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Biology Midterm (Mader, 1402)

quiz questions from Mader book Chapters 1-7
STUDY
PLAY
Life is organized in a hierarchical fashion. Which of the following sequences correctly lists that hierarchy as it increases in complexity?
molecule, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism, population, community, ecosystem
What is the difference between a tissue and an organ system?
An organ system includes tissues.
Which of the following statements about ecosystems is false?
Bacteria and fungi recycle energy within an ecosystem.
The ultimate source of energy flowing into nearly all ecosystems is
sunlight.
A consumer eating a producer represents
a transfer of chemical nutrients and energy
Which of the following statements regarding a common cellular activity is false?
New cells are derived from cellular components like organelles
Which of the following statements about the properties of life is false?
All organisms have the ability to maintain a constant internal temperature
Which of the following statements about living systems is false?
Living systems are composed of two or more cells.
Organisms that are prokaryotes are in the domains
Bacteria and Archaea
Which of the following statements about the domain Bacteria is true?
All bacteria lack a nucleus.
Members of the kingdom Animalia
can obtain their food by eating other organisms.
What feature is common to prokaryotes, fungi, and plants?
cell walls
Which of the following is a kingdom within the domain Eukarya?
Fungi
All organisms belonging to the kingdom Plantae
are photosynthetic and contain cells that are surrounded by cell walls with cellulose.
Which of the following statements is not consistent with Darwin's theory of natural selection?
Individual organisms exhibit genetic change during their life spans to better fit their environment.
An antibiotic kills 99.9% of a bacterial population. You would expect the next generation of bacteria
to be more resistant to that antibiotic.
Which of the following statements about evolution is true?
Evolution is a passive process.
A hypothesis is
a tentative answer to some question.
You notice that over the past month, many students on campus have started wearing a new style of school sweatshirt. You think to yourself that perhaps the bookstore has recently started selling this new sweatshirt style. This prediction is an example of
a hypothesis.
A theory is
an explanation of an idea that is broad in scope with multiple lines of evidence.
To be scientifically valid, a hypothesis must be
testable and falsifiable
The role of a control in an experiment is to
provide a basis of comparison to the experimental group.
A scientist performs a controlled experiment. This means that
two experiments are conducted, one differing from the other by only a single variable.
Which of the following best represents an example of technology?
testing for genetic diseases
As the environment changes,
natural selection adapts populations to their environment.
What phrase best describes the connection between the ants' use of formic acid and the theme of Chapter 2?
Chemicals are part of the hierarchical structure of life.
The four most common elements in living organisms are
C, H, O, N.
Which of the following is a trace element in the human body?
zinc
Which of the following statements regarding matter is false?
Matter can be created and destroyed.
Which of the following trace elements is commonly added to table salt to prevent the formation of goiters?
iodine
Which of the following is another term used for atomic mass?
dalton
In a water molecule, hydrogen and oxygen are held together by a(n) ________ bond.
polar covalent
Which of the following trace elements may be added to bottled water in an effort to prevent tooth decay?
fluoride
Which of the following statements best describes a compound?
A compound contains two or more different elements in a fixed ratio.
Which of the following statements regarding the oxygen atom of a water molecule is true?
Oxygen is more electronegative than the hydrogen atoms.
________ are weak bonds that are not strong enough to hold atoms together to form molecules but are strong enough to form bonds within and around large molecules.
Hydrogen bonds
Water molecules stick to other water molecules because
hydrogen bonds form between the hydrogen atoms of one water molecule and the oxygen atoms of other water molecules.
The tendency of water molecules to stick together is referred to as
cohesion.
Which of the following is dependent on the ability of water molecules to form hydrogen bonds with other molecules besides water?
the universality of water as a solvent
Water's surface tension and heat storage capacity is accounted for by its
hydrogen bonds
A solution with a pH of 7 is
neutral
As ice melts,
hydrogen bonds are broken
A buffer
donates H+ ions when conditions become too basic and accepts H+ ions when conditions become too acidic.
The emission of ________ and ________ are primarily responsible for acid precipitation.
nitrogen oxides . . . sulfur oxides
Compared to a solution of pH 3, a solution of pH 1 is
100 times more acidic.
In the equation 2 H2 + O2 → 2 H2O, the H2 molecules are ________ and the H2O molecules are ________.
reactants . . . products
Which of the following would be considered an effective way to decrease the production of acid precipitation?
Whenever possible, walk or ride a bicycle instead of driving a car.
Which of the following will contain more heat but has a lower temperature?
an Olympic-sized heated indoor swimming pool
In the equation 2 H2 + O2 → 2 H2O,
only H2O is a compound.
What is the atomic mass of an atom that has 6 protons, 6 neutrons, and 6 electrons?
12
A hydroxyl group is
characteristic of alcohols
A disaccharide forms when
two monosaccharides join by dehydration synthesis.
The results of dehydration synthesis can be reversed by
hydrolysis.
High-fructose corn syrup is composed primarily of a polysaccharide called
starch.
What is the general function of enzymes within a cell?
to speed up chemical reactions
Lactose intolerance is the inability to
digest lactose.
Which of the following contains a carboxyl and an amino group?
amino acids
Organic compounds
always contain carbon
Which of the following is an amino group?
-NH2
Which of the following statements regarding carbon is false?
Carbon has the capacity to form polar bonds with hydrogen.
Cellulose differs from starch in that
most animals cannot break down cellulose, whereas starch is easily digested.
The storage form of carbohydrates is ________ in animals and ________ in plants.
glycogen . . . starch
Fatty acids are
hydrophobic.
If you were to add olive oil to your food as part of a diet to lower your risk of atherosclerotic disease, you would use olive oil that
is liquid at room temperature
Fatty acids with double bonds between some of their carbons are said to be
unsaturated.
A phospholipid is composed of
one glycerol molecule linked to one phosphate group and two fatty acids
Which one of the following would be correctly classified as a protein?
enzymes
Which of the following statements about hydrocarbons is false?
Hydrocarbons are inorganic compounds.
The tertiary structure of a polypeptide refers to
the overall three-dimensional structure.
The primary structure of a protein is
the amino acid sequence of the polypeptide chain
Peptide bonds
link amino acids.
A protein containing more than one polypeptide chain exhibits the ________ level of protein structure.
quaternary
DNA differs from RNA because DNA
contains thymine in place of uracil.
Structural proteins
anchor cell parts.
Genetic information is encoded in the
sequence of nucleotides in DNA.
Which of the following observations would provide the strongest evidence that the many different plants we call orchids are actually related to one another?
They all have the same common ancestor.
Consider the following statement: "If all vertebrates have backbones, and turtles are vertebrates, then turtles have backbones." This statement is an example of
deductive reasoning.
Which of the following options correctly pairs a polymer and its monomer?
DNA, nucleotides
The teeth of grain-eating animals (such as horses) are usually broad and ridged. This makes the teeth suitable for grinding and chewing. Meat-eating animals (such as lions) have pointed teeth that are good for puncturing and ripping flesh. This illustrates
a result of natural selection and the connection between form and function.
Which of the following statements about cells is true?
All cells have internal structures that move.
Light microscopes
use light and glass lenses to magnify an image
One centimeter = ________ millimeters.
10
As cell size increases, the
volume increases faster than the surface area.
A cell is exposed to a substance that prevents it from dividing. The cell becomes larger and larger. This situation
will eventually be problematic, since the cell's ability to absorb nutrients through its outer membrane will not keep increasing as quickly as its cytoplasmic needs.
Resolution is the
ability of an optical instrument to show two close objects as separate.
Which of the following structures is exclusively associated with prokaryotic cells?
nucleoid
Which of the following cells has the greatest surface-to-volume ratio?
bacterium
________ cells lack a membrane-enclosed nucleus.
Prokaryotic
Archaea are composed of ________ cells.
prokaryotic
Which of the following structures are used by prokaryotes for attaching to surfaces?
both pili and capsules
The nucleoid region of a prokaryotic cell
contains the cell's DNA.
The membranous compartmentalization of a cell
allows different metabolic processes to occur simultaneously.
Which of the following statements about cellular metabolism is false?
Cellular metabolism occurs in animal but not plant cells.
Unlike animal cells, plant cells have ________ and ________. Unlike plant cells, animal cells have ________.
chloroplasts . . . cell walls . . . centrioles
The idea that all living things are composed of cells and that all cells come from other cells defines
cell theory.
The endomembrane system includes all of the following organelles except the
peroxisome
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
stores calcium ions in muscle cells.
The two main functions of the rough endoplasmic reticulum are the production of
membrane and proteins secreted by the cell.
The cells that produce hair contain a lot of ________, while the cells that produce the oils that coat the hair contain a lot of ________.
rough endoplasmic reticulum . . . smooth endoplasmic reticulum
The Golgi apparatus
stores, modifies, and packages proteins.
Which of the following statements regarding the Golgi apparatus is false?
The Golgi apparatus decreases in size when a cell increases its protein production.
Which of the following statements about lysosomes is false?
Lysosomes synthesize proteins from the recycled amino acids.
Which of the following statements about internal membranes in eukaryotic cells is false?
In eukaryotic cells, internal membranes standardize the internal environment of all cellular organelles.
Relaying a message from a membrane receptor to a molecule that performs a specific function within a cell is called
signal transduction
Which of the following substances would have the most trouble crossing a biological membrane by diffusing through the lipid bilayer?
Na+
Small, nonpolar, hydrophobic molecules such as fatty acids
easily pass through a membrane's lipid bilayer.
All cells are enclosed by a plasma membrane that is similar in ________ and ________.
structure . . . function
The fluid mosaic model describes the plasma membrane as consisting of
individual proteins and phospholipids that can drift in a phospholipid bilayer
Plasma membranes are selectively permeable. This means that
the plasma membrane allows some substances to enter or leave a cell more easily than others.
When physicians perform an organ transplant, they choose a donor whose tissues match those of the recipient as closely as possible. Which of the following cell components are being matched?
cell-surface carbohydrates
Most of the functions of a cell membrane are performed by
proteins.
Which of the following statements regarding membrane protein function is false?
Membrane proteins transfer genetic information to the cytoplasm.
Membrane phospholipids
often have "kinks" in their tails caused by the presence of a double bond between carbons
A major function of glycoproteins and glycolipids in the cell membrane is to
allow the cells of an embryo to sort themselves into tissues and organs.
The cholesterol associated with animal cell membranes
helps to stabilize the cell membrane at body temperature.
Diffusion does not require the cell to expend ATP. Therefore, diffusion is considered a type of
passive transport
Oxygen crosses a plasma membrane by
passive transport.
A plant cell in a hypotonic solution
is turgid
Osmosis can be defined as
the diffusion of water.
When two aqueous solutions that differ in solute concentration are placed on either side of a semipermeable membrane and osmosis is allowed to take place, the water will
exhibit a net movement to the side with lower water concentration.
Facilitated diffusion across a biological membrane requires ________ and moves a substance ________ its concentration gradient.
transport proteins . . . down
Which of the following statements is true among all types of passive diffusion?
The concentration gradient is the driving force.
Which of the following processes can move a solute against its concentration gradient?
active transport
Phagocytosis is to eating as pinocytosis is to
drinking.
The process of a white blood cell engulfing a bacterium is
phagocytosis.
Certain cells that line the stomach synthesize a digestive enzyme and secrete it into the stomach. This enzyme is a protein. Which of the following processes could be responsible for its secretion?
exocytosis
Cells acquire LDLs by
receptor-mediated endocytosis.
Which of the following statements regarding diffusion is false?
Diffusion occurs when particles spread from areas where they are less concentrated to areas where they are more concentrated.
The summary equation for photosynthesis is
6 CO2 + 6 H2O + sunlight → C6H12O6 + 6 O2.
What is the name given to organisms that can make their own food and the food for the biosphere?
producers
Photoautotrophs
produce organic molecules from inorganic molecules.
Which of the following is an example of a photoautotroph?
cyanobacteria in freshwater and marine ecosystems
Autotrophs that utilize light as their energy source are
photoautotrophs.
CO2 enters and O2 escapes from a leaf via
stomata.
In the chloroplast, sugars are made in a compartment that is filled with a thick fluid called the
stroma.
Where is chlorophyll found in a plant cell?
thylakoid membranes
In most green plants, chloroplasts are
concentrated in a zone of leaf tissue called the mesophyll.
Chloroplasts contain disklike membranous sacs arranged in stacks called
grana.
The oxygen released into the air as a product of photosynthesis comes from
water.
Which of the following molecules is both a reactant and a product of photosynthesis?
H2O
Which of the following statements regarding photosynthesis is false?
ATP is not produced during photosynthesis, but only during respiration.
What is the source of energy that provides the boost for electrons during photosynthesis?
light
Which of the following is part of the light reaction?
formation of waste products in the form of O2
The light reactions occur in the ________, while the Calvin cycle occurs in the ________.
thylakoid membranes . . . stroma
Which of the following are produced during the light reactions of photosynthesis?
ATP, NADPH, O2
Sunlight is a type of ________ energy.
electromagnetic
Which of the following are produced during the Calvin cycle?
glucose, ADP, NADP+
The full range of electromagnetic energy is called the ________ spectrum.
electromagnetic
Chlorophyll b and carotenoids
pass absorbed energy to chlorophyll a.
________ cells in leaves are specialized for photosynthesis.
Mesophyll
Which of the following colors contributes the least energy to photosynthesis?
green
Why are most plants green?
Chlorophyll a reflects green light.
Carbon fixation
occurs when carbon and oxygen from CO2 are incorporated into an organic molecule.
What would you expect to find when looking through a SEM at a cell treated with an enzyme that cleaves proteins at their hydrophilic amino acids?
a cell surface that is devoid of any major structures
The term anaerobic means
without O2.
Which of the following statements regarding photosynthesis and cellular respiration is true?
Photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts, and cellular respiration occurs in mitochondria.
Which of the following are products of cellular respiration?
energy to make ATP and carbon dioxide
Which of the following statements regarding cellular respiration is false?
Cellular respiration is a single chemical reaction with just one step
The overall equation for the cellular respiration of glucose is
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy.
Which of the following statements about the energy yields from cellular respiration is true?
Cellular respiration is more efficient at harnessing energy from glucose than car engines are at harnessing energy from gasoline.
Humans use the calories they obtain from ________ as their source of energy.
food
A kilocalorie is defined as
the quantity of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1°C.
During cellular respiration, the energy in glucose
is carried by electrons.
During redox reactions,
electrons are lost from one substance and added to another substance.
Oxidation is the ________, and reduction is the ________.
loss of electrons . . . gain of electrons
In biological systems, an important enzyme involved in the regulation of redox reactions is
dehydrogenase.
During cellular respiration, NADH
delivers its electron load to the first electron carrier molecule.
Which of the following options lists the stages in cellular respiration in the correct order?
glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation
During which of the following phases of cellular respiration does substrate-level phosphorylation take place?
glycolysis and the citric acid cycle
Which of the following metabolic pathways is common in aerobic and anaerobic metabolism?
glycolysis
As a result of glycolysis there is a net gain of ________ ATPs.
2
The processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration are complementary. During these energy conversions, some energy is
lost in the form of heat.
Respiration ________, and cellular respiration ________.
is gas exchange . . . produces ATP
How many molecules of NADH are produced during glycolysis?
2
Which of the following is a result of glycolysis?
conversion of glucose to two three-carbon compounds
The end products of glycolysis include
NADH.
The end products of the citric acid cycle include all of the following except
pyruvate.
How do cells capture the energy released by cellular respiration?
They produce ATP.
Pyruvate
forms at the end of glycolysis.