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Life is organized in a hierarchical fashion. Which of the following sequences correctly lists that hierarchy as it increases in complexity?
molecule, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism, population, community, ecosystem
Which of the following statements about ecosystems is false?
Bacteria and fungi recycle energy within an ecosystem.
Which of the following statements regarding a common cellular activity is false?
New cells are derived from cellular components like organelles
Which of the following statements about the properties of life is false?
All organisms have the ability to maintain a constant internal temperature
Which of the following statements about living systems is false?
Living systems are composed of two or more cells.
All organisms belonging to the kingdom Plantae
are photosynthetic and contain cells that are surrounded by cell walls with cellulose.
Which of the following statements is not consistent with Darwin's theory of natural selection?
Individual organisms exhibit genetic change during their life spans to better fit their environment.
An antibiotic kills 99.9% of a bacterial population. You would expect the next generation of bacteria
to be more resistant to that antibiotic.
You notice that over the past month, many students on campus have started wearing a new style of school sweatshirt. You think to yourself that perhaps the bookstore has recently started selling this new sweatshirt style. This prediction is an example of
The role of a control in an experiment is to
provide a basis of comparison to the experimental group.
A scientist performs a controlled experiment. This means that
two experiments are conducted, one differing from the other by only a single variable.
What phrase best describes the connection between the ants' use of formic acid and the theme of Chapter 2?
Chemicals are part of the hierarchical structure of life.
Which of the following trace elements is commonly added to table salt to prevent the formation of goiters?
Which of the following trace elements may be added to bottled water in an effort to prevent tooth decay?
Which of the following statements best describes a compound?
A compound contains two or more different elements in a fixed ratio.
Which of the following statements regarding the oxygen atom of a water molecule is true?
Oxygen is more electronegative than the hydrogen atoms.
________ are weak bonds that are not strong enough to hold atoms together to form molecules but are strong enough to form bonds within and around large molecules.
Water molecules stick to other water molecules because
hydrogen bonds form between the hydrogen atoms of one water molecule and the oxygen atoms of other water molecules.
Which of the following is dependent on the ability of water molecules to form hydrogen bonds with other molecules besides water?
the universality of water as a solvent
donates H+ ions when conditions become too basic and accepts H+ ions when conditions become too acidic.
The emission of ________ and ________ are primarily responsible for acid precipitation.
nitrogen oxides . . . sulfur oxides
In the equation 2 H2 + O2 → 2 H2O, the H2 molecules are ________ and the H2O molecules are ________.
reactants . . . products
Which of the following would be considered an effective way to decrease the production of acid precipitation?
Whenever possible, walk or ride a bicycle instead of driving a car.
Which of the following will contain more heat but has a lower temperature?
an Olympic-sized heated indoor swimming pool
Which of the following statements regarding carbon is false?
Carbon has the capacity to form polar bonds with hydrogen.
Cellulose differs from starch in that
most animals cannot break down cellulose, whereas starch is easily digested.
The storage form of carbohydrates is ________ in animals and ________ in plants.
glycogen . . . starch
If you were to add olive oil to your food as part of a diet to lower your risk of atherosclerotic disease, you would use olive oil that
is liquid at room temperature
A phospholipid is composed of
one glycerol molecule linked to one phosphate group and two fatty acids
Which of the following statements about hydrocarbons is false?
Hydrocarbons are inorganic compounds.
A protein containing more than one polypeptide chain exhibits the ________ level of protein structure.
Which of the following observations would provide the strongest evidence that the many different plants we call orchids are actually related to one another?
They all have the same common ancestor.
Consider the following statement: "If all vertebrates have backbones, and turtles are vertebrates, then turtles have backbones." This statement is an example of
The teeth of grain-eating animals (such as horses) are usually broad and ridged. This makes the teeth suitable for grinding and chewing. Meat-eating animals (such as lions) have pointed teeth that are good for puncturing and ripping flesh. This illustrates
a result of natural selection and the connection between form and function.
Which of the following statements about cells is true?
All cells have internal structures that move.
A cell is exposed to a substance that prevents it from dividing. The cell becomes larger and larger. This situation
will eventually be problematic, since the cell's ability to absorb nutrients through its outer membrane will not keep increasing as quickly as its cytoplasmic needs.
Which of the following structures are used by prokaryotes for attaching to surfaces?
both pili and capsules
The membranous compartmentalization of a cell
allows different metabolic processes to occur simultaneously.
Which of the following statements about cellular metabolism is false?
Cellular metabolism occurs in animal but not plant cells.
Unlike animal cells, plant cells have ________ and ________. Unlike plant cells, animal cells have ________.
chloroplasts . . . cell walls . . . centrioles
The idea that all living things are composed of cells and that all cells come from other cells defines
The two main functions of the rough endoplasmic reticulum are the production of
membrane and proteins secreted by the cell.
The cells that produce hair contain a lot of ________, while the cells that produce the oils that coat the hair contain a lot of ________.
rough endoplasmic reticulum . . . smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Which of the following statements regarding the Golgi apparatus is false?
The Golgi apparatus decreases in size when a cell increases its protein production.
Which of the following statements about lysosomes is false?
Lysosomes synthesize proteins from the recycled amino acids.
Which of the following statements about internal membranes in eukaryotic cells is false?
In eukaryotic cells, internal membranes standardize the internal environment of all cellular organelles.
Relaying a message from a membrane receptor to a molecule that performs a specific function within a cell is called
Which of the following substances would have the most trouble crossing a biological membrane by diffusing through the lipid bilayer?
Small, nonpolar, hydrophobic molecules such as fatty acids
easily pass through a membrane's lipid bilayer.
All cells are enclosed by a plasma membrane that is similar in ________ and ________.
structure . . . function
The fluid mosaic model describes the plasma membrane as consisting of
individual proteins and phospholipids that can drift in a phospholipid bilayer
Plasma membranes are selectively permeable. This means that
the plasma membrane allows some substances to enter or leave a cell more easily than others.
When physicians perform an organ transplant, they choose a donor whose tissues match those of the recipient as closely as possible. Which of the following cell components are being matched?
Which of the following statements regarding membrane protein function is false?
Membrane proteins transfer genetic information to the cytoplasm.
often have "kinks" in their tails caused by the presence of a double bond between carbons
A major function of glycoproteins and glycolipids in the cell membrane is to
allow the cells of an embryo to sort themselves into tissues and organs.
The cholesterol associated with animal cell membranes
helps to stabilize the cell membrane at body temperature.
Diffusion does not require the cell to expend ATP. Therefore, diffusion is considered a type of
When two aqueous solutions that differ in solute concentration are placed on either side of a semipermeable membrane and osmosis is allowed to take place, the water will
exhibit a net movement to the side with lower water concentration.
Facilitated diffusion across a biological membrane requires ________ and moves a substance ________ its concentration gradient.
transport proteins . . . down
Which of the following statements is true among all types of passive diffusion?
The concentration gradient is the driving force.
Which of the following processes can move a solute against its concentration gradient?
Certain cells that line the stomach synthesize a digestive enzyme and secrete it into the stomach. This enzyme is a protein. Which of the following processes could be responsible for its secretion?
Which of the following statements regarding diffusion is false?
Diffusion occurs when particles spread from areas where they are less concentrated to areas where they are more concentrated.
What is the name given to organisms that can make their own food and the food for the biosphere?
Which of the following is an example of a photoautotroph?
cyanobacteria in freshwater and marine ecosystems
In the chloroplast, sugars are made in a compartment that is filled with a thick fluid called the
Which of the following statements regarding photosynthesis is false?
ATP is not produced during photosynthesis, but only during respiration.
The light reactions occur in the ________, while the Calvin cycle occurs in the ________.
thylakoid membranes . . . stroma
What would you expect to find when looking through a SEM at a cell treated with an enzyme that cleaves proteins at their hydrophilic amino acids?
a cell surface that is devoid of any major structures
Which of the following statements regarding photosynthesis and cellular respiration is true?
Photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts, and cellular respiration occurs in mitochondria.
Which of the following statements regarding cellular respiration is false?
Cellular respiration is a single chemical reaction with just one step
The overall equation for the cellular respiration of glucose is
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy.
Which of the following statements about the energy yields from cellular respiration is true?
Cellular respiration is more efficient at harnessing energy from glucose than car engines are at harnessing energy from gasoline.
A kilocalorie is defined as
the quantity of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1°C.
In biological systems, an important enzyme involved in the regulation of redox reactions is
During cellular respiration, NADH
delivers its electron load to the first electron carrier molecule.
Which of the following options lists the stages in cellular respiration in the correct order?
glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation
During which of the following phases of cellular respiration does substrate-level phosphorylation take place?
glycolysis and the citric acid cycle
The processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration are complementary. During these energy conversions, some energy is
lost in the form of heat.
Which of the following is a result of glycolysis?
conversion of glucose to two three-carbon compounds
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