactic fermentation pathways
C. chemiosmotic pathways
D. amphibolic pathways
amphibolic pathways
Like glucose, amino acids are catabolized for energy, but these must be converted to a form where they can enter the Krebs cycle for oxidation. All of the following reactions occur in the catabolism of amino acids EXCEPT __________.

A. decarboxylation
B. carbon fixation
C. dehydrogenation
D. deamination
carbon fixation
Biological oxidations are also called ____ reactions.
dehydrogenation
At the completion of glycolysis, the carbons from glucose are in ____. (name the molecule)
pyruvic acid
At the completion of the Krebs cycle, the carbons from glucose are in ____ . (name the molecule)
carbon dioxide
At the completion of aerobic respiration, energy has been formed. The energy from the oxidation of glucose is stored in ____?
ATP
____ involves an inhibitor that fills the active site of an enzyme and competes with the normal substrate for the active site. (two words)
competitive inhibition
For every NADH that is oxidized via the electron transport chain, ____ ATP are formed.
three
In cyclic photophosphorylation, electrons released from excited chlorophyll molecules eventually return to ____.
chlorophyll
In noncyclic photophosphorylation, ____ is produced as water is oxidized.
oxygen
In fermentation, the electrons from ___ are passed to pyruvic acid to form reduced organic molecules.
NADH
In fermentation, ATP is generated only in ____. (name the pathway)
glycolysis
All of the following pairs are correctly matched except ________.

A. catabolism; breakdown of organic compounds
B. oxidation; reaction where electrons are gained
C. anabolism; building of complex molecules
D. metabolic pathways; sequences of chemical reactions
E. metabolism; sum of all chemical reactions
oxidation; reaction where electrons are gained
One of the sites of allosteric regulation of the Krebs cycle is the conversion of pyruvic acid to acetyl CoA. Which of the following conditions would you expect to inhibit the conversion of pyruvic acid to acetyl CoA?

A. high ATP and low NADH
B. high ADP and low NADH
C. low ATP and low NADH
D. low ATP and high NADH
E. high ATP and high NADH
high ATP and high NADH
Enzymes are important in living organisms because they ________.

A. bind irreversibly to substrates and remove them from the cellular pool
B. bring together reactants or properly orient a molecule for a reaction
C. increase local temperatures to increase rates of reactions
D. catalyze the covalent bonding of NAD+ molecules to substrates
E. interact with and destroy unwanted cellular substrates
bring together reactants or properly orient a molecule for a reaction
A coenzyme assists an enzyme by accepting or donating matter. What does NAD+ transfer?

A. CoA
B. acetyl groups
C. phosphate groups
D. ATP
E. electrons
electrons
All of the following are required for the generation of ATP by chemiosmosis except ________.

A. formation of a proton motive force
B. conversion of pyruvic acid to lactic acid
C. active transport of protons across a phospholipid membrane
D. passage of electrons through electron carrier chains
E. use of proton flow by ATP synthase
conversion of pyruvic acid to lactic acid
Competitive inhibition of enzyme action involves ________.

A. competition for binding at the enzyme allosteric site
B. irreversible binding to the enzyme active site
C. destruction of the enzyme substrate
D. competition with the substrate for binding at the active site
E. alteration of the enzyme's active site
competition with the substrate for binding at the active site
In an enzymatic reaction involving oxidation of a substrate, which of the following would be required?

A. H2O
B. NAD+
C. O2
D. FADH2
E. ATP
NAD+
Thiobacillus bacteria use the Calvin-Benson cycle to reduce CO2 and the oxidation of sulfide ions for energy. This organism is a ________.

A. photochemotroph
B. photoautotroph
C. photoheterotroph
D. chemoautotroph
E. chemoheterotroph
chemoautotroph
During glycolysis, electrons from the oxidation of glucose are transferred to ________.

A. FADH2
B. lactic acid
C. NAD+
D. FAD
E. NADH
NAD+
Heterotrophs use organic molecules as energy and carbon sources. To produce 5-carbon intermediates needed for synthesis of nucleic acids, the cell utilizes the ________.

A. cyclic photophosphorylation pathway
B. glycolytic pathway
C. pentose phosphate pathway
D. mixed acid fermentation pathway
E. Krebs cycle
pentose phosphate pathway
NADH molecules formed during glycolysis and in the Krebs cycle are ________.

A. oxidized when electrons are needed in anabolic pathways
B. oxidized when electrons are passed to the electron transport chain
C. transported out of the cell during oxidative phosphorylation
D. oxidized when electrons are passed to NADP+
E. stored in the mitochondria
oxidized when electrons are passed to the electron transport chain
Streptococcus bacteria lack an electron transport chain. How many molecules of ATP can a Streptococcus cell net from one molecule of glucose?

A. 4
B. 38
C. 10
D. 2
E. 36
2
All of the following steps are involved in the aerobic electron transport chain. Which step happens last?

A. Protons move to the outside of the membrane.
B. NAD+ is formed.
C. NADH is oxidized.
D. Electrons flow between membrane-bound electron carriers.
E. Electrons are transferred to O2.
Electrons are transferred to O2.
The proton motive force is ________.

A. the accumulation of water formed in respiration
B. an electrochemical gradient formed across a membrane
C. ATP accumulation in the mitochondria
D. the movement of flagella
E. the movement of water across a membrane
an electrochemical gradient formed across a membrane
Unlike eukaryotes, in prokaryotes chemiosmosis ________.

A. does not require ATP synthase
B. occurs at the plasma membrane and not the mitochondria
C. does not require a membrane
D. electrons are eventually passed to organic molecules instead of inorganic acceptors
E. moves iron instead of protons across the membrane
occurs at the plasma membrane and not the mitochondria
Which of the following would you predict to be a feedback inhibitor of the glycolytic enzyme phosphofructokinase?

A. ATP
B. FAD
C. fructose
D. ADP
E. NAD+
ATP
All of the following are potential end-products of fermentations except ________.

A. carbon dioxide
B. ethanol
C. pyruvic acid
D. acetic acid
E. lactic acid
pyruvic acid
Which one molecule could provide the carbon source, the energy source, and the electron source for a chemoheterotroph?

A. glucose
B. carbon dioxide
C. ATP
D. nitrogen
E. sulfur
glucose
Which organism is not correctly matched to its energy source?

A. anoxygenic autotroph; light
B. photoheterotroph; light
C. chemoheterotroph; glucose
D. photoautotroph; CO2
E. chemoautotroph; iron
photoautotroph; CO2
Organisms that use carbon dioxide as a carbon source and energy sources such as ammonia or hydrogen sulfide are called ________.

A. chemoheterotrophs
B. photoautotrophs
C. saprophytes
D. photoheterotrophs
E. chemoautotrophs
chemoautotrophs
True/False

Enzymes work most effectively at their optimal temperature and pH.
True
True/False

Feedback inhibition generally acts on the last enzyme in an anabolic pathway.
False
True/False

Anaerobic respiration is another name for fermentation.
False
True/False

Glycolysis produces ATP through substrate phosphorylation.
True
True/False

The synthesis of sugars by using carbon atoms from CO2 gas is called carbon fixation.
True
True/False

NADPH produced in noncyclic photosynthesis is used to provide electrons for the fixation of CO2 in the Calvin-Benson cycle.
True
True/False

Biochemical tests for the identification of bacteria involve testing fermentation products or amino acid catabolism.
True
True/False

Lipids, proteins, and sugars all may serve as substrates of glycolysis.
False
True/False

Metabolic pathways that function in both anabolism and catabolism are called amphibolic pathways.
True
What could you conclude about an enzyme's activity?

A. Enzymes are rigid molecules that never change their shape.
B. A particular enzyme is capable of catalyzing many different reactions.
C. A particular enzyme can be used only once.
D. A particular enzyme is very specific to the reaction it catalyzes.
A particular enzyme is very specific to the reaction it catalyzes.
What is the net number of ATP molecules produced during glycolysis?

A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 4
2
What is the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain?

A. NAD+
B. oxygen
C. FMN
D. cyt a
oxygen
Which of the following reactions produces the most molecules of ATP during aerobic metabolism?

A. glucose --->glucose6 - phosphate
B. Phosphoenolpyruvic acid ---> pyruvic acid
C. glucose ---> pyruvic acid
D. acetyl CoA ---> CO2 + H2O
E. Succinic Acid ----> fumaric acid
acetyl CoA ---> CO2 + H2O
Which of the following processes does not generate ATP?

A. photophosphorylation
B. the Calvin-Benson cycle
C. oxidative phosphorylation
D. substrate-level phosphorylation
E. none of the above
the Calvin-Benson cycle
Which of the following compounds has the greatest amount of energy for a cell?

A. CO2
B. ATP
C. glucose
D. O2
E. lactic acid
glucose
Which of the following is the best definition of the Krebs cycle?

A. the oxidation of pyruvic acid
B. the way cells produce CO2
C. a series of chemical reactions in which NADH is produced from the oxidation of pyruvic acid
D. a method of producing ATP by phosphorylating ADP
E. a series of chemical reactions in which ATP is produced from the oxidation of pyruvic acid.
a series of chemical reactions in which NADH is produced from the oxidation of pyruvic acid
Which of the following is the best definition of respiration?

A. a sequence of carrier molecules with O2 as the final electron acceptor
B. a sequence of carrier molecules with an inorganic molecule as the final electron acceptor
C. a method of generating ATP
D. the complete oxidation of glucose to CO2 and H2O
E. a series of reactions in which pyruvic acid is oxidized to CO2 and H2O
a sequence of carrier molecules with an inorganic molecule as the final electron acceptor
Which culture produces the most lactic acid?

A. E. coli growing in glucose broth at 35 celsius with O2 for 5 days
B. E. coli growing in glucose broth at 35 celsius without O2 for 5 days
C. both a and b
D. neither a nor b
E. coli growing in glucose broth at 35 celsius without O2 for 5 days
Which culture produces the most ATP?

A. E. coli growing in glucose broth at 35 celsius with O2 for 5 days
B. E. coli growing in glucose broth at 35 celsius without O2 for 5 days
C. both a and b
D. neither a nor b
E. coli growing in glucose broth at 35 celsius with O2 for 5 days
Which culture uses NAD+?

A. E. coli growing in glucose broth at 35 celsius with O2 for 5 days
B. E. coli growing in glucose broth at 35 celsius without O2 for 5 days
C. both a and b
D. neither a nor b
both a and b
Which culture uses the most glucose?

A. E. coli growing in glucose broth at 35 celsius with O2 for 5 days
B. E. coli growing in glucose broth at 35 celsius without O2 for 5 days
C. both a and b
D. neither a nor b
E. coli growing in glucose broth at 35 celsius without O2 for 5 days
The sum of all chemical reactions within a living organism is know as

A. Anabolism
B Catabolism
C. Metabolism
metabolism
The energy for chemical reactions is stored in ____
ATP
A chemical reaction that results in the breakdown of more complex organic molecules into simpler substances.

A. Anabolism
B Catabolism
C. Metabolism
Catabolism
Chemical reaction in which simpler substances are combined to form more complex molecules.

A. Anabolism
B Catabolism
C. Metabolism
Anabolism
Enzymes are _____, producing by _____ cells, that catalyze chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy.
proteins, living
The pH at which enzymatic activity activity is maximal is know as the ______ (2 words)
optimum pH
Energy is released during a cell's oxidation of _____
glucose
Most commonly used carbohydrate?
glucose
The most common pathway for the oxidation of glucose is?
glycolysis
Photosynthesis
The conversion of light energy into chemical energy stored in organic compounds
In metabolism, energy that is not used

A. is used to build up large compounds from smaller ones.
B. is given off as heat.
C. is used to break down large molecules into smaller ones.
D. is stored in the form of ATP.
is given off as heat.
The reactions involved in producing larger compounds from smaller compounds is called

A. metabolism.
B. anabolism.
C. catabolism.
anabolism.
Where does the energy required for anabolic reactions come from?

A. Unused energy from metabolism
B. Catabolic reactions
C. Heat
Catabolic reactions
The use of amino acids to make proteins

A. is a completely efficient reaction.
B. involves the production of ATP.
C. is an example of anabolism.
D. is an example of catabolism.
is an example of anabolism.
Why do all enzymatic reactions need activation energy?

A. Energy is required to disrupt a substrate's stable electron configuration.
B. Energy is needed for the enzyme to find its substrate.
C. Energy allows only the substrate to bind.
D. Energy is required by an enzyme so that it can be reused.
Energy is required to disrupt a substrate's stable electron configuration
What is meant by the statement "Enzymes are biological catalysts"?

A. Enzymes speed up the chemical reactions in living cells.
B. Enzymes produce biological organisms.
C. Enzymes are products of biological systems.
D. Enzymes produce products useful for biology
Enzymes speed up the chemical reactions in living cells.
Why are enzymes important to biological systems?

A. Enzymes are reuseable.
B. Enzymes increase the energy barrier required of chemical reactions.
C. Enzymes prevent unwanted chemical by-products from forming.
D. Enzymes decrease the amount of activation energy required for chemical reactions to occur.
Enzymes decrease the amount of activation energy required for chemical reactions to occur.
reaction that involves the transfer of electrons from one molecule to another is referred to as

A. an oxidation reaction.
B. a reduction reaction.
C. a redox reaction.
a redox reaction.
During an oxidation reaction,

A. the acceptor molecule gains an electron and becomes oxidized.
B. the acceptor molecule loses an electron and becomes oxidized.
C. the donor molecule loses an electron and becomes oxidized.
D. the donor molecule gains an electron and becomes oxidized.
the donor molecule loses an electron and becomes oxidized
Why is reduction the term used to describe the gain of an electron?

A. The electron acceptor gets smaller.
B. The amount of energy in the molecule decreases.
C. The number of molecules in the reaction decreases.
D. The electron acceptor's net charge decreases
The electron acceptor's net charge decreases
Which of the following statements regarding redox reactions is true?

A. No metabolic reactions are redox reactions.
B. Redox reactions must either be oxidizing reactions or reducing reactions.
C. Redox reactions are only seen in the electron transport chain.
D. Redox reactions involve an oxidation reaction coupled with a reduction reaction.
Redox reactions involve an oxidation reaction coupled with a reduction reaction.
Which of the following statements about fermentation is true?

A. It provides additional protons to allow the electron transport chain to continue.
B. It allows the electron transport chain to continue in the absence of oxygen.
C. It is an alternative way for a cell to produce oxygen.
D. It is an alternative way to return electron carriers to their oxidized state.
It is an alternative way to return electron carriers to their oxidized state.
What is the role of pyruvic acid in fermentation?

A. It provides the protons to be used in the electron transport chain.
B. It takes the electrons from NADH, oxidizing it back into NAD+.
C. It becomes the final electron acceptor for the electron transport chain in the absence of oxygen.
D. It is the organic acid end-product of fermentation.
It takes the electrons from NADH, oxidizing it back into NAD+.
What is the fate of the NAD+ newly regenerated by fermentation?

A. It is oxidized into carbon dioxide.
B. It is converted into an organic acid.
C. It returns to glycolysis to pick up more electrons.
D. It is converted into ethanol.
It returns to glycolysis to pick up more electrons.
Which of the following is an acid produced by fermentation?

A. Lactic acid
B. Pyruvic acid
C. Ethanol
D. Lactic acid and propionic acid
E. Propionic acid
Lactic acid and propionic acid
What is the intermediate product formed by pyruvic acid during alcoholic fermentation?

A. Carbon dioxide
B. Acetaldehyde
C. Ethanol
D. Lactic acid
E. Formic acid
Acetaldehyde
Why is ATP required for glycolysis?

A. ATP is used to convert PEP into pyruvic acid.
B. ATP makes it easier to break apart glucose into two three-carbon molecules.
C. ATP is used to reduce NAD+ to NADH.
D. ATP is used to convert DHAP into G3P.
ATP makes it easier to break apart glucose into two three-carbon molecules.
Glycolysis literally means

A. sugar splitting.
B. sugar producing.
C. energy producing.
D. Embden-Meyerhof
sugar splitting.
How many net ATPs can be made from one molecule of glucose in glycolysis?

A. One
B. Four
C. Two
D. Six
Two
What carbon molecules remain at the end of glycolysis?

A. Glucose
B. Dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP)
C. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P)
D. Pyruvic acid
Pyruvic acid
Which of the following statements about glycolysis is true?

A. Glycolysis is also called the Embden-Meyerhof pathway.
B. Glycolysis produces glucose.
C. Glycolysis is the main source of NADH in the cell.
D. All cells perform glycolysis.
Glycolysis is also called the Embden-Meyerhof pathway
What occurs at the bridge step?

A. The formation of succinyl CoA
B. The formation of oxaloacetate
C. The production of GTP
D. Decarboxylation of pyruvic acid
Decarboxylation of pyruvic acid
Based on the animation, how many electron carriers are reduced in the Krebs cycle only?

A. Five
B. Three
C. Six
D. Four
Four
What is the function of GTP?

A. A scaffolding for carbon atoms
B. An electron carrier
C. An oxidizer to produce CO2
D. An energy carrier
An energy carrier
What is the fate of metabolites during respiration?

A. They are oxidized completely to form pyruvic acid.
B. They are rearranged to form GTP.
C. They are oxidized completely to carbon dioxide and water.
D. They are reduced to from NADH and FADH2.
They are oxidized completely to carbon dioxide and water.
Lipases break down

A. proteins.
B. carbohydrates.
C. nucleic acids.
D. lipids.
lipids
The Pentose Phosphate Pathway

A. is a part of photosynthesis.
B. is another name for fermentation.
C. is an example of catabolism.
D. is an example of anabolism
is an example of anabolism
According to the animation, oxidative phosphorylation

A. is a catabolic process.
B. is an anabolic process.
C. makes larger compounds from smaller ones.
D. requires a net input of energy
is a catabolic process.
According to the animation, the reactions that occur between glucose and pyruvic acid

A. are only anabolic.
B. can either be anabolic or catabolic.
C. are neither catabolic nor anabolic.
D. are only catabolic.
can either be anabolic or catabolic.
Select the correct sequence of steps as energy is extracted from glucose during cellular respiration.

A. glycolysis → acetyl CoA → citric acid cycle → electron transport chain
B. electron transport chain → citric acid cycle → glycolysis → acetyl CoA
C. glycolysis → citric acid cycle → acetyl CoA → electron transport chain
D. acetyl CoA → citric acid cycle → electron transport chain → glycolysis
E. citric acid cycle → electron transport chain → glycolysis → acetyl CoA
glycolysis → acetyl CoA → citric acid cycle → electron transport chain
What is the correct general equation for cellular respiration?

A. 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP energy → C6H12O6 + 6O2
B. C6H12O6 + 6H2O → 6CO2 + 6O2 + ATP energy
C. C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP energy
D. C6H12O6 + 6CO2 → 6O2 + 6H2O + ATP energy
E. 6O2 + 6H2O + ATP energy → C6H12O6 + 6CO2
C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP energy
Which of the following processes takes place in the cytosol of a eukaryotic cell?

A. acetyl CoA formation
B. citric acid cycle
C. glycolysis
D. electron transport chain
E. ATP production by ATP synthase
glycolysis
In what organelle would you find acetyl CoA formation, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain?

A. nucleus
B. lysosome
C. chloroplast
D. mitochondrion
E. Golgi apparatus
mitochondrion
Which statement describes glycolysis?

A. This process uses energy captured from electrons flowing to oxygen to produce most of the ATPs in cellular respiration.
B. This process splits glucose in half and produces 2 ATPs for each glucose.
C. This process converts pyruvic acid to acetyl CoA.
D. This process joins 2 pyruvic acid molecules into a molecule of glucose.
E. This process produces some ATP and carbon dioxide in the mitochondrion.
This process splits glucose in half and produces 2 ATPs for each glucose.
Which statement describes the citric acid cycle?

A. This process uses energy captured from electrons flowing to oxygen to produce most of the ATPs in cellular respiration.
B. This process splits glucose in half and produces 2 ATPs for each glucose.
C. This process converts pyruvic acid to acetyl CoA.
D. This process joins 2 pyruvic acid molecules into a molecule of glucose.
E. This process produces some ATP and carbon dioxide in the mitochondrion.
This process produces some ATP and carbon dioxide in the mitochondrion.
Which statement describes the electron transport chain?

A. This process splits glucose in half and produces 2 ATPs for each glucose.
B. This process converts pyruvic acid to acetyl CoA.
C. This process joins 2 pyruvic acid molecules into a molecule of glucose.
D. This process uses energy captured from electrons flowing to oxygen to produce most of the ATPs in cellular respiration.
E. This process produces some ATP and carbon dioxide in the mitochondrion.
This process uses energy captured from electrons flowing to oxygen to produce most of the ATPs in cellular respiration.
Which of the following equations represents photosynthesis?

A. C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O
B. 6CO2 + 6O2 → C6H12O6 + 6H2O
C. 6CO2 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2
D. 6H2O + 6O2 → C6H12O6 + 6CO2
E. C6H12O6 + 6CO2 → 6O2 + 6H2O
6CO2 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2
In which of the following organelles does photosynthesis take place?

A. Chloroplast
B. Central vacuole
C. Ribosome
D. Mitochondrion
E. Nucleus
Chloroplast
What connects the two photosystems in the light reactions?

A. Chlorophyll
B. A chain of glucose molecules
C. The Calvin cycle
D. A thylakoid
E. An electron transport chain
An electron transport chain
What two molecules are produced by the light reactions and used to power the Calvin cycle?

A. C6H12O6 and RuBP
B. C6H12O6 and O2
C. CO2 and O2
D. ATP and NADPH
E. G3P and H2O
ATP and NADPH
What provides electrons for the light reactions?

A. The Calvin cycle
B. CO2
C. H2O
D. O2
E. Light
H2O
What provides the carbon atoms that are incorporated into sugar molecules in the Calvin cycle?

A. Sucrose (C12H22O11)
B. RuBP
C. Glucose (C6H12O6)
D. G3P (C3H6O3)
E. Carbon dioxide (CO2)
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
What transports electrons from the light reactions to the Calvin cycle?

A. Chlorophyll
B. FADH2
C. NADH
D. NADPH
E. An electron transport chain
NADPH
The light reactions take place in the _________ and the Calvin cycle takes place in the _________.

A. thylakoids; stroma
B. chloroplasts; mitochondria
C. inner membrane; outer membrane
D. mitochondria; chloroplasts
E. stroma; thylakoids
thylakoids; stroma