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147 terms

ST ordination exam: rocky presbytery PCA

Define "Systematic Theology."
Systematic theology presents the teachings of the entire Bible in a topical and logical fashion, and expresses it in a contemporary form.
Give the primary divisions of systematic theology are the doctrines of?
o Scripture
o God
o Man & Sin
o Christ
o Salvation
o Church
o Last Things
What is "Dispensational Theology?"
• Dispensationalism is a theological framework that divides Scripture into seven dispensations,
and asserts that God relates differently with humanity in each one.
• Other key doctrines include:
o Separation between Israel and the church
o Pre-tribulational rapture
o Future literal fulfillment of OT prophecies concerning Israel.
How do these three disciplines (practical and biblical theology) relate to systematic theology?
• Biblical and historical theology are foundational to systematic theology. We develop theology through exegesis and synthesis of different passages of Scripture, in light of what the church has believed down through the centuries.
• Practical theology is the result of systematic theology. The church's practice is ordered
according to theological beliefs.
Doctrine of Scripture Memory verse: 2 Tim. 3:15-17:
2 Tim. 3:15-17: ...the sacred Writings, which are able to make you wise for salvation through faith in Christ Jesus. All Scripture is breathed out by God and profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, and for training in righteousness, that the man of God may be competent, equipped for every good work.
Doctrine of Scripture Memory verse: 2 Pet. 1:20-21
2 Pet. 1:20-21: No prophecy of Scripture comes from someone's own interpretation. For no prophecy was ever produced by the will of man, but men spoke from God as they were carried along by the Holy Spirit.
Doctrine of Scripture Memory Verse: Deut. 29:29:
Deut. 29:29: The secret things belong to the LORD our God, but the things that are revealed belong to us and to our children forever, that we may do all the words of this law.
What is revelation, and why is it necessary?
Revelation is God's action of making himself and his will known to humanity. Revelation is necessary because it is impossible for humanity to know God without God making himself known (Deut. 29:29; Rom. 11:33-34; Ps. 145:3).
Define and distinguish general revelation and special revelation.
• General Revelation: God's manner of revealing himself through creation and providence (Psa. 19:1-3; Rom. 1:19-20).
o This leaves man without excuse, yet it is not sufficient to give man the knowledge of God and his will that is necessary for salvation.
• Special Revelation: God's manner of revealing himself, and the way of salvation, through Jesus Christ and his Word (Deut. 29:29; 2 Tim. 3:15).
What do the Scriptures principally teach?
The Scriptures principally teach what man is to believe concerning God, and what duty God requires of man (Jn. 20:31; Deut. 29:29).
Define and defend the "inspiration" of Scripture. What is meant by "plenary verbal inspiration?"
• Inspiration means that the authors of Scripture were supernaturally directed by the Holy
Spirit as they wrote, so that the Bible is the very Word of God (2 Tim. 3:16; 2 Pet. 1:20-21).
• Plenary verbal inspiration means that every word of Scripture is inspired by God, and communicates exactly what God wanted to communicate (2 Pet. 1:20-21).
What is the difference between "inspiration" and "illumination?"
Inspiration is the Spirit's work of producing the inerrant Scriptures, whereas illumination is the Spirit's work of enabling us to understand those Scriptures.
Define and defend the "inerrancy" of Scripture.
• Define: The Bible is without error in its original manuscripts.
• Defend: Basic syllogism that proves the inerrancy of Scripture:
o God does not lie (Num. 23:19).
o God cannot be mistaken (Heb. 4:13).
o The Bible is the Word of God (2 Tim. 3:16).
o Therefore, the Bible is inerrant.
What is the difference between "inspiration" and "inerrancy"?
• Inspiration concerns the authority of Scripture. It states that the author of Scripture is God.
• Inerrancy concerns the reliability of Scripture. It states that Scripture is without error.
• Inspiration is the foundation for inerrancy. We know the Bible is without error because it is the Word of God.
From where comes our full assurance of the inerrancy and infallible authority of Scripture?
Our full assurance of the infallible truth and divine authority of Scripture is from the work of the Holy Spirit bearing witness with the Word in our hearts (1 Cor. 2:14-16; 1 Thess. 1:5).
What is the "canon"? Defend it scripturally.
• The word "canon" means a rule or standard. In the Christian Church, the canon refers to the list of 66 books recognized by the Church as the inspired and authoritative Word of God, given to direct the church's faith and life.

• The concept of canon is present in Scripture itself. The warnings against adding or subtracting from God's Word in passages such as Deut. 4:2 and Rev. 22:18 indicates that there is a specific group of writings that are the authoritative Word of God, and all other writings are not.
How is the canon seen in the Old Testament and how is it defended.
The Canon of the OT: By the time of Jesus, the Jews had already recognized the 39 books of the OT as God's authoritative canon, and designated it as "the Law, the Prophets and the Writings."
Jesus affirms this in Matt. 5:17; 7:12; Lk. 24:27, 44. and Shows that Jesus did not acknowledge the Apocrypha to be canonical.
How is the canon seen in the New Testament and how is it defended.
The Canon of the NT: The apostles recognized that they held an authoritative office, and that they had been entrusted with an authoritative body of teaching that was to be passed down and committed to writing.

Therefore, they viewed their own writings as authoritative, canonical Scripture that was inspired by God (2 Pet. 3:2, 15-16; 1 Thess. 2:13; 1 Tim.5:18 [cites Lk. 10:7 as Scripture]; Heb. 2:2-3; 1 Pet. 1:12).
What determines which books belong in the canon?
• Apostolicity: written by the apostles or their associates (Luke & Paul; Mark & Peter).
• Orthodoxy: conforms to the teachings of the apostles and the books written by them.
• Catholicity: accepted early and by a majority of the Church.
communicable attributes of God
Ex. 34:6-7: The LORD, the LORD, a God merciful and gracious, slow to anger, and abounding in steadfast love and faithfulness, keeping steadfast love for thousands, forgiving iniquity and transgression and sin, but who will by no means clear the guilty, visiting the iniquity of the fathers on the children and the children's children, to the third and fourth generation.
unity of God memory
Deut. 6:4: Hear, O Israel: the LORD our God, the LORD is one.
all powerfulness of God
Isa. 46:9-11: For I am God, and there is no other; I am God, and there is none like me, declaring the end from the beginning and from ancient times things not yet done, saying,
"My counsel shall stand, and I will accomplish my purpose," calling a bird of prey from the east, the man of my counsel from a far country. I have spoken, and I will bring it to pass; I have purposed, and I will do it.
What is God?
God is a Spirit, infinite, eternal and unchangeable in his being, wisdom, power, holiness, justice, goodness and truth (Jn. 4:24; 1 Kgs. 8:27; Ps. 90:2; Mal. 3:6; Ex. 3:14; Rom. 11:33-34; Jer. 32:17; Lev. 19:2; Deut. 32:4; Ps. 34:8; 1 Jn. 5:20).
Briefly explain and defend (including Scripture proofs) the doctrine of the Trinity.
There is one God in three persons: the Father, Son and Holy Spirit. And these three are one God; the same in substance, and equal in power and glory (Deut. 6:4; Matt. 3:16-17; 28:19-20). o Deut 6:4 states that God is one. There is one God, not three. Matt. 3:16-17:the baptism of Jesus: Because the Father, Son and Holy Spirit are active at the same time, we know that they are distinct persons, not different modes in which God appears. Matt. 28:19: the great commission then ame of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit." The fact that "name" is singular yet this shows that there is one God in three persons.
What is meant by the ontological and economic Trinity, and why is this important?
• Ontological Trinity: God as he is in himself. Ontological Trinity refers to the relationship between the persons in themselves without respect to creation or redemption. It's about who God is "in Himself."

• Economic Trinity: God as he has revealed himself to us. The economic Trinity refers to the relationship of the persons of the Trinity. It refers to the relationship of the persons of the Trinity in the work of redemption and creation.

• This is important because it maintains that there is mystery in the Triune God. It is beyond our capabilities to know him completely.
What are the personal properties of the three persons of the Godhead?
It is proper for the Father to beget the Son (Heb. 1:5), and for the Son to be begotten of the
Father (Jn. 1:14), and for the Holy Spirit to proceed from the Father and the Son from all eternity (Jn. 15:26; Gal. 4:6).
Defend the Deity of the Holy Spirit?
It is evident that the Holy Spirit is God because the names, attributes, works and worship of God are all attributed to him.

o Names: the Spirit is called "God" in Acts 5:3-4; 1 Cor. 2:10-11. Attributes: the Spirit alone knows the thoughts of God (1 Cor. 2:10-11). Works: the Spirit was active in creating the world (Gen. 1:2). Worship: we are baptized in the name of the Spirit (Matt. 28:19) The Spirit is identified with the Father and the Son in 2 Cor. 13:14.
What are the decrees of God?
The decrees of God are his eternal purpose, according to the counsel of his will, whereby, for his own glory, he has foreordained whatsoever comes to pass (Isa. 46:9-11; Eph. 1:11).

o Although God foreknows everything that will come to pass, yet he did not decree anything because he foresaw it in the future. All things are decreed according to the counsel of his will (Rom. 9:16; Eph. 1:11; Isa. 14:24).
What is the difference between infralapsarianism and supralapsarianism?
• The debate is over the logical order of God's decrees.

• Infralapsarians believe that God's decrees of creation and the fall logically before his
decrees of election and reprobation.

• Supralapsarians believe that God's decrees of election and reprobation logically before his
decrees of creation and the fall.
What is an Amyraldian view of God's decrees?
• God's decree of salvation logically precedes his decree of election. This allowed Amyrald to postulate a universal design in the atonement while stillholding to predestination.
How does God execute his decrees?
God executes his decrees in the works of creation and providence (Ps. 33:6-9; 46:9-11).
What is the work of creation?
The work of creation is God's making all things of nothing, by the word of his power, in the space of six days, and all very good. (Gen. 1; Ps. 33:6-9).
What are God's works of providence?
God's works of providence are his most holy, wise and powerful preserving and governing all his creatures, and all their actions (Heb. 1:3; Dan. 4:34-35).
What is a miracle?
A supernatural act of God in which he works without, above or against his ordinary means of

God's "ordinary means of providence" include his upholding of the universe by working through second causes and the laws of nature.
Do miracles occur today? Explain.
According to the above definition, yes miracles occur today. They are rare, but they occur.

For example, if God answers a prayer for healing, and the cause is not detectable by scientific methods, it is likely that a miracle has occurred.
Is God responsible for sin?
No. The full responsibility of sin lies with us and with our first parents, Adam and Eve
(James 1:13-15; Rom. 5:12).
What is theodicy?
Theodicy is a philosophical and theological attempt to vindicate the justice and goodness of God in light of the existence of evil.
Distinguish the Reformed and Arminian understandings of these doctrines.
• Arminians believe in conditional election. The condition for election is faith, and God predestined people based on his foreknowledge of who would believe.

• In contrast, Calvinists believe in unconditional election. God chooses people not based on anything in them, but because of his own good pleasure according to the counsel of his will, by free grace alone (Eph. 1:5, 11; 2:8-9). God then gives his elect the faith to believe through the Holy Spirit (Acts 13:48). For Arminians, assurance rests in man's ability to believe.

For Calvinists, assurance rests in God's grace and power.
Are these doctrines (arminaism and calvanism) compatible with belief in real human choice and responsibility?
Yes. The Bible teaches that God has decreed the free acts of human beings, and that people are nonetheless free and responsible for our actions (Gen. 50:19-20; Acts 2:23). We may not be able to harmonize the two altogether, but Scripture shows that one does not cancel out the other.
Compare common grace and special grace.
• Common = the grace God gives to all of His creatures, which does not lead to salvation
(Matt. 5:45).

• Special = the grace God gives to His elect, which does lead to salvation (regeneration, justification, sanctification, etc.) (Rom. 8:28-30).
Man is man in the image of God. what passage?
Gen. 1:26-28: Then God said, "Let us make man in our image, after our likeness. And let them have dominion over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the heavens and over the livestock and over all the earth and over every creeping thing that creep on the earth." So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them. And God blessed them. And God said to them, "Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth and subdue it and have dominion over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the heavens and over every living thing that moves on the earth."
What passage speaks of humanity imputed with adam's sin nature?
Rom. 5:12, 14: Therefore just as sin came into the world through one man, and death through sin, and so death spread to all men because all sinned...Yet death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over those whose sinning was not like the transgression of Adam.
What passage speaks of us being born with sin?
Ps. 51:5: Behold, I was brought forth in iniquity, and in sin did my mother conceive me.
What is the chief end of man?
Man's chief end is to glorify God, and to enjoy him forever (1 Cor. 10:31; Isa. 43:7; Rom. 11:36; 1 Pet. 4:10-11; Phil. 4:4; Ps. 16:5-11).
What duty does God require of man? / What is the supreme activity of man?
The duty which God requires of man is obedience to his revealed will (Dt. 29:29; 1 Jn. 5:2-3).
What does the Bible teach about the creation of human beings?
God created man male and female, after his own image, in knowledge, righteousness and holiness, with dominion over the creatures (Gen. 1:26-28; Col. 3:10; Eph. 4:24).
What is the nature of man?
• Man was created in the image of God, with a body and a soul (Gen. 2:7; Matt. 10:28).

• Due to Adam's first transgression, all people are now born with a sinful nature (Rom. 5:12-21; Ps. 51:5).

Created: possible to sin (Gen. 1:26-31; 3)

Fallen: not possible not to sin (Gen. 6:5; Rom. 3:9-18)

Redeemed: possible not to sin (Rom. 6:17; Eph. 4:22-23)

Glorified: not possible to sin (2 Peter 3:13; 1 Cor. 15:49)
In what way is man created in the image of God?
• Broader Image: refers to man's essential nature as a creature of God. Man is a spiritual, rational, moral and immortal being who was created as the steward over God's creation (Gen. 1:26-28; Js. 3:9).

• Narrow Image: refers to man as created in conformity to God's moral nature, endowed with
righteousness and holiness (Eph. 4:24; Col. 3:10).
How does the doctrine of man created in the image of God influence debates about gender roles?
* Men and women are equally created in the image of God, and therefore we are equal in dignity and worth as human beings (Gen. 1:26-27).

* But neither men nor women fully reflect the image of God without the other. Being made in
the image of God includes gender differences and complements. We are both made in God's image in a unique way, and therefore there is a complimentary relationship between the Genders
What is sin?
Sin is any want of conformity unto, or transgression of, the law of God (Lev. 5:17; Js. 4:17).
Discuss the guilt of sin and the corruption of sin.
• Guilt: describes the sinner's judicial standing. He is deserving of punishment because his sin
violated the law. Dealt with by justification (Rom. 3:19-26; 5:18-19).

• Corruption/Pollution: describes the sinner's moral nature. He is inclined to evil, and from his corrupt nature proceeds all actual transgressions. Dealt with by sanctification (Gen. 6:5; Eph. 4:17-24).
Is there any good remaining in a fallen, sinful man? Explain.
• Man is defiled in all the parts and faculties of the soul and body, and as a result he is unable to do any spiritual good (Rom. 3:9-20; Gen. 6:5).

*He may do many praiseworthy things in relation to his fellow-man, but even his best works are defective in relation to God, because they are not done out of love for God or obedience to him (Isa. 64:6; Heb. 11:6).
In what ways does man sin?
• Sins of Omission: failure to do that which the law commands (Js. 4:17).
• Sins of Co-mission: doing that which the law forbids (Lev. 5:17).
Was Adam's will before he sinned free? Explain.
Before the fall, Adam had the freedom to do that which was good and pleasing to God, but also had the possibility of falling from it (Gen. 1:31; Eccl. 7:29).
Is a sinner's will free to believe? Explain.
Natural man is dead in sin, and is not able to convert himself or to believe by his own strength (Eph. 2:1-3; Rom. 3:9-20; Gen. 6:5).
Does a believer have free will? Explain
Before conversion we are enslaved to sin, but through regeneration we are freed from this
bondage and given the ability to follow God. This is true freedom (Rom. 6:15-23; Jn. 8:34- 36).
What is a covenant?
• A covenant is a relationship of mutual loyalty with divine sanctions (Gen. 15; 17; Ex. 19-24).
What is "Covenant Theology?" Why is it important?
• Covenant theology is a theological framework that views the covenant as the means God uses to relate to humanity, and that sees the various covenants of Scripture as being organically related to one another.

Covenant theology quote: "Is the Gospel set in the context of God's eternal plan of communion with his people and its historical outworking in the covenant of works and grace." (Dr. Ducan)

These concepts can be dated back to early Christianity in the first century. Later on the concepts became more robust in a systematic theology starting in 1589,

• Covenant theology is important because it gives us a framework for interpreting all of redemptive history, and it maintains the unity and continuity of the Old and New Testaments. Continuity of the covenant of grace (same way of salvation in the Old and New Testaments). Continuity of the people of God (Israel and the Church). Continuity of the covenant signs (circumcision and baptism).
Define and discuss the covenant of works.
• The covenant of works is the covenant God made with Adam before the fall, in which he promised life to Adam and his posterity on the condition of personal and perfect obedience (Gen. 2:15-17; 3:16-19).

• Through Adam's first transgression all mankind fell into a state of sin and misery, and therefore we are unable to obtain life by the covenant of works (Gen. 3:16-19; Rom. 5:12 (sin); 1 Cor. 15:21-22).
Is there any present validity to the covenant of works (life)? What is it?
• Yes. God still demands perfect and personal obedience to be in right standing before him and receive eternal life (Lev. 19:2).

• Jesus Christ fulfilled this requirement. Through the covenant of grace, all who trust in Christ come under his covenant headship, and his perfect righteousness is imputed to them (Rom.5:19; 2 Cor. 5:21). * Those who do not trust in Christ only relate to God through the covenant of works and through Adam's headship. Therefore, they stand before God as condemned covenant breakers who will not receive eternal life (Rom. 5:12, 16-17, 19).
What is the covenant of redemption? Who are its parties?
• The covenant of redemption is a covenant made between the Father, Son and Holy Spirit from eternity, in which they agreed to redeem fallen humanity (Isa. 42:6-7; Eph. 1:4).

o The covenants of redemption and grace are two sides of the same coin. The covenant of redemption views the covenant from the eternal counsel of God, and the covenant of grace views the covenant from its historical outworking.
Define and discuss the covenant of grace.
• Because man was unable to obtain life through the covenant of works, the Lord was pleased to make a second covenant, called the covenant of grace, in which he freely offers sinners life and salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ (Gen. 3:15; 15:6; Heb. 8:8-12, cf. Jer. 31:31-34; Rom. 3:23-25; Eph. 2:8-9). God progressively instituted the covenant of grace through the proto-euangelion of Gen. 3:15, and his covenants with Noah (Gen. 8:20-9:17), Abraham (Gen. 12:1-3; 15:1-21; 17:1-14), Moses (Ex. 19-24), David (2 Sam. 7:1-17), and culminating in thenew covenant (Jer. 31:31-34; Heb. 8:8-12).
What passage speaks of Christs limiting himself by becoming a human.
Phil. 2:5-11: "...Christ Jesus, who, though he was in the form of God, did not count equality with God a thing to be grasped, but made himself nothing, taking the form of a servant, being born in the likeness of men. And being found in human form, he humbled himself by becoming obedient to the point of death, even death on a cross. Therefore God has highly exalted him and bestowed on him the name that is above every name, so that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, in heaven and on earth and under the earth, and every tongue confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father
What passage speaks of Christ being full of diety?
Col. 2:9: For in him the whole fullness of deity dwells bodily.
What passage speaks of propitiation?
Rom. 3:23-25: For all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, and are justified by his
grace as a gift, through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus, whom God put forward as a
propitiation by his blood, to be received by faith.
Explain and defend the orthodox doctrine of the person of Christ.
• Jesus Christ is fully God and fully man.

• He is the eternally begotten Son of God the Father, and is of one substance and equal with the Father (Phil. 2:6; Col. 2:9; Heb. 1:5).

• When the fullness of time had come, Christ took upon himself a fully human nature, being conceived by the Holy Spirit and born of the virgin Mary (Phil. 2:7-8; Lk. 1:26-38; Heb. 2:14).
Defend the Deity of Christ.
• Direct Affirmations of Christ's Deity
o Col. 2:9 "For in him the whole fullness of Deity dwells bodily."

o Heb. 1:3 "He is the radiance of the glory of God and the exact imprint of his nature, and he upholds the universe by the Word of his power."

o Phil. 2:6 "...Christ Jesus, who, though he was in the form of God..."

• We know Jesus is God because the names, attributes, works and worship of God are all attributed to him.

Christ is called "God"
*2 Pet. 1:1 "Our God and Savior Jesus Christ."
*Jn. 1:1, 14
* Rom. 9:5 "Christ, who is God over all..."
* Tit. 2:3 "Our great God and Savior Jesus Christ."
* Jn. 20:28 "Thomas answered him, 'My Lord and my God!'"
* Isa. 9:6 "Mighty God"
* "I AM" (Jn. 8:58; cf. Ex. 3:14)
* Uses the words God uses to identify himself to Moses in Ex. 3:14.

* The Jews clearly understood this as a claim to deity, because they attempted to stone him (8:59).
*Lord," the Septuagint translation of Yahweh
* Jn. 20:28; Lk. 1:43; 2:11; 1 Cor. 8:6; Phil. 2:11
o Attributes
* Omnipotence: walked on water and fed the 5,000 in Jn. 6; stilled the storm in
Matt. 8:26-27
* Omniscience: Jn. 16:30; 21:7
* Omnipresence: Mt. 28:19-20; 18:28
* Eternity: Jn. 8:58; Rev. 22:13
o Works
* Creation and upholding of the universe (Heb. 1:2-3; Col. 1:6; Jn. 1:1-3, 14)
* Governing the world (Isa. 9:7)
* Forgiving sin (Mk. 2:5-7)
o Worship (Phil. 2:9-11; Rev. 5:12-13)
Defend the sinlessness of Christ.
Heb. 4:15; 2 Cor. 5:21
Explain the doctrine of the communication of properties.
The communication of properties attempts to account for the way in which the properties of each of Christ's natures are interchanged in the unity of his personhood.
What is the "extra Calvinisticum"?
• The extra Calvinisticum is a Calvinistic doctrine which states that Christ's divine nature continued to be omnipresent outside the flesh while he was on earth.
o Christ did not cease performing the functions of Col. 1:17 and Heb. 1:3 once he was incarnated.
What is the doctrine of ubiquity?
• The doctrine of ubiquity is the Lutheran doctrine which states that Christ's divine attribute of
omnipresence is communicated to his human nature.

• This violates the Chalcedonian doctrine of the hypostatic union: two distinct natures (divine
and human) in one person, with the distinction and property of each nature being preserved.
Define the following names:
Jesus: The Greek form of the Hebrew name "Joshua," which comes from the Hebrew verb
"to save." Designates Jesus as our Savior (Matt. 1:21).
Define the following names:
Christ: Means "anointed one." The Greek equivalent of the Hebrew word for "anoint" or "Messiah." Designates Jesus as the Messiah predicted in the OT (Mk. 14:61-62; Lk. 24:25-27).

In the OT, prophets priests and kings were anointed with oil, which symbolized the Holy Spirit, and indicated that they had been set apart for their special office (I Kgs.19:16; Ex. 29:7; 1 Sam. 10:1). At his baptism, Jesus was specially anointed with the Holy Spirit in order for him to assume his threefold office of prophet, priest and king (Matt. 3:16-17; Acts 4:24-27)
Define the following names: Lord
Lord: Often used as a polite form of address. But the term is also used in the LXX to translate the divine name Yahweh. Designates Jesus as Yahweh (Lk. 1:43; Jn. 20:28), and as Ruler of the Church (Rom. 1:7; Eph. 1:17).
Define the following names: Son of Man
Son of Man: A title Jesus often applies to himself, which derives from Dan. 7:13-14. Indicates Jesus' humanity, but in light of Dan. 7 it refers more to his divine nature and his coming on the clouds of heaven in majesty and glory (Mk. 14:61-62; Matt. 16:27)
Define the following names: Son of God
Son of God: In reference to Jesus, it has three senses:
o 2nd person of the Trinity, and therefore Himself God (Matt. 11:27)
o The appointed Messiah (Matt. 26:63-64)
o Conceived by the Holy Spirit (Lk. 1:35)
Define the following names: Lamb of God
Lamb of God: Refers to Jesus as the fulfillment of the typological OT sacrificial system, especially the Passover lamb. His death will atone for the sins of the world (Jn. 1:29; 1 Cor. 5:7).
How was Christ born?
Christ became man by taking to himself a true body, and a reasonable soul, being conceived by the power of the Holy Spirit, in the womb of the virgin Mary, and born of her, yet without sin (Heb. 2:14, 17; 4:15; Lk. 1:26-38).
Explain and defend the Virgin Birth.
Christ became man by taking to himself a true body, and a reasonable soul, being conceived by the power of the Holy Spirit, in the womb of the virgin Mary, and born of her, yet without sin (Lk. 1:26-38; Isa. 7:14).

o The doctrine of the Virgin Birth is essential to maintaining the sinlessness of Christ. *The fact that Jesus was conceived by the Holy Spirit, rather than a human man, means that he did not descend from Adam by ordinary generation, and
therefore was not subject to the imputed guilt or inherited corruption that results from Adam's first sin.
What are the two states of Christ?
• The two states of Christ are his humiliation and his exaltation (Phil. 2:6-11; Heb. 2:5-9).

o Humiliation: consisted in being born under the law, undergoing the miseries of this life, the wrath of God, and the cursed death of the cross; in being buried and continuing under the power of death for a time (Phil. 2:6-8; Heb. 2:6-7).

o Exaltation: consists in his resurrection, ascension, session at the Father's right hand, and in coming to judge the world at the last day (Phil. 2:9-11; Heb. 2:7-9).
Define and distinguish the active and passive obedience of Christ
• Active obedience = perfect and complete obedience to the law (Phil. 3:9; Gal. 4:4).

• Passive obedience = suffering on the cross for sinners (Phil. 2:8; Gal. 3:13).
What are the offices of Christ, and how does he execute them?
• Prophet: Christ executes the office of a prophet in revealing to us, by his Word and Spirit, the will of God for our salvation (Jn. 4:41-42; Deut. 18:18-20).

• Priest: Christ executes the office of a priest in his offering himself as a sacrifice to satisfy divine justice and reconcile us to God (Rom. 3:23-36; 2 Cor. 5:18-19), and in making continual intercession for us (Isa. 53:12; Heb. 7:25).

• King: Christ executes the office of a king in subduing us to himself (Matt. 28:19-20; Col.1:13), in ruling and defending us (Isa. 9:6-7; Ps. 2:6-9), and in restraining and conquering all his and our enemies (Ps. 110:1-2; 1 Cor. 15:24-26).
Why did the Mediator have to be fully God and fully man?
Only God could provide a sacrifice sufficient to atone for the sins of all his people, but only a man could pay the punishment for other men (Heb. 2:17; 7:23-28).
Who is the Redeemer of God's elect?
The only Redeemer of God's elect is the Lord Jesus Christ, who, being the eternal Son of God, became man, and so was, and continues to be, God and man in two distinct natures, and one person, forever (Acts 4:12; Phil. 2:5-11; Tit. 2:14; Heb. 9:15).
What is a redeemer?
A redeemer is someone who buys another person out of slavery. Christ is our Redeemer
because he gave himself to redeem us from the slavery of sin (Tit. 2:14; Heb. 9:15).
Explain the relationship between the nature of the atonement and its extent.
The nature of the atonement affects its extent. Because the atonement is effective, we know that Christ only died for his elect (Rom. 8:31-39).
What Scriptures do Arminians use to defend general or universal atonement, and how would you
Answer is on page 73 of study guide and it is question 24.
What is the moral influence theory of the atonement?
• The moral influence theory states that Christ's death was a demonstration of God's love that
moves us to love God in return and respond with obedience. Thus the result of Christ's death
is purely subjective; it only accomplishes something in us.

o First advocated by Peter Abelard in the 12th century.
What passage refers to Christ being reckoned a sinner?
2 Cor. 5:21: God made him who had no sin to be sin for us, so that in him we might become the righteousness of God.
What passage that speaks to the ordo solutis?
Romans 8:30: And those whom he predestined he also called, and those whom he called he also justified, and those whom he justified he also glorified.
What passage speaks of our imputation Christ's righteousness?
Phil. 3:9: ...not having a righteousness of my own that comes from the law, but that which comes through faith in Christ, the righteousness from God that depends on faith.
What passage speaks of both our sin and Christ's righteousness.
Rom 3:23-25: For all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God; Being justified freely by his grace through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus: Whom God hath set forth to be a propitiation through faith in his blood, to declare his righteousness for the remission of sins that are past, through the forbearance of God;
How does the Arminian Ordo Salutis differ from the Reformed?
The Arminian Ordo places faith before election and regeneration, because they believe that man's faith precedes God's acts of saving grace.
How are we made partakers of redemption through Christ?
• Redemption is applied to us through the work of the Holy Spirit (Jn. 16:14-15; Tit. 3:4-7).
Is Jesus really the only way of salvation? Explain.
Yes. Since the fall man lives in a state of sin, misery and death. The only means that God has
provided to atone for our sin and redeem us from this curse is Jesus Christ (Acts 4:12; Jn. 14:6).
What about those who have never had a chance to hear about Jesus?
• The eternal power and divine nature of God are visible to them in creation, so they are
without excuse.

• They know that God exists, but they do not give him the honor, gratitude or obedience that he deserves (Rom. 1:20-21). God is just in not saving them.
What happens when a Christian sins after being justified?
• They fall under God's fatherly discipline, but are also forgiven of their sin when they confess and repent (Heb. 12:4-11; Jn. 1:9).
How were believers justified under the old covenant?
• By grace through faith in Jesus Christ, just like us. The main difference is that they looked forward to Christ in faith, whereas we look back on Christ's finished work (Gen. 15:6; Rom. 4:1-5; Heb. 11:39-40).
Explain the difference in the work of the Holy Spirit in the new and old covenants.
• The biggest difference is in the Holy Spirit's efficacy and power.

• The work of the Holy Spirit is to illuminate and apply the work of Christ to believers.

1. In the OT, the work of Christ is not finished yet, so the Spirit is only illuminating types and shadows.
2. But now that the work of Christ is finished, we receive the fullness of the Holy Spirit (Jn. 14:26; 16:13-14).
Define definitive and progressive sanctification.
• Definitive Sanctification is an act of God's free grace in which he sets us apart from the dominion of sin by uniting us to Christ in his death and resurrection, so that we become dead to sin and alive to God through Christ Jesus (Rom. 6:11-14; 8:1-4).

• Progressive Sanctification is an act of God's grace in which we are increasingly conformed to the image of Christ throughout our lives (Rom. 6:22; Phil. 2:12-13).

1. Definitive sanctification is a one-time act of God's grace, whereas progressive sanctification is on-going.
What is saving faith?
• Saving faith is a grace in which we receive and rest upon Christ alone for salvation, as he is offered to us in the gospel (Eph. 2:8-9; Gal. 2:15-16).
Where does saving faith come from?
• It is a gift of God, worked in our heart through the Holy Spirit (Eph. 2:8-9; 2 Thes. 2:13).
In what sense is repentance "necessary?"
• God will not forgive our sin if we have not turned from it (Lk. 13:3; Acts 17:30-31).
How should we confess our sins?
• We should confess our sins specifically, and both publically and privately (1 Jn. 1:9; James 5:16).
What are good works?
• Good works are only such which God has commanded in his Word (Mic. 6:8; Eph. 2:10).
What is the relationship between good works and faith?
• Good works are the fruit of faith (Eph. 2:8-10; Rom. 16:26; Gal. 5:6).
What is the moral law?
• The moral law is the rule which God first revealed to man for his obedience (Rom. 2:14-15; 10:5). It is summarized in the Ten Commandments (Ex. 20:1-17; Deut. 5:6-21).
What laws besides the moral law did God give his people under the old covenant?
• Ceremonial laws (regulated the OT ceremonies and worship) and civil laws (regulated the government of Israel as a nation).
What is "theonomy"? Evaluate it biblically.
• Theonomy is the belief that all the civil laws of the OT theocracy are still in effect today.

• The civil laws expired with the state of Israel and no longer apply to us any further than their general equity may require (Rom. 13:1-7; 1 Cor. 9:8-10).
Where is the law summarized?
• Matt. 22:37-40; Mark 12:28-31
• Matt. 22:37-40: And he said to him, "You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind. This is the great and first commandment. And a second is like it: You shall love your neighbor as yourself. On these two commandments depend all the Law and the Prophets."
Can believers keep God's law? Explain.
• Because believers are new creations in Christ who have been regenerated by the Holy Spirit, it is possible for them to obey God's law (Eph. 4:24; Col. 3:10).

• But they will never be able to keep God's law perfectly in this life, because there still abides some remnants of corruption in every part of man, which results in a war between the flesh and the Spirit (1 Jn. 1:8; Rom. 7:18-24).
Who or what is Lord of the conscience?
• God alone is Lord of the conscience (Rom. 14:4; James 4:12).
What is "Christian liberty?"
• God alone is Lord of the conscience, and has left it free from the doctrines and commandments of men that are contrary to God's Word, or, in matters of faith and worship, not governed by God's Word (Rom. 14; Js. 4:12; Col. 2:20-23).

• But Christian liberty does not give believers the freedom to practice sin (Gal. 5:13), or to oppose civil or ecclesiastical authority that is exercised in conformity to the Word of God and the light of nature (Rom. 13:1-7; 1 Pet. 2:13-16; Heb. 13:17).
What is the "regulative principle?"
• The regulative principle states that we should only worship God in the ways that he has prescribed in his Word (Ex. 20:4-6; Lev. 10; Deut. 12:32).
Are Christians under obligation to keep a Sabbath?
• Yes. The Sabbath is included in the 10 commandments. Therefore it is part of the moral law, and has not been abrogated (Ex. 20:8-11; Matt. 5:17-19).
How should Christians keep the Sabbath?
• By devoting the day to worship, rest and works of mercy (Ex. 20:8-11; Matt. 12:1-13 [Jesus heals (mercy) and enters synagogue (worship)]).
What should be our attitude toward civil authorities?
• We should submit to them in all things, unless their commands conflict with the commands of God (Rom. 13:1-7; Acts 5:29).
What is the relationship between church and state?
• Church and state are separate institutions that each exercise God-given authority over their respective spheres of society (Matt. 22:21).

⇒ The state should not make any laws that interfere with the church.
What are the proper duties of civil authorities?
• Law & Order: restraining evil and promoting civic righteousness (Rom. 13:1-7).

• Justice: the structural safe-guarding of human rights, and protecting the rights of the poor and socially weak (Ps. 82:1-4; Prov. 31:9; Isa. 10:1-2).

• Health & Safety (Deut. 22:8; 23:12).

• Environmental Protection (Deut. 20:19; 23:6)

• National security & defense (Rom. 13:1-7).
What obligations do believers have to civil authorities?
• To pray for them, honor them, pay taxes, obey their lawful commands, and be subject to their authority, for conscience' sake (1 Tim. 2:1-3; 1 Pet. 2:17; Matt. 22:21; Rom. 13:1-7).
By whom and for what purpose was marriage designed?
• Marriage was designed by God for the mutual help of husband and wife, for the increase of mankind and the church, and for preventing uncleanness (Gen. 1:26-28; 2:18; 1 Cor. 7:2).
Who may and may not be lawfully married?
• It is lawful for all sorts of people to marry who are able to give their consent with judgment. Yet it is the duty of Christians to marry in the Lord (1 Cor. 7:2; 2 Cor. 6:14).
Under what circumstances is divorce permissible?
• In cases of adultery or desertion (Matt. 5:31-32; 19:1-9; 1 Cor. 7:15).
May those who have been divorced remarry?
• Those who have been divorce can remarry if their divorce was for biblical grounds, and they must remarry in the Lord (Deut. 24:1-4; 1 Cor. 7:10-11; 2 Cor. 6:14).
o 1 Cor. 7:11: Paul is not issuing an over-arching command that applies to all divorced people in all situations. Rather, he is regulating the practice of those who have broken his prohibition of divorce in the previous verse.
⇒ Clearly the prohibition against divorce in v. 10 does not apply in the cases of adultery or desertion, so neither does the prohibition against remarriage in v. 11.
Define the visible and invisible church.
• Visible Church: All those throughout the world who profess faith in Christ, together with
their children (Acts 2:38-39; Eph. 6:1-4).

• Invisible Church: The entire number of the elect in all places from all times (Eph. 1:22; 3:10).
What are the attributes of the Church?
• Holy: set apart from unbelief and sin, and dedicated to the service of God (1 Pet. 2:9; Eph. 5:27).

• Catholic: unified with all those throughout the world who profess faith in Christ (1 Cor. 12;
Eph. 2:11-22).

• Apostolic: founded upon the authority and teachings of the apostles (Eph. 2:20).
What are the marks of the Church?
• True preaching of the Word (2 Tim. 4:2; 1 Tim. 4:13).

• Right administration of the Sacraments (Matt. 28:19; Acts 2:42).

• Faithful exercise of discipline (Matt. 18:15-20; 1 Cor. 5:1-5).
Who is the head of the Church?
• Jesus Christ (Eph. 1:22; Col. 1:18).
What is the role of women in the church? May they serve as officers?
• Women should be welcomed to fulfill any duty that a non-ordained member of the church is permitted to perform. They should seek to use their gifts in a manner that edifies and encourages the body of Christ.

• But Scripture forbids women from exercising authority over a man in the church, which means that they should not be ordained to the offices of elder or deacon (1 Tim. 2:12; Eph. 5:25).
What is "subscription?"
• Subscription refers to the vow that a PCA church officer takes to sincerely receive and adopt the Westminster Standards as containing the system of doctrine taught in the Scriptures.
What duties do Christians owe one another?
• Holy fellowship

• Communion in worship

• Mutual edification

• Relieving of our outward needs (Heb. 10:24-25; Acts 2:42-47).
Does the "communion of the saints" deny the right of private property?
• No. Scripture teaches that Christians can own property and exercise control of it (Acts 5:4; 4:28).
What authority does the church possess?
• The church possesses spiritual authority.
• The keys of the kingdom gives church officers the power to:

1. Retain and remit sins (Jn. 20:21-23)
2. Shut the kingdom against the impenitent by the Word and by censures (Matt. 16:19; 18:17-20)
3. Open the kingdom to penitent sinners by the ministry of the gospel, and by absolution from censures (Matt. 16:19; 18:17-20).
What is the purpose of church censures?
• Glory of God (Rom. 2:24)
• Purity of the Church (1 Cor. 5:7)
• Restoration of the sinner (Matt. 18:15; Gal. 6:1)
What censures may the church impose?
• Suspension from the Lord's Supper
• Admonition
• Suspension from office
• Excommunication
• Deposition from office
Identify some Scripture passages that support the practice of church discipline.
• Matt. 18:15-20; 1 Cor. 5; 1 Tim. 5:20; 2 Thes. 3:6, 14-15; Tit. 3:10; Gal. 6:1 (restore).
Who may properly call church assemblies, synods, or councils? For what purpose?
• Elders, for the purpose of:
1. Determining controversies of the faith
2. Setting down rules and directions for the better ordering of the public worship of God
3. To receive complaints and determine them authoritatively (Acts 15).
What authority do church councils possess? How should Christians respond to them?
• The authority of Church councils is ecclesiastical rather than civil, and ministerial rather than
declarative (Jn. 18:36; Matt. 22:21).

• We should see them as a help in both faith and practice, but not as a rule of faith and practice
(Acts 17:11; 1 Cor. 2:5).
What happens to believers at death?
• At death the souls of believers are made perfect in holiness, and do immediately pass into glory; and their bodies, being still united to Christ, rest in their graves, until the resurrection
(Lk. 23:43; 2 Cor. 5:8).
What happens to unbelievers at death?
• They will immediately be cast into hell (Matt. 10:28; 18:9).
Who will be raised to life at the last day?
• The bodies of the unjust will be raised to judgment, and the bodies of the just will be raised to life, and be conformed to Christ's glorious body (Jn. 5:28-29; 1 Cor. 15:42-49).
Who will be judged at the last day, and by whom will they be judged?
• The apostate angels and all people who have ever lived will be judged by Jesus Christ (Jn. 5:22-29; Jude 1:6-7).
Will any apostate receive a second chance?
• No (Heb. 9:27).
What practical use is the doctrine of the final judgment?
• Deters men from sin
• Consoles the godly facing adversity
• Shakes off carnal security
• Creates a watchfulness
• 2 Pet. 3:1-14
When will Christ return?
• Nobody knows (Matt. 24:36).
What is "annihilationism?" Evaluate it biblically.
• Annihilationism teaches that the reprobate are destroyed completely (annihilated) after the final judgment, rather than facing eternal punishment. ⇒Many passages clearly teach that punishment in hell is eternal.

1. Matt. 25:41, 46 describe hell as "eternal fire" and "eternal punishment."

2. Isa. 66:24 says of the reprobate, "Their worm will not die, their fire shall not be quenched."

3. Jude 1:7 and Matt. 18:8 speak of a punishment of eternal fire.
Define the various positions on the millennium, indicate which one you hold, and defend it from
The answer to this question is on page 86 in study guide.