60 terms

Social Studies Test 1

Early Civilizations
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Terms in this set (...)

Pre-History
story of humankind before people developed writing
History
all that is remembered of the past as preserved in writing
Continents
One of the principal land masses of the earth, usually regarded as including Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and South America.
Political
of or relating to your views about social relationships involving authority or power
Economic
the ways in which people use their environment to meet their material needs
Geography
the study of people, their environments, and the resources available to them
Social
refers to interactions and relationships with other people like religion, social class, etc
Culture
way of life; the knowledge people have, the language they speak, the ways in which they eat and dress, their religious beliefs, and their achievements in art and music
Cultural Diffusion
the exchange of goods and ideas when cultures come in contact with eachother. responsible for ideas arising in a few areas and then spreading throughout the world. as a result of this people of other civilizations encouraged selves to improve their own skills and way of life
Ethnocentric
believe culture is the best; like the Ancient China who refer to themselves as the "Middle Kingdom" and draw selves in the center of the map
Pastorialism
Agriculture based on nomadic animal husbandry or the raising of livestock to provide food, clothing, and shelter; this type of system took place within mesolithic period where people domesticated animals for hunting small game, meat, milk
Polytheism
belief in many gods- ancient egypt, ancient china, mesopotamia, indus river valley civilization
Domestication
to tame an animal for human purposes like work or food. ex:) Mesolithic period tamed dog to help people hunt small game, tamed goat to use for meat and milk.
Sedentary
permanent settlements- what separated mesolithic period from neolithic period; due to farming domestic. food surplus. incr pop. villages. personal possessions. job specialization. social class. etc
Civilization
complex society in which the people live in a highly organized society with an advanced knowledge of farming, trade, government, art, writing, and science
Institution
instituting; (building for the) organization; established custom, practice, or relationship in a society; mental hospital; Ex. institution of marriage
Patriarchal
relating to a society in which men hold the greatest legal and moral authority (Mesopotamia, Ancient China)
Natural Barrier
a land form such as a desert, body of water, or mountain range that protects and isolates an area
Neolithic Revolution
the shift from hunting and gathering to producing food 10,000 B.C first seen in Middle East; because new agricultural methods led to tremendous changes in peoples' lifestyles this period is known as this. Changes- domesticate animals, food surplus (job specialization lead to social class), increased pop, villages, personal possessions (social class), village headman and council of elders, calendar and technology, and women less important
Main ideas of Paleolithic (Old Stone Age)
2,000,000 B.C.E
1. Hunters (men) and gatherers (women)
2. Nomads (small enough to move fast but big enough to reproduce)
3. Simple tools and weapons
4. First spoken languages
5. Discovery of fire
6. Cave paintings- artifacts
7. Belief in afterlife
8. Egalitarian society
Main ideas of Neolithic (New Stone Age)
10,000 B.C first in Middle East
1. Farming began
2. Domesticate animals
3. Food surplus-> job specialization-> higher skilled higher social class
4. Increased population
5. Villages (sedentary permanent settlements)
6. Personal possessions-> social class
7. Village headman and council of elders
8. Calendar and technology
9. Women less important
Main Ideas of Civilizations
1. Central government
2. Organized religion (to explain unexplainable)
3. Social Classes
4. Art and Architecture
5. Cities (protection and resources)
6. Public Works (things that benefit people)
7. Writing System (maintain order/communicate)
8. Job Specialization
How did gender roles change from the Paleolithic and Neolithic Ages through the rise of the first sedentary civilizations?
Power of women reduced, and power of men increased. Men took on economic, and social safekeeping of the family and community. As gatherers women provided 70% of family food intake, when agriculture became 0%. Women's job reduced to simply making as much babies as possible, and raising the many kids. Women worked privately in home, men felt it was male job to be warriors and crime stoppers so considered "heroes and protectors" while women as "nurturers" attracted little attention so low in social standing
Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
its valley posses earliest cities of Mesopotamia; two rivers begin in hills of present-day eastern Turkey and run parallel to peach other through present-day Iraq on way to Persian Gulf; in between them people built villagers and farmed land; rivers swell with rain and melting snow by spring clogged w deposits of silt; often overflowed onto the plain and if strong was very destructive; its flooding unpredictable so dams and escape channnels built to control floodwaters and later constructed canals and ditches to bring river water to irrigate fields
Fertile Crescent/ Land Between Two Rivers
crescent-shaped land that stretched from Mediterranean Sea to Persian Gulf, curving around northern Syria. Includes parts of modern nations of Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Turkey, Syria, and Iraq. Eastern part is called Mesopotamia
Sumer
around 3500 B.C people settled in lower part of Tigris and Euphrates river valley known as this area. Birthplace of word's first cities; formed 12 city states; everyone shared comon culture, language religion. Physical features include ziggurat. Each city-state governed itself w/ theocratic king, non egalitarian society, cuneiform, polytheistic nature based gods, wagon wheel development, bad gods, creation of bronze, number system, 12 month calendar, commerce and trade
Babylon
Dynasty dominated by the Amorites (after being ruled by sumerians), Semetic people from western syria, at this location. later the dynasty founded here produced ruler Hammurabi (brought whole region under his control, reorganized tax system, ordered local officials to build and repair irrigation canals, made law codes, strong government, increase economy of people, this area became major trade center under his rule of grain and cloth). Social classes divided into 1) kings, priests, nobles 2)artisans, small merchants,scribes, then farmers 3) slaves. Cuneiform script adopted from Sumer as writing system and wrote on clay tablets; declined when Hittites raided this area from Asia Minor
Cuneiform
system of writing developed by Sumerians to keep accounts, business records, literary works, list of historical dates, prepare documents; oldest system of writing; beginning with pictograms- hundreds of wedge shaped marking made by pressing end of sharpened reed on wet clay tablet then dried or baked until hard- and eventulaly developed into symbols representing complex ideas. writers went to eddubas school and were highly respected
Code of Hammurabi
laws governing entire meso reigion created by Hammurabi based off of laws of meso. city states; stated what actions considered violations and assigned a specific punishment for each based off of social class and severity of crime; penalized violators severely; some meant to protect less powerful; before this people offended often acted on own and used violence against opponents, this made crimes the concern of everyone and gave gov. the responsibility of protecting its citizens in return for their loyalty and service
Ziggurat
tallest building in Mesopotamian civilization built by Sumerians, shrine atop it only accessed by priests and priestesses, temple showing religious importance. looks out for invasions since no natural barriers so vulnerable to attack, and used for storage suggesting food surplus. made of sun dried brick and colored tile with outer stairs
Contributions of Mesopotamia
-first written language (cuneiform written on clay tablets via chiselling)
-Earliest use of the wheel(technology) (wagon wheel to transport people/goods)
-12 month calendar (what to grow when) based on cycles of moon
-Gilgamesh- epic that may be the oldest story in the world
-Arch- build sturdier buildings
-Potter's wheel to shape containers
-Sundial to keep time
-Number system based on 60
-first to make bronze out of copper and tin
-develop metal plow
-Hammurabi's Code
Why is Mesopotamia exposed to attack?
No natural barriers so open to invasion and needed warriors leading to non-egalitarian society
-therefore organized into city-states so each city-state could political leader to lead them and protect them from invasion
Nile River
-its predictable, yearly flooding relied upon by Egyptians for water since little rainfall
-along its banks rich black soil
-voluminous in late spring and summer due to rains of Africa and melting mountain snow in East Africa. when it receded in fall thick deposits of silt left behind
-people settlement along it to farm since river raised wheat, barley, ducks/geese in marshlands, fish, and papyrus.
-led to egyptians liking gods since this river was good to them, and this river is a god
-people made sacrifices to express thanks
-provided route for travel and trade
-cataracts served as natural barrier
Pharaoh
leader of political and religious system of Egypt (theocracy) during New Kingdom
-considered the link between gods and humans
-righthand mand= vizier who helped make decisions (bureaucracy)
-mummified and pyramids built in their honor
-name means "great house of the king"
Hieroglyphics
-written on papyrus and clay tablets
-earliest Egyptian system of writing where picture symbols carved onto pieces of slate representing objects, ideas, and sounds
-translated once Rosetta Stone found
Pyramids
-built to honor god-kings and provide them with an eternal place of rest during Old Kingdom near Memphis
-So tall that demonstrates Egyptian engineering skills
-long, narrow passageways lead to king's burial chamber deep within pyramid
-before being put in pyramid mummy embalmed, then all possessions and significant things put in tomb with pharaoh
Contributions of Egypt
-Hieroglyphics
- Architecture= pyramids, temples, other monuments
-Mathematics= number system developed to calculate area and volume, and principles of geometry used to survey flooded land
-accurate 365 day calendar based on moon and the star Sirius to know when floods coming
-Medicine= (learned from embalming) directions on papyrus scrolls written by egyptian doctors for splints, bandages, and compresses when treating fractures, wounds, and diseases (other civilizations based medicine off egyptians)
What geographic features protect Egypt from invasion?
-cataracts (waterfalls)
- surrounding deserts to west
- To the north was the Mediterranean.
-To the east was the Red Sea
Huang He River (Yellow River/ River of Sorrow)
-unpredictable flooding
-in Eastern China flowing from Northern highlands to eastward to Yellow Sea
-cuts through thick layers of loess, rich yellow soil, and deposits it downstream (giving China its name) making China a rich agricultural area
-sometimes tragedy due to floods
-fed by melting snow from mountains and monsoon rains between July and October
Mandate of Heaven
-Chinese belief that rulers governed under this principle and that if they were just and effective they received authority to rule.
-idea that if not effective, indicated by poor crops or losses in battle, the lost mandate and someone else must start new dynasty
-principle first appeared during Zhou dynasty, as Zhou and others used this as an excuse and justification for overthrowing unpopular dynasty
Dynastic Cycle
cycle of power in Ancient China
New dynasty brings peace, gives land to peasants, and protects people----generations the new dynasty becomes--> old dynasty who over taxes, stops protecting people, treats people unfairly---old dynasty loses mandate of heaven--> problems include floods, earthquakes, peasants revolt, invaders attack empire---> new dynasty claims mandate of heaven---->see top
Family Ancestry
elders respected both alive and dead and it was believed these elders lived in the afterlife. family ancestors were believed to answer the questions on the oracle bones by determining the way in which the bone burned
-elders respected and connected to god
Middle Kingdom
name the Chinese used to refer to themselves explaining why they drew themselves in center of map
-since lived in isolation from rest of world (no cultural diffusion) they believed they were the center of the whole world and the one truly supreme civilization
-this isolation allowed them to develop one culture across many regions and a strong sense of national identity, leading them to be the oldest continuous civilization in the world
Ethnocentric
Believing in the superiority of one's own ethnic and cultural group, and having a corresponding disdain for all other groups. Ancient Chinese were this due to no cultural diffusion
Shang Dynasty (key contributions)
-produced bronze(some of the finest bronze objects ever made- daggers, figurines, ritual urns, fittings for hunting chariots, bronze daggers)
-perfected metal-casting skills
-carved ivory and jade statues
-silk woven into beautiful garments for rich
-fashioned pottery from kaolin-fine, white clay
-oracle bones answered people's questions
-written script developed with objects, ideas, and sounds written in vertical columns
Zhou Dynasty (key contributions)
-Mandate of Heaven
-start of Confucianism eaches men to be gentlemen, gentleman also must study continuously and practice self-examination. What you do not wish for yourself, do not do to others."
-agricultural techniques advanced (systematic irrigation, field grid patterns, fertilization, crop rotation)
-advancements in literature
To what extend did the geographical barriers of China shape its viewpoint and future of development?
natural barriers= Himilayas to SW, Kunlun Shan and Tian Shan ranges to west, Gobi Desert to west, Pacific Ocean to east- hindered cultural diffusion
- isolation caused them to be ethnocentric and view selves as "Middle Kingdom" as if center of world and the one and only supreme civi.
-caused Chinese to develop 2 culture across regions and have a strong sense of national identity so civilization never collapsed and is still the oldest civilization in the world
-no invasions, barriers provided natural resources, people could focus on improving/ use resources for technological advancements/no trading between countries
Indus River
-unpredictable flooding
-fed by rain and melting mountain snows
-drains into the arabian sea, and the ganges
-wheat, barley, rice, and cotton grown on the floodplain
-farmers planted at beginning or end of the flood season and relied on drenched land for watering their crops
Indian Subcontinent
-large, triangular shaped landmass jutting into the Indian Ocean in present-day India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh
-housed the Indus Valley civilization
Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro
H= located in present day Pakistan and gives Indus Valley settlement its nickname (h civilization
M= other important city near the Arabian Sea
- both cities major cities of Indus River valley civilization.
-Its ruins give us much of what we know about civilization, and show outstanding urban planning
-Polytheistic nature based religion worshipped there
-Agrarian cities, industry and commerce also dominant w/ bronze and copper, silver, gold, shell, ivory, clay, etc
Monsoons
seasonal winds affecting climate of Indus River valley civilization greatly and shape pattern of life
-NE/winter monsoon blows from November to March (bring dry air and cooler temp), SW or summer monsoon from June to September (hot winds that bring rain)
-Relied heavily on fate of monsoons
- SW monsoon caused rivers to swell and flood, which enriched soil, but could drown people and animals and destroy villages
-If SW monsoon late or light rain, people starve
Urban planning of Indus
-suggest strong central gov.
-citadel built on brick platform overlooking every city- possibly central government or religious center
- each city arranged in grid pattern w/ straight streets crossing eachother at right angles
-oven baked bricks used to built houses with flat wooden roofs, multiple stories high, and some courtyards
-plumbing beneath streets
Plumbing of Indus
-Every house had own bathroom with drains and chutes connected to brick sewer system beneath streets (suggesting cleanliness very important to Indus people and public works indicate strong central gov.)
Decline of Indus
-Not known for sure
-around 1750 BCE Indus valley began to decline via evidence of mass graves
-1500 BCE nomadic warriors called Aryans conquered Indus and set foundation for system of Hinduism
-possible climate change (change in floods), perhaps Shang invasion
Why do we know the least about the Indus civilization?
glyphs (picture writing)/seals on packages of goods not yet deciphered so we only know about civilization through artifacts found with ruins
How did geography influence the rise of civilizations?
-natural barriers= limit cultural diffusion which changes technological advancements, limits invasions which means no warriors so a more egalitarian society; one centralized government as opposed to smaller city states if no invasion
-near water and abundant soil= trade easy, farming fuels society so food surplus, job specialization leading to social classes, if nature determining wealth from farming than gods polytheistic-nature based gods, irrigation system necessary
predictable flooding= like gods= belief in afterlife
Compare and contrast the influences of geography and the environment on the rise of civilizations and cultures in Mesopotamia and Egypt (economy, gender roles, social classes, view of afterlife, political organization)
Mesopotamia= geography of unpredictable flooding of Tigris Euphrates Rivers and no natural barriers
economy- able to trade since no natural barriers, and has sea routes. agrarian society since relied on farming
gender roles- since open to invasion there were male warriors who received greater respect than women child bearers so non-egalitarian
social classes- men more superior than women due to natural barrios
view of afterlife- hated gods since unpredictable flooding so tried not to focus on the afterlife/didn't believe in it
political organization- since open to invasion divided into city-states to guard each section of Mesopotamia


Egypt= predictable flooding of Nile, cataracts as natural barrier, deserts

economy- Nile provided route for trade. black soil deposits from Nile allowed for harvesting abundant crops so agriculture ruled economy
gender roles- men not significantly more important than women since not warriors because natural barriers protected are
social class- pharaoh (1 ruler), vizier (carry out jobs of pharaoh), priests (religion important), scribes (papyrus from nile for writing), artisans (food surplus from farming gave time for this), peasants, slaves. men and women equal
view of afterlife- good flooding so good poly-theistic nature-based gods, thought afterlife was glorious and spent much of life preparing for it (pyramids)
political organization- government built around pharaoh's court since natural barriers allowed for one ruler not city-state
To what extent did religion play a role in the lives of the people in the various ancient civilizations?
religion played major role because people believed the gods determined the fate of nature, and since nature so important to them gods important. In Egypt made sacrifices and spent much of life preparing for afterlife, Ancient China believed in Mandate of Heaven and that oracle bones gave answers to life's problems, Mesopotamia disliked gods and feared them greatly, Indus River Valley worshipped statues of them
How did lifestyles, culture, and technologies change from the Paleolithic societies to the first river valley civilizations?
Lifestyles- went from nomadic to sedentary; domesticated animals, food surplus allowed for job specialization and possessions which led to social class, people needed village headman and council of elders since jealousy from possessions causes issues, became less egalitarian since farming considered manly and women's roles changed to child birthing
Technologies- method of getting food changed from hunting and gathering to using domesticated animals for farming. Simple tools and weapons developed into much better crafted objects thanks to artisans. Cave paintings changed to more complex forms of writing
Why is the development of writing important in the history of the river valley civilizations?
we base history off of people's writings; allowed more organized and civilized societies since taxes, documents, property ownership, important events were kept track of and could be passed down from generation to generation