Life is organized in a hierarchical fashion. Which of the following sequences correctly lists that hierarchy as it increases in complexity?
molecule, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism, population, community, ecosystem
What is the difference between a tissue and an organ system?
An organ system includes tissues.
Which of the following statements about ecosystems is false?
Bacteria and fungi recycle energy within an ecosystem.
The ultimate source of energy flowing into nearly all ecosystems is
A consumer eating a producer represents
a transfer of chemical nutrients and energy
Which of the following statements regarding a common cellular activity is false?
New cells are derived from cellular components like organelles
Which of the following statements about the properties of life is false?
All organisms have the ability to maintain a constant internal temperature
Which of the following statements about living systems is false?
Living systems are composed of two or more cells.
Organisms that are prokaryotes are in the domains
Bacteria and Archaea
Which of the following statements about the domain Bacteria is true?
All bacteria lack a nucleus.
Members of the kingdom Animalia
can obtain their food by eating other organisms.
What feature is common to prokaryotes, fungi, and plants?
Which of the following is a kingdom within the domain Eukarya?
All organisms belonging to the kingdom Plantae
are photosynthetic and contain cells that are surrounded by cell walls with cellulose.
Which of the following statements is not consistent with Darwin's theory of natural selection?
Individual organisms exhibit genetic change during their life spans to better fit their environment.
An antibiotic kills 99.9% of a bacterial population. You would expect the next generation of bacteria
to be more resistant to that antibiotic.
Which of the following statements about evolution is true?
Evolution is a passive process.
A hypothesis is
a tentative answer to some question.
You notice that over the past month, many students on campus have started wearing a new style of school sweatshirt. You think to yourself that perhaps the bookstore has recently started selling this new sweatshirt style. This prediction is an example of
A theory is
an explanation of an idea that is broad in scope with multiple lines of evidence.
To be scientifically valid, a hypothesis must be
testable and falsifiable
The role of a control in an experiment is to
provide a basis of comparison to the experimental group.
A scientist performs a controlled experiment. This means that
two experiments are conducted, one differing from the other by only a single variable.
Which of the following best represents an example of technology?
testing for genetic diseases
As the environment changes,
natural selection adapts populations to their environment.
What phrase best describes the connection between the ants' use of formic acid and the theme of Chapter 2?
Chemicals are part of the hierarchical structure of life.
The four most common elements in living organisms are
C, H, O, N.
Which of the following is a trace element in the human body?
Which of the following statements regarding matter is false?
Matter can be created and destroyed.
Which of the following trace elements is commonly added to table salt to prevent the formation of goiters?
Which of the following is another term used for atomic mass?
In a water molecule, hydrogen and oxygen are held together by a(n) ________ bond.
Which of the following trace elements may be added to bottled water in an effort to prevent tooth decay?
Which of the following statements best describes a compound?
A compound contains two or more different elements in a fixed ratio.
Which of the following statements regarding the oxygen atom of a water molecule is true?
Oxygen is more electronegative than the hydrogen atoms.
________ are weak bonds that are not strong enough to hold atoms together to form molecules but are strong enough to form bonds within and around large molecules.
Water molecules stick to other water molecules because
hydrogen bonds form between the hydrogen atoms of one water molecule and the oxygen atoms of other water molecules.
The tendency of water molecules to stick together is referred to as
Which of the following is dependent on the ability of water molecules to form hydrogen bonds with other molecules besides water?
the universality of water as a solvent
Water's surface tension and heat storage capacity is accounted for by its
A solution with a pH of 7 is
As ice melts,
hydrogen bonds are broken
donates H+ ions when conditions become too basic and accepts H+ ions when conditions become too acidic.
The emission of ________ and ________ are primarily responsible for acid precipitation.
nitrogen oxides . . . sulfur oxides
Compared to a solution of pH 3, a solution of pH 1 is
100 times more acidic.
In the equation 2 H2 + O2 → 2 H2O, the H2 molecules are ________ and the H2O molecules are ________.
reactants . . . products
Which of the following would be considered an effective way to decrease the production of acid precipitation?
Whenever possible, walk or ride a bicycle instead of driving a car.
Which of the following will contain more heat but has a lower temperature?
an Olympic-sized heated indoor swimming pool
In the equation 2 H2 + O2 → 2 H2O,
only H2O is a compound.
What is the atomic mass of an atom that has 6 protons, 6 neutrons, and 6 electrons?
A hydroxyl group is
characteristic of alcohols
A disaccharide forms when
two monosaccharides join by dehydration synthesis.
The results of dehydration synthesis can be reversed by
High-fructose corn syrup is composed primarily of a polysaccharide called
What is the general function of enzymes within a cell?
to speed up chemical reactions
Lactose intolerance is the inability to
Which of the following contains a carboxyl and an amino group?
always contain carbon
Which of the following is an amino group?
Which of the following statements regarding carbon is false?
Carbon has the capacity to form polar bonds with hydrogen.
Cellulose differs from starch in that
most animals cannot break down cellulose, whereas starch is easily digested.
The storage form of carbohydrates is ________ in animals and ________ in plants.
glycogen . . . starch
Fatty acids are
If you were to add olive oil to your food as part of a diet to lower your risk of atherosclerotic disease, you would use olive oil that
is liquid at room temperature
Fatty acids with double bonds between some of their carbons are said to be
A phospholipid is composed of
one glycerol molecule linked to one phosphate group and two fatty acids
Which one of the following would be correctly classified as a protein?
Which of the following statements about hydrocarbons is false?
Hydrocarbons are inorganic compounds.
The tertiary structure of a polypeptide refers to
the overall three-dimensional structure.
The primary structure of a protein is
the amino acid sequence of the polypeptide chain
link amino acids.
A protein containing more than one polypeptide chain exhibits the ________ level of protein structure.
DNA differs from RNA because DNA
contains thymine in place of uracil.
anchor cell parts.
Genetic information is encoded in the
sequence of nucleotides in DNA.
Which of the following observations would provide the strongest evidence that the many different plants we call orchids are actually related to one another?
They all have the same common ancestor.
Consider the following statement: "If all vertebrates have backbones, and turtles are vertebrates, then turtles have backbones." This statement is an example of
Which of the following options correctly pairs a polymer and its monomer?
The teeth of grain-eating animals (such as horses) are usually broad and ridged. This makes the teeth suitable for grinding and chewing. Meat-eating animals (such as lions) have pointed teeth that are good for puncturing and ripping flesh. This illustrates
a result of natural selection and the connection between form and function.
Which of the following statements about cells is true?
All cells have internal structures that move.
use light and glass lenses to magnify an image
One centimeter = ________ millimeters.
As cell size increases, the
volume increases faster than the surface area.
A cell is exposed to a substance that prevents it from dividing. The cell becomes larger and larger. This situation
will eventually be problematic, since the cell's ability to absorb nutrients through its outer membrane will not keep increasing as quickly as its cytoplasmic needs.
Resolution is the
ability of an optical instrument to show two close objects as separate.
Which of the following structures is exclusively associated with prokaryotic cells?
Which of the following cells has the greatest surface-to-volume ratio?
________ cells lack a membrane-enclosed nucleus.
Archaea are composed of ________ cells.
Which of the following structures are used by prokaryotes for attaching to surfaces?
both pili and capsules
The nucleoid region of a prokaryotic cell
contains the cell's DNA.
The membranous compartmentalization of a cell
allows different metabolic processes to occur simultaneously.
Which of the following statements about cellular metabolism is false?
Cellular metabolism occurs in animal but not plant cells.
Unlike animal cells, plant cells have ________ and ________. Unlike plant cells, animal cells have ________.
chloroplasts . . . cell walls . . . centrioles
The idea that all living things are composed of cells and that all cells come from other cells defines
The endomembrane system includes all of the following organelles except the
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
stores calcium ions in muscle cells.
The two main functions of the rough endoplasmic reticulum are the production of
membrane and proteins secreted by the cell.
The cells that produce hair contain a lot of ________, while the cells that produce the oils that coat the hair contain a lot of ________.