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Psych 2H exam #4

STUDY
PLAY
Demonstrating the phenomenon of ________, Zajonc found that cockroaches will run faster when ________.
social facilitation; other cockroaches are present
Which of the following is NOT a reason why we hurt others?
media altruism
The finding that we're more positively predisposed toward people, places, or things that resemble us is called
the implicit egotism effect
A belief is
a conclusion regarding factual evidence.
Who is least likely to be aggressive?
Shoshone, who lives in Anchorage, Alaska
________ is the assumption that behaviors among individual members of a group are due to internal dispositions of individuals within the group.
ultimate attribution error
Prejudice arises from a need to blame other groups for our present misfortunes according to the
scapegoat hypothesis
When we experience an unpleasant state of tension between two or more conflicting thoughts we are experiencing
cognitive dissonance
________ is the claim that our attributions and behaviors are shaped by a belief that the world is fair and people always get what they deserve.
the just world hypothesis
Tamika met Samantha who was new to the school. Tamika began to develop a friendship with Samantha and soon they became good friends. Then Tamika learned that Samantha had been a troublemaker at her old school. Tamika liked Samantha but now saw her as a trouble maker. Tamika finally resolved these conflicting emotions by deciding that Samantha should be admired for turning over a new leaf at her new school. This is can be explained by
cognitive dissonance theory
he following types of people may exhibit high levels of prejudice against a wide variety of out-groups EXCEPT
people with high levels of intrinsic reliogisity
Sophia went out and bought some anti-aging skin cream because an actor who plays a doctor on a soap opera recommended it. This is known as
maladaptive gullibility
All of the following conclusions were reached based on the Milgram study EXCEPT
Americans were more likely to obey the experimenter's commands than non-Americans.
Which of the following statements is most likely to contribute to groupthink?
"Im sure we all agree on this"
Sonya, who believes in a just world, believes that Sander is responsible for his getting AIDS because of his lifestyle. This phenomenon is known as
blaming the victim
What is the moral or take-home message of Solomon Asch's series of experiments in which participants were asked to judge the lengths of lines? People will go to great lengths
to fit in with others
The Robbers Cave study and the jigsaw classroom underscore a lesson confirmed by many other social psychology studies; that is,
increased contact between racial groups is rarely sufficient to reduce prejudice.
________ suggests that we start with a small request before asking for a bigger one.
the foot in the door technique
Which heuristic makes us more likely to believe something we've heard many times?
the recognition heuristic
Emilio saw a wonderful all-in-one kitchen appliance for sale on tv. The appliance would allow him to get rid of six small appliances and leave more room in his kitchen. Emilio called the number and agreed to purchase the product. He then found out that the price only covered the product base and he would have to purchase each appliance add-on individually. When he did this the product cost significantly more than he originally thought. This is known as t
low ball technique
You get on an elevator. Everyone is facing to the right. You turn and also face to the right. This is an example of
conformity
Learning about psychological research can change real-world behavior for the better. This is known as
the enlightenment effect
Mike is a great football player. Last Saturday, his new girlfriend attended the game to watch him play, and Mike played even better than usual. Mike's enhanced performance demonstrates the phenomenon known as
social facilitation
Guru Mana is the leader of the cult of "The Divine Purification of The Body." His members
are probably psychologically normal
Sumatra, who is a high school senior, a cheerleader, and the class vice president, would be more likely to be positively disposed to which of the following students?
Jamal, a senior captain of the football team and class treasurer
Social psychology is best defined as the scientific study of
groups.
A trait that assesses the extent to which people's behaviors reflect their true feelings and attitudes is called
self monitoring
________ creates a predisposition toward distrusting anything or anyone unfamiliar or different.
adaptive conservatism
The difference between conformity and obedience is
conformity is influence from peers or colleagues and obedience is influence from authority.
Which of the following statements is TRUE?
Human nature is a combination of both socially constructive and destructive tendencies.
Amanda, Sarah, Jonas, and William have been assigned a group project. Amanda ends up doing most of the work while the others get the same grade as she. This is an example of
social loafing
________ theory proposes that we acquire our attitudes by observing our behaviors.
self perception
Miranda received a phone call from a telemarketer for a local charity. The telemarketer asked for a $1000 donation. When Miranda refused, the telemarketer then asked for $25 to which Miranda agreed. This is an example of
the door in the face technique
When Sam went looking for a new car, he met a beautiful saleswoman who described the beauty of the car and the flashiness, and how good Sam would look driving it instead of the poor gas mileage, the exorbitant price and poor road performance. Sam made a snap decision to buy the car from the persuasive saleswoman. Sam was using which alternative pathway in making a decision?
the peripheral route
_______ involves having someone agree to a request and then revealing that there are additional hidden obligations.
the low ball technique
________ are beliefs about the characteristics of an out-group about which we are unaware
implicit stereotypes
A trait that assesses the extent to which people's behaviors reflect their true feelings and attitudes is called
self monitoring
The shortcut that helps a person to make typically accurate snap decisions is called
a recognition heuristic.
The tendency to overestimate the impact of dispositional influences is known as
the fundamental attribution error
________ is the treatment in which people are first introduced to the reasons why a belief seems to be correct, and then exposed to the reasons why the belief is incorrect.
inoculation
There are two alternative pathways to persuading others. One leads us to respond to persuasive arguments on the basis of snap judgments. This is known as the
the peripheral route
Research suggests that cults promote groupthink in the following ways EXCEPT
connecting group members to the outside world
According to research, humans have a biological need for interpersonal interactions. This is called the
need tobelong theory
he Seekers thought the world was coming to an end on December 21. They prayed for their salvation. When the world did not come to an end
this strengthened their convictions because of cognitive dissonance.
________ creates a predisposition toward distrusting anything or anyone unfamiliar or different.
adaptive conservatism
Social Psychology
The study of how people influence others' behavior, beliefs and attitudes
Need to Belong Theory
biologically based need for interpersonal connections
Evolutionary factors
social influence processes (conformity, obedience) generally serve us well, unless accepted unquestioningly
Social facilitation or disruption
enhancement of easy tasks, or disruption of difficult ones, elicited by the presence of others
Fundamental Attribution Error
tendency to overestimate the impact of dispositional influences (personality, attitudes, intelligence) on other people's behavior
Cultural disparity for the FAE:
Asian cultures are more likely to consider situational factors
Social Comparison Theory
we evaluate our beliefs, attitudes, and abilities by comparing ourselves to others
Mass hysteria
outbreak of irrational behavior that is spread by social contagion
Collective delusions
many people become simultaneously convinced of bizarre falsehoods
Conformity
tendency of people to change their behavior because of group influence
Autokinetic effect
group judgments gradually converge around a common norm
Groupthink
emphasis on group unanimity at the expense of critical thinking and sound decision making
Group polarization
tendency of group discussions to strengthen dominant positions held by individual group members
Cults and brainwashing
promote groupthink by:Employing persuasive leadership that fosters loyalty,Disconnecting group members from outside world,Discouraging questioning of leadership,Gradually indoctrinating new members
Resisting cult influence via the
inoculation effect
Pluralistic ignorance
does anyone else think this is an emergency?
diffusion of responsibility
passing the buck
Social Loafing
For a group, the whole is less than the sum of its parts
altruism
helping selflessly, role of empathy
Central route
evaluate merits thoughtfully
Peripheral route
snap judgements
Adaptive conservatism
distrust anything unfamiliar
ultimate attribution errors
attributing behavior of entire groups to their dispositions
Personality consists of traits
relatively enduring predispositions that influence our behavior across many situations
Nomothetic approach
focuses on identifying general laws that govern the behavior of all individuals (most modern research)
Idiographic approach
focuses on identifying the unique configuration of characteristics and life history experiences within a person (most case studies)
Shared environmental factors
(e.g., parents raise their children similarly)
Nonshared environmental factors
(e.g., parents treat one child more affectionately)
Molecular genetic studies
pinpoint genes associated with specific personality traits
Psychic determinism
all psychological events have a cause
Symbolic meaning
all actions are meaningful
Unconscious motivation
we rarely understand why we do things
Id
basic instincts; the reservoir of our most primitive impulses, including sex and aggression
Pleasure principle
the tendency of the id to strive for immediate gratification
Ego
the boss; the psyche's executive and principal decision maker
Reality principle
the tendency of the ego to postpone gratification until it can find an appropriate outlet
Superego
our sense of morality
Defense mechanisms
unconscious maneuvers intended to minimize anxiety
Repression
motivated forgetting of emotionally threatening memories or impulses
Denial
motivated forgetting of distressing external experiences
Regression
act of returning psychologically to a younger, and typically simpler and safer, age
Reaction-formation
transformation of an anxiety-provoking emotion into its opposite
Projection
unconscious attribution of our negative characteristics to others
Illusory correlation -
the perception of nonexistent statistical associations between variables in personality test results
P.T. Barnum effect -
tendency of people to accept high base rate descriptions as accurate
Projective tests
consist of ambiguous stimuli that examinees must interpret
Projective hypothesis -
examinees project aspects of their own personality onto the ambiguous stimulus
California Psychological Inventory -
offspring of MMPI Primarily assesses traits in the normal range
Rational/theoretical method of test construction -
requires test developers to begin with a clear-cut conceptualization of a trait and then write items to assess that conceptualization
Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) -
assesses positive emotions, negative emotions, and impulse control
Structured personality tests -
paper-and-pencil tests consisting of questions that respondents answer in one of a few fixed ways
widely used structured test designed to assess symptoms of mental disorders
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) -
Built using empirical method of test construction-
an approach in which researchers begin with two or more criterion groups, and examine which items best distinguish them
Results in low face validity -
the extent to which respondents can tell what the items are measuring
Walter Mischel -
argued that personality traits did not predict behavior very well
Seymour Epstein -
demonstrated that while Mischel was correct for specific events, personality traits can predict aggregated behaviors
Big Five
traits that have surfaced repeatedly in factor analysis of personality measures
Uncovered using lexical approach -
most crucial features of personality are embedded in language
Extraversion -
social and lively
Neuroticism -
tense and moody
Conscientiousness -
careful and responsible
Agreeableness -
friendly, and easy to get along with
Factor analysis -
statistical technique that analyzes the correlations among responses on personality inventories
Locus of control -
extent to which people believe that reinforcers and punishers lie inside or outside of their control
Core motive in personality is self-actualization-
the drive to develop our innate potential to the fullest possible extent
Carl Rogers -
personalities consist of three major components: organism, self, and conditions of worth
Incongruence -
inconsistency between our personalities and innate dispositions
Abraham Maslow -
studied the characteristics of self-actualized people
Prone to peak experiences -
transcendent moments of intense excitement and tranquility marked by a profound sense of connection to the world
According to the authors, ________ is both the most respected and the most widely criticized personality theorist.
Sigmund Freud
What method of personality assessment is considered the most controversial in psychology today?
projective tests
The Freudian idea of "psychic determinism" implies that
any psychological event has an underlying cause.
What neo-Freudian emphasized the importance of the collective unconscious in personality development?
jung
A key point of agreement between contemporary psychologists and the ideas of Sigmund Freud is that adult personality
is relatively stable across time
Concerned with his own academic flaws and weaknesses, Preston often aggressively lashes out at his instructors via his evaluations of their teaching ability on RateMyProfessor.com and during class teaching evaluations. This is an example of what Freudian defense mechanism?
projection
Which theory of personality is most concerned with understanding people's unconscious motivations?
psychoanalytic
A focus on the self was of most direct interest to the ________ perspective on personality development.
humanistic
Which of the following is an important criticism of the Big Five model of personality?
People may not be consciously aware of all aspects of personality.
As you are preparing for your biology exam you notice two of your classmates in the library. After going to talk with them you discover they are planning to use a cheat sheet during tomorrow's exam. What part of your personality would cause you to feel ashamed or guilty if you too created a cheat sheet for the exam?
the superego
A common criticism of Adler, Freud, and Jung's theories of personality development is
they are filled with unfalsifiable claims.
Geoffrey is a clinical psychologist who is separated from his wife and is in the process of filing for divorce. Whenever his friends or colleagues ask Geoffrey to talk about it or attempt to cheer him up, he focuses on the statistical evidence about the likelihood of divorce, clinical experience he has had, and anything but his emotions and the pain of the marriage ending. Freud would say that Geoffrey is displaying a living, breathing example of
intellectualization
Which of the following is NOT one of the dimensions of the Big Five?
Sociableness
The ________ seeks to find a resolution between the competing demands of the ________.
ego; id and superego
According to the humanists, a key motive in human personality development was
personal fulfillment and growth
What structure serves as the social component of one's personality?
Superego
Maslow and Rogers would be likely to disagree with Freud's focus on
all of these
Freud's theory of personality is most interested in understanding the interaction among the three structures of personality within the ________ mind.
unconscious
A concern with personal goals and increased individual self-esteem is most characteristic of those from ________ cultures.
individualistic
A major issue that many people have with Freud's theory is
he generalization of his ideas from an unrepresentative sample.
A newborn baby is in what stage of psychosexual development?
oral stage
A major difference between the humanists and both the behaviorists and psychodynamic theorists is the humanists focus on
free will
Which of the following is NOT one of the three components of the Freudian personality structure?
alter ego
According to Maslow, a self-actualized person is someone who is
creative and problem focused
What personality structure(s) is/are tasked with the responsibility of keeping the id's impulsive and destructive actions in check?
the ego and superego
Michelle believes it is important that her students feel responsible for producing the positive outcomes in their lives. As a result she is likely to
allow them the chance to influence important class policies and assessment of student learning.
Oscar redirects his aggressive urges to beat up and dominate others into a lucrative career as a professional boxer. This is an example of what Freudian defense mechanism?
sublimation
According to your authors, mass media psychologists and other social commentators are often guilty of
proposing single-cause explanations of human behavior.
B. F. Skinner's approach is most open to criticism about its neglect of the importance of ________ in personality development.
thinking
According to your authors, mass media psychologists and other social commentators are often guilty of
proposing single-cause explanations of human behavior.
What was the third, and some would say final, major force in the field of personality psychology?
humanism
The role of one's thought patterns in personality development was emphasized by
social learning theorists
A key point from the research on individualism-collectivism is that
here are consistently differences between and within cultures on these personality styles.
According to Freud, appropriate sexual and romantic relationships are only possible when an individual has attained the ________ stage of psychosexual development.
genital
The fact that a general statement can be seen by five different individuals as being an insightful analysis of their personality is most likely due to the
P. T. Barnum effect.
A Freudian psychotherapist would assert that an alcoholic or a chain-smoker is stuck in what stage of development?
oral
A key criticism of the trait perspective on personality development is that it
fails to explain the cause of the differences in the various trait dimensions.
What theorist strongly disagreed with Freud's ideas about women and their feelings of inferiority and the Oedipus complex?
horney
According to the authors, the key criteria for evaluating personality assessments are
reliability and validity
According to your authors, ________ is the most critical defense mechanism in psychoanalytic theory.
repression
What perspective on personality development is most concerned with how one's learning history influences who they later become?
behavorial
What neo-Freudian examined the relationship between infants and their primary caregiver, usually the mother, and its role in successful or unsuccessful personality development?
klein
Many projective assessment tools are often lacking in
validity
Miranda is a psychoanalytic theorist who uses this perspective to guide her therapeutic treatment of psychological disorders. As a result, she is most likely to improve her understanding of her client's
symbolic dream imagery
The role of reciprocal determinism was highlighted by the
behavorists
A focus on the self was of most direct interest to the ________ perspective on personality development
humanistic
What evidence argues most strongly against social learning theorists' claims that observational learning is a key causal factor in personality development?
The effects of shared environment on adult personality is weak at best.
What neo-Freudian emphasized the importance of the collective unconscious in personality development?
jung
The role of one's thought patterns in personality development was emphasized by
social learning theorists
The id is motivated by the desire for
immediate gratification
A major difference between the humanists and both the behaviorists and psychodynamic theorists is the humanists focus on
free will
Shyteria is a toll-booth operator. She nearly always has an hourly encounter with a motorist who berates and belittles her because they are upset about traffic, they don't have enough change, or they are just unhappy that day. As a result, when she gets home Shyteria often yells at her roommates and slams cabinet doors closed when she can't find what she wants. She is displaying classic symptoms of
displacement.
The first major force in the field of personality psychology was
psychoanalytic/psychodynamic.
A key criticism of the trait perspective on personality development is that it
fails to explain the cause of the differences in the various trait dimensions.
Stewie has developed strong feelings for his mother and views his father as a rival for her attention. However, he is afraid that his father will find out and interfere with these plans. Stewie is clearly immersed in the ________ stage.
phallic
Oscar redirects his aggressive urges to beat up and dominate others into a lucrative career as a professional boxer. This is an example of what Freudian defense mechanism?
sublimation
Based on trait theorists' response to Mischel's critique, how would you expect Donovan's prejudiced attitude toward Latinos to impact his behavior as a waiter at a restaurant?
If one looks at his aggregated behaviors, they will see a relationship between his attitude and his behavior.
A key criticism of the humanistic perspective on personality is that it is
overly optimistic about the basic goodness of human nature.
Whenever Olivia feels badly about an exam performance she visits the professor and breaks down into tears. As the professor attempts to console her, she is reminded of her childhood. Sigmund Freud would say that Olivia is using ________ to alleviate her anxieties about her academic abilities.
regression
According to Freud, defense mechanisms are a(n) ________ part of being a psychologically healthy and well-adjusted individual.
necessary
A key point from the research on individualism-collectivism is that
there are consistently differences between and within cultures on these personality styles.
Which early theory of personality development is most strongly entrenched in the scientific method?
behaviorism
An important shortcoming of trait models as explanations for personality development is that they DO NOT
address the issue of why such differences in personality development originate.
What neo-Freudian introduced the concept of the inferiority complex into discussions of psychological adjustment?
Adler
According to the authors, criminal profilers
are no more accurate and insightful than college students with no training in criminology.
An area of agreement between the psychodynamic and behaviorist perspectives is
the belief that free will is an illusion
What perspective on personality development is most concerned with how one's learning history influences who they later become?
behavorial
One path for achieving self-actualization was through attainment o
peak experiences
major difference between the humanists and both the behaviorists and psychodynamic theorists is the humanists focus on
free will
What evidence argues most strongly against social learning theorists' claims that observational learning is a key causal factor in personality development?
The effects of shared environment on adult personality is weak at best.
If you surveyed 100 trait theorists, you would expect to see many of them argue that personality is structured on ________ different dimension
5
What neo-Freudian examined the relationship between infants and their primary caregiver, usually the mother, and its role in successful or unsuccessful personality development?
klein
Ramon is a psychotherapist whose therapeutic orientation follows that of Maslow and Rogers. He readily has an explanation for why his depressed and anxious clients improve with treatment ("They have removed the conditions inhibiting a sense of worth from their lives") as well as why some of his patients fail to improve with treatment--"Important people in his/her life continue to thwart the development of self-actualization". A critical thinker would recognize that Ramon's approach
cannot be falsified
n one of Aesop's fables, a fox is unable to obtain some grapes that he truly wishes to have. However, after failing to obtain them, he downplays their importance. This behavior is most consistent with the defense mechanism of
rationalization
Conflicts over toilet-training and other attempts by a 2-year-old to exert control over his or her environment are most evident during the ________ stage of psychosexual development.
anal
The Freudian idea of "psychic determinism" implies that
any psychological event has an underlying cause
A concern with personal goals and increased individual self-esteem is most characteristic of those from ________ cultures.
individualistic
One concern for your authors was tha
well-supported projective tests are used much less frequently than their less reliable and valid counterparts.
The key difference between Maslow and Rogers's work was the former's focus on ________ and the latter's focus on _______
self-actualized individuals; how self-actualization was thwarted
Roberta has collected data on students' attitudes toward cheating. According to Walter Mischel, the students' attitudes will likely ________ predict whether or not they cheat on an upcoming exam.
weakly
Many people are familiar with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. However, few students are knowledgeable about the fact that this popular personality assessment instrument has
low reliability and low validity
When reviewing Freud's theory of personality development a critical thinker would be most concerned about the
lack of falsifiable hypotheses for key aspects.
social psychology
study of how people influence others' behavior, beliefs, and attitudes
attribution
process of assigning causes to behavior
fundamental attribution error
tendency to overestimate the impact of dispositional influences on other people's behavior
obedience
adherence to instructions from those of higher authority
deindividuation
tendency of ppl to engage in uncharacteristic behavior when they are stripped of their usual identities
in group bias
tendency to favor individuals within our group over those from outside our group
out-group homogeneity
tendency to view all individuals outside our group as highly similar
discrimination
negative behavior toward members of out-groups
implicit and explicit stereotypes
beliefs about the the characteristic of an out-group about which we're either unaware (implicit) or aware (explicit)
scapegoat hypothesis
claim that prejudice arises from a need to blame other groups for our misfortunes
just-world hypothesis
claim that our attributions and behaviors are shaped by a deep-seated assumption that the world is fair and all things happen for a reason
somatogenic
physiologically caused
catharsis
feeling of relief following a dramatic outpouring of emotion
psychogenic
psychologically caused
errogenous zone
sexually arousing zone of the body
oral zone
psychosexual stage that focuses on the mouth
anal stage
psychosexual stage that focuses on toilet training
phallic stage
psychosexual stage that focuses on the genitals
oepidus complex
conflict during phallic stage in which boys supposedly love their mothers romantically and want to eliminate their mothers as rivals
electra complex
conflict during phallic stage in which girls supposedly love their fathers romantically and want to eliminate their mothers as rivals
penis envy
supposed desire of girls to possess a penis
psychoanalytic theory evaluated critically
1)unfalsifability, 2)failed predictions 3)lack of evidence for defense mechanisms, questionable conception of the unconscious, reliance on unrepresentative samples, flawed assumption of shared environmental influence,
thematic apperception test
projective test requiring examinees to tell a story in response to ambiguous pictures
oral stage
birth to 12-18 months
anal stage
18 months to 3 years
phallic stage
3 years to 6 years
latency stage
6 years to 12 years
genital stage
12 years and beyond.