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Terms in this set (35)
Water that is healthy for human consumption, and free of organic and inorganic compounds and microorganisms
Water that is aesthetically pleasing and free from turbidity, color, odor, or bad taste
Measures clarity of water; whether water is cloudy or not
What is the purpose of drinking water treatment?
To provide potable water that is palatable
Major Inorganic Constituents
Calcium, chloride, fluoride, iron, magnesium
Minor Inorganic Constituents
Copper, lead, arsenic, mercury
Pathogens, indicator organisms
Microorganisms that cause sickness and disease such as viruses, bacteria, and protozoa
Coliforms, used to monitor microbial water activity
Safe Water Drinking Act of 1974
Responsibility of water quality regulation moved from states to EPA. Regulated maximum contaminant levels (MCLs), calcium levels, etc.
A physical treatment that removes the large particles from water, by size from largest to smallest in order to prevent damage to mechanics in further treatment. Screening occurs using bar racks or bar screens.
Alternative to screens; grinds up coarse solids to be removed in a later treatment step
Drinking Water Treatment
Physical Treatment: Screening, Sedimentation, and Filtration
Chemical Treatment: Coagulation-Flocculation and Disinfection
Order: Screening, Coagulation-Flocculation, Sedimentation, Filtration, Disinfection
Charge neutralization step that conditions all matter by adding coagulants (chemical that destabilizes particles)
Small suspended particles stick together from the coagulant to form larger particles known as floc
Process in which majority of the particles will settle by gravity within a reasonable time and be removed
Water passes through filtration medium, removes small particles, pathogens, and flocs
Granular Media Filtration
Can operate at high or low hydraulic loading rate, water is driven by gravity flow through a bed of granular material, and particles are collected within the bed
Water is pumped under pressure into a housing containing a semipermeable membrane, where some water filters through that membrane. Filters from largest to smallest, and processes increase in pressure.
Membrane filtration: Filters particles, sediment, algae, protozoa, bacteria
Membrane filtration: Filters small colloids and viruses
Reverse osmosis: Filters dissolved organic matter
Filters ionic species
Inactivations of microorganisms in the water
maintaining a disinfectant residual in treated water distribution system
Chlorine, Ozone, Chlorine dioxide, UV light
What is the purpose of wastewater treatment?
To reduce quantity of pollutants to a certain level, because the pollutants pose a risk to aquatic environment
What is wastewater?
Liquid waste, waste from household, industries, and commercial establishments, storm water and other surface runoff
Removal of large particles via screens, communator, and grit chambers
Air is introduced on one side of tank, providing helical flow of wastewater through chamber enabling grit to settle out while keeping smaller organic material suspended in wastewater
Physical removal of suspended solids via high rate clarifier and coagulation-flocculation
Biological treatment for degradation of organic matter
Tertiary/advanced treatment and activated sludge process
Removal of pathogen, nutrients, VOC, ions
Nitrification, denitrification, chemical precipitation, membrane filtration
Anaerobic digestion, lime stabilization-- sustainable because anaerobic digestion produces methane gas
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