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W History I Burd Maya, Inca, Aztec
Questions for test Thursday! Will add Inca tom.
Terms in this set (45)
How did the Maya become the most advanced civilization of all of the pre- columbian/ Americas/ mesoamericans?
They did this by building on ancient cultural traditions. For example, their written language and extremely complex and precise calendar were derived from the Olmec.
Where did the Mayan people live?
Southern Mexico and Guatemala.
What were some things that made the Maya so advanced?
1. Their complex and extremely precise calendar, which went in cycles
2. Their advanced number system, which was way ahead of the European ones of the 12th century. It also included the concept of zero.
Why is more known about the Maya than about any other Mesoamericans?
Their has been a recent decipherment of over half of the Mayan written language, which has enabled scholars to more accurately reconstruct
What was the total population of the Maya?
About 14 million
Who did the power fall under in the Mayan society?
The upper class, which included priests and nobles. These people were hereditary. The priests were believed to have magical powers given by the gods, and they meditated in inner chambers like caves in pyramids.
What was the occupation of most Mayan people?
Most people were peasant villagers who
What were some of the Mayas religious beliefs and how did they affect them?
They were polytheistic, so therefore they believed in many gods. They basically had a god for every aspect of life. They also constantly scarified for the gods. They believed that they needed to sacrifice in order to keep the world running. Therefore, they thought their lives and world revolved around constant sacrifice.
What was Mayas most advanced thing in science?
Their astronomy, ,based of refined mathematics was. They researched deeply this subject, and obtained a lot of information on it. Because of their advanced astronomy, they could develop such an advanced calendar.
The Maya further developed and expanded previous _____________ networks. What were some of the things that they sent travel merchants to ______?
Trade. They sent travel merchants to trade things like salt and cocoa beans for jade, obsidian, and tropical bird feathers.
How were the common folk of the Maya divided?
They were divided into freeman, serfs, and slaves.
After the first societies and cities of the first Mayan people fell new ones were built in their ruins. This new period was called the _____ _______
a site in the Yuctán of Mayan urban development in 10-13 centuries. It is currently, a major tourist attraction.
A lot of the Mayan architecture were temples. Why would these people want to build temples?
They would want to build them because this way they could be closer to the gods also for protection, and for show of power.. The main reason, though was that this way they could easily see people who may want to attack from far away. This way they could see them much sooner and prepare with much more time.
What did the Mayans use for their written language language?
They used a complex written language which con sited of pictographs.
What were some of theories of the demise of the Maya?
1. Peasant Revolt-
2. Abused their land trying to produce agriculture, leading to lack of resources
3. Modest Dry Spells
4. Natural Disaters
6. Mesoamerican Invaders
7. Collapse of Trade roots
9. Internal conflict
All of these could cause a loss of faith in kings/nobles/priests, causing a peasant revolt.
What were the Aztecs also know as?
The Mexica, which is were Mexico came from.
What was the Aztec's capital?
Tenochtitlan (present- day Mexico city)
War was very important to the Aztec society. What did it affect?
It shaped their state of religion and a social structure, which was unique to the Americas at the time.
Chief War God for Aztecs
Also god of sun; they believed he survived on human blood, mostly on the warm hearts taken out of brave warriors who were sacrificed.
What two things vastly increased at the height of the Aztec revival?
2. Canibalism (mostly widely accepted theory is that the elite tried to prevent rebellion by terrorizing the people)
Where was their society?
From coast to coast of Mexico,and even reaching down into present day Guatemala.
How was the Mayan militaristic civilization divided?
The emperors ruled the society
The upper class consisted of (in order)
1. Emperors officials and ex-warriors
2. Warriors (picked from class of ordinary freeman)
3. Merchants (could even be elevated to warrior because of their success and importance.
Next came the ordinary free people,which con sited of most of the people in the Aztec society. They did were farmers, road builders, and could possibly be called for military duty.
Last at the bottom of the chain came serfs, who had little freedom, but this freedom could be gained back little by little if they were not chosen for sacrifice.
How have we learned a great deal about the state of the Aztecs?
Codices (Pictographic records). We have also learned a lot about them through
How big was Teotihuacan?
It was the biggest city in the world at the time it flourished. Population: 100 to 200 thousand
What were some of the main structures in Teotihuacan?
There were many big pyramids, including the Pyrmiod of the Sun and the Pyrmid of the Moon, which are on opposite ends of an avenue. There was also a Ciudadela, which was a sunk in plaza.
Do we know much about Teotithucan?
No, we don't know were much about this ancient city. This is because there was no written langue, so therefore there was no writing found in the ruins. Because of this we can't find out nearly as much as we could if there were ruins. We do know basic information especially about the architecture.
How was the Tenochtilan economically?
The city was very wealthy. There were many huge mansions and lots of architecture, gardens, ballcoutrs, and zoos.
What is Tenochtilan presently?
Mexico City (built over ruins, and drained out lake)
How big was Tenochtilan?
It had about 200, 000 and was the biggest city in the Americas, at the time.
Where was Tenochtilan built?
It was built on Lake Taxcoco and on an island.
What was the benefit of having water surround you in Tenochtilan?
Because of the lake goods could be transported across it. They used canals to transport goods also. It was then connected to the causeways. They had so much water, they had 2 acquaducts for fresh water, so the would most likely never run out of it.
How did religious taboos stimulate the Mesoamerican indian economy?
Religious taboos helped stimulate the economy because it was a taboo not to sell or buy stuff in or at the market. People did this because they were afraid of wrath of the god of the market. This made the general economy better and helped stimulate the markets in general. Because of this most of the markets in the Aztec society were successful.
What roles did slavery and human sacrifice play in the dynamics of the marketplace?
Slavery existed in only 2 markets: Azcapotzalco and Iztocan. These were the only two markets were slaves could be bought or sold. Some of the slaves were bought for representation of the gods. There slaves were honored, purified, and washed. They were hindered in the name of the god that they served and were then sacrificed. Others were bought for these who had imprissioned the god whose feast was being celebrated. These things made the market change slightly throughout the years.
What religious or economic roles did the tianguiz, or local marketplace play in pre- Conquest Mexico?
- Located in front of temples of gods or to side of them
- Feast day in town or city (day of market). This was taken very seriously and included quite the feast. It was very honorable and important every feast day.
- Could help or affect the economy, but it seems to have helped in the Aztec society.
What were the Inca's religious beliefs?
They were polytheistic, meaning that they believed in many gods. They had occasional sacrifice too.
What were some of the admirable qualities of the Inca society?
-Messanger system- running men
-Mandatory Labor (all people had to work/ to labor even the nobles fairly often)
-Architechture, stone cutters (no semeant+ moarders) (Machu Picchua (one of best achievements)
- Good irrigation, canals, dams
- Quips strings for keeping track of number of people born and that died
- Good government organization, with representatives in every part of civilization
Did the Inca have a written language?
No, they just had Qucheua for speaking. They also used quips for keeping track of things (certain skilled people).
How were the Inca so successful in controlling their people?
They did this by moving the people to other places of the civilization. These places were totally new to them and they had new rulers their also. This would make them vulnerable, worried, and much less likely to rebel.
Where was the Incan empire located?
It was located for Argentina to Ecuador, all along the region of the Andes Mountains (north to south and from Pacific coast to Amazon basin)
Where was the capital for the Incans?
What type of society did they have?
They had a militaristic society. Therefore, the armies were very strong and they were very serious about their armies and war also.
What does "Inca" literally mean?
Ruler of this empire
What was a skill other then stone cutting, that they Incas were very good at?
Brain Surgery (Trepenation)
What was the order of the empires?
First the Mayans came, then the Aztecs, and then the Inca
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