79 terms

anatomy141 - Chap5 - Histology

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The epithelial membranes that line the inside surfaces of the respiratory and digestive tracts are specific examples of ____ membranes
mucous membranes
Name the four primary types of tissue.
epithelial, muscular, connective, nervous
Histology is best defined as the study of
tissues
Cytology is the study of
study of cells
a group of similar cells and cell products performing a common function is a(n)
tissue
list the names of the formed elements of blood
red blood cells(erythrocytes), platelets, white blood cells (leukocytes)
_____ tissue is the class of tissue comprised of widely-spaced cells and abundant extracellular material
connective
The tissue type found at surfaces, composed of one or more layers of closely adhering cells, and forming the covering and linings of many organs is _______ tissue
epithelial tissue
Name the three main types of body membranes
Serous Membrane, Cutaneous Membrane, Mucous Membranes
The tissue found covering body surfaces, lining body cavities, forming the internal and external linings of many organs, and constituting most gland tissue is _____ tissue
epithelial tissue
Name the fluid connective tissue that travels through vessels.
blood
List the four primary tissue types
Connective, Epithelial, Nervous, Muscular
The abdominal cavity is lined with a type of membrane that is classified as a _____ membrane.
serous
Blood plasma is best defined as the liquid ______
portion of blood
The tissue type found at surfaces, composes of one or more layers of closely adhering cells, and forming the coverings and linings of many organs is ____ tissue.
epithelial.
A group of similar cells and extracellular materials that performs some discrete function within an organ describes a(n) ______
tissue
Identify the functions of adipose tissu
-Thermal Insulation
-Energy Storage
Name the type of membrane that lines passages that are open the the exterior of the body
Mucous membranes
Identify the three types of muscle tissue
Smooth (Involuntary non-striated muscle)
Cardiac (involuntary, striated muscle)
Skeletal (voluntary striated muscle)
involuntary non-striated muscle
smooth muscle
involuntary striated muscle
cardiac muscle
voluntary striated muscle
skeletal muscle
branched cells, uninucleated, striated
cardiac muscle
striated, long threadlike cells, multinucleated
skeletal muscle
uninucleated, fusiform, nonstriated
smooth muscle
fusiform
tapering at both ends; spindle-shaped
striated muscle
muscle tissue in which the contractile fibrils in the cells are aligned in parallel bundles, so that their different regions form stripes visible in a microscope. Muscles of this type are attached to the skeleton by tendons and are under voluntary control. VISIBLE STRIPES "STRIPED MUSCLE"

pharyngeal muscle
cardiac muscle
skeletal muscle
nonstriated muscle
smooth muscle tissue, an involuntary non-striated muscle
*SOBS*

1) BLEEDING INTO THE CUT
2) SCAB FORMATION; MACROPHAGES BECOME ACTIVE
3) FORMATION OF GRANULATION TISSUE AND FIBROBLASTIC PHASE OF REPAIR
4) EPITHELIAL REGENERATION; FIBROSIS; REMODELING PHASE
*SOBS*

1) BLEEDING INTO THE CUT
2) SCAB FORMATION; MACROPHAGES BECOME ACTIVE
3) FORMATION OF GRANULATION TISSUE AND FIBROBLASTIC PHASE OF REPAIR
4) EPITHELIAL REGENERATION; FIBROSIS; REMODELING PHASE
Identify the four types of stratified epithelia.
*) Stratified columnar
*) Transitional
*) Stratified Cuboidal
*) Stratified Squamous
Name the tissue types that are described as excitable tissues because they are able to respond to outside stimuli by changing their membrane potential
* Muscular
* Nervous
Skin is an example of a ______ membrane
cutaneous
Cutaneous Membrane
skin; consists of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium firmly attached to a thick layer of connective tissue
Epithelium with tall columnar cells in a single layer interspersed with shorter basal cells, and with nuclei at varying levels, is called __________ epitheium.
pseudostratified columnar
Pseudostratified epithelium
A pseudostratified epithelium is a type of epithelium that, though comprising only a single layer of cells, has its cell nuclei positioned in a manner suggestive of stratified epithelia.
Desmosomes
Join two cells at a single point, attach directly to the cytoskeleton of each cell. Found in tissues that normally experience a lot of stress due to sliding.
What is located in the following locations?

-Deep to the dermis of the skin
-Within the orbits
-Within breasts
Adipose Tissue (read more on page 156)
Cells that produce cartilage matrix are called ______. Once they become surrounded by matrix and trapped in lacunae, they become a cell type called ______
Chondroblasts

Chondrocytes
Chondroblasts
Cells responsible for cartilage formation are called _______________.
Cells that only occur in cartilage. The make the matrix and then turn into chondrocytes.
What type of cells form cartilage?
Chondrocytes
Cells that secrete cartilage.
________ live in the lacuna of cartilage.
mature cartilage cells
What are cartilage cells called?
What is another term for a fall cell
Adipocyte
Adipocyte
fat cells that make up most of the subcutaneous layer

fat cell
specialized fat cells whose cytoplasm contains nothing but triglycerides
Store large amounts of fat and are found primarily under the skin, around mammary glands, and in the abdominal cavity.
Adipose
Pertaining to fat.
fatty
a kind of body tissue containing stored fat that serves as a source of energy
An epithelial cell that is significantly taller than it is wide is classified by shape as a _______ cell
columnar
The tough fibrous layer that surrounds a whole bone is the
periosteum
perimysium
The connective-tissue sheath that surrounds a muscle and forms sheaths for the bundles of muscle fibers

pertaining to around the muscles

the sheath of connective tissue surrounding a bundle of muscle fibers.
perichondrium
Dense irregular connective tissue membrane covering cartilage

membrane that covers cartilage

an outer covering that develops around the cartilage model during ossification
perineurium
The connective tissue wrapping each fascicle of nerve fibers is called the ______________.
hyaline cartilage
hyaline cartilage
Most common cartilage / Composed of: abundant collagen fibers, rubbery matrix / Entire fetal skeleton is hyaline cartilage

Forms the larynx, the costal cartilages of the ribs, and the embryonic skeleton, firm, structurally amorphous matrix heavily invaded with fibers; appears glassy and smooth

Most common type of cartilage; it is found on the ends of long bones, ribs, and nose
Name the type of formed element that is a cell fragment and that functions in blood clotting
platelets
Blood platelets
thrombocytes; colorless, irregular bodies small than red corpuscles.. formed in the red bone marrow and responsible in blood clotting ~300,000
The tissue section made by cutting at a slant is called a(n) ______ section
Oblique Section
Oblique Section
cuts made diagonally

tissue cut at angle between cross and longitudinal section
Longitudinal Section
tissue that is visible along its long axis

A plane along the long axis of an organ.

Straight cross cutting longways along the object
Cross (Transverse) Section
transverse section. Definition: a cross section obtained by slicing, actually or through imaging techniques, the body or any part of the body structure, in a horizontal plane, a plane that intersects the longitudinal axis at a right angle.
What is the function of the basement membrane?
Adhere epithelial tissue to underlying connective tissue
Basement Membrane
Cells at the base of an epithelial layer are attached to this.

A layer of collagen fibers that separates epithelial tissue from connective tisse (example of epithelial cells in digestive tract) - they are actual connective tissue.
Basal Surface
The bottom layer of epithelial tissue that attaches to the basement membrane
Exocrine Gland
A gland (as a sweat gland, a salivary gland, or a kidney) that releases a secretion external to or at the surface of an organ by means of a canal or duct.

OR INSIDE THE MOUTH
Endocrine Gland
Ductless or tubeless organs or groups of cells that secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream
Ectoderm gives rise to the ______ and _____
Epidermis and Nervous System
Interstitial Fluid is the matrix material located _____ the cells
between the cells (intER means between) (bonus: intRA means within)
What is a gap junction?
**
Epithelial cells that are flat and scaly, arranged in single OR multiple layers, are classified as _____ cells
squamous
A small space in tissue such as bone or cartilage that contains chondrocytes or osteocytes is called a(n) _______ .
lacuna
within cartilage, cells called chondroblasts secrete cartilage matrix.
Chondroblasts
A noncontinous patch-like area that mechanically links two cells together via plaques and j-shaped proteins is a
Desmosomes (pp163) **
Smear (tissue section)
tissue is rubbed across a slide
Example: blood
Spread (tissue section)
some membranes and cobwebby tissues are laid out on a slide
Example: areolar tissue
Apical surface
surface of epithelial cell that faces away from the basement membrane
Erythrocytes
red blood cells (RBCs): transport O2 and CO2
Leukocytes
white blood cells (WBCs): defend against infection and disease
Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, monocytes
Platelets
cell fragments involved in clotting
Excitability
ability to respond to stimuli by changing membrane potential
Developed to highest degree in nervous and muscular tissues
Membrane potential
electrical charge difference (voltage) that occurs across the cell membrane

In nerve cells: changes in voltage result in rapid transmission of signals to other cells
In muscle cells: changes in voltage result in contraction, shortening of the cell
Skeletal muscle
Made of muscle fibers—long thin cells
Most skeletal muscles attach to bone
Contains multiple nuclei adjacent to plasma membrane
Striations—alternating dark and light bands
Voluntary—conscious control over skeletal muscles
Cardiac muscle
Limited to the heart
Myocytes or cardiocytes are branched, shorter than skeletal muscle fibers
Contain one centrally located nucleus
Intercalated discs join cardiocytes end to end
Provide electrical and mechanical connection
Striated and involuntary (not under conscious control)
Smooth muscle
Made of fusiform myocytes lacking striations
Cells are relatively short and have one central nucleus
Involuntary function
Most is visceral muscle—making up parts of walls of hollow organs