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midterm review

A plan letter

delivers good and neutral messages it is very direct

B plan letter

delivers bad news messages, it is very indirect

Steps in planning

determine the message purpose and channel, envision the audience, adapt the message to audience needs/ concerns, organize the message, prepare the first draft, revise and proof


process of exchanging information and meaning between or among individuals through a common system of symbols, signs and behavior

Purposes of communication

inform, persuade, and entertain

communicaton model

the source/ sender, encodes a message, decides which channel will be most effective, sends it to the receiver, the receiver decodes the message and sends feedback to the sender.


the process of selecting and organizing the message


the process of interpreting a message


a receiver's response to a sender's message


also called barriers; numerous factors that hinder the communication process

examples of interferences

difference in education level, experience, or culture, physical which include a noisy environment, interuptions and uncomfortable surroundings, mental distractions such as peoocupation with other matters and developing response, rather than listening

organizational communication

the movement of information within a company structure

informal communication channel

a channel of communicatin that continuously develops as people interact within the formal system to accomodate their social and psychological needs


the best known component of the informal communication system

examples of upward communication

progress reports (spoken and written), results accomplishments,problems/ clarifications; ideals suggestions, feelings/ attitudes

examples of downward communication

policies and procedures, organizational goals and strategies, work assignments, employee development; job role/ responsibility, performance appraisal, constructive criticism, deserved praise and recognition

examples of horizontal or lateral communication

coordination of interrrelated activites, problem-solving efforts

upward communication

a type of communication that is generally a response to a request from supervisors

downward communication

a type of communication that flows from supervisor to employee, from policy maker to operating personnel, or from top to bottom on the organizational chart

horizontal or lateral communication

interactions betwen units on the same hierarchical level

internal messages

messages intended for recipients within the organization

external messages

messages directed to recipients outside the organization

examples of non verbal communication

hand gestures, expression, attitude, location, eye contact, clothing

examples of verbal communication

tone, vocabulary, inflection, tact, leading up to somthing smoothly

determine purpose and channel

during this first stage of the planning process, you will provide information, show goodwill, maintain a professional image, persuade

Envision Audience

in this second stage of the planing process, you neet to determine your audience, it is important to keep in mind their education level, culture, age, personal factors, experience, language skills, and their expectations/needs

adapt to reader

in this third stage of the planning process, make sure you make the letter personal, and not generic, include extras which can be things you have done or said, and keep in mind goodwill, how you can make the situation better and how often the you use the "you" vs "i"

Organize the message

in this fourth stage of the planning process you will decide how the information will be sent and the actual message you intend to portray. the thoughts you wish to emphasis should be in the first and last part of your message

active voice

gives instructions clearly and with authority, eliminates awkwardness, lets reader know a person, not a machine is writing to them.

passive voice

emphasizes what as done rather than the doer, can be intentionally vague as to the doer, this is used when you dont want to point out the "doer"

emphasize by position

things being equal, the first and last positions in a message are the most naturally emphatic positions. This holds true also for placement in paragraphs, sentences, and in presentations or conversations.

emphasis by reinforcement

repeating an idea several times reinforces it in the receivers mind. analysts dissect political leaders speaches carefully to count the number of times a subject or idea was mentioned. other ways is to state an idea in a related way, give examples that support it, though visuals, or by demonstrations

emphasis by space, time

in a 20 line email, if 15 of the lines are devoted to a single subject, that subject receives greater emphasis than other ideas. in a 15 minute speech the relative amount of time spent on a subject emphasises it.

examples of ways to emphasis in writing

attention getting subject line, surround the idea with white space, use a vertical listing, place it in a short sentance or one sentence paragraph, use a visual such as a chart, graph or figure. Use mechanics such as bold face, underline, italics Caps or different size fonts, color, and exclamation points, or pen in a comment

examples of ways to emphasise spoken messages

raise, lower voice for effecgt, change te pace of speech, use inflection, pause for a longer than normal time, acompany statement with strong gestures, body action, make strong eye contact, use a visual


a group of words that contain a subject and a verb.

independent clause

clauses that are grammatically complete, they make a sentence by themselves. they more strongly emphasize their content.

dependent clause

clauses that rely on other clauses for their meaning. typically begin with although, after, before, if, since, until, though, which, that, whn, whenever, while, who, whom, and unless

simple sentence

one independent clause, lacing an idea in this emphasizes it more than placing it in another sentence form.

compound sentence

one or more independent cluases, and no dependent clauses

complex sentence

one independent, and one or more dependent clauses

compound/ complex sentence

two or more independent clauses, and one or more dependent clauses

paragraph attributes

should be cohesive, the topic sentence is the key sentence as it reflects the principal thought addressed through out, should be reasonably short, 1st and last usually arte only one to four lines and other shouldnt be more than eight to nine. one sentence verison is perfectly acceptable in business writing.

steps in a B plan letter

buffer (doesnt give evidence of bad news), reason or explination (transition), bad news, counter proposal, upbeat closing.

ways to de-emphasize bad news

take out negative words, try to put bad news in a positive light, follow the bad new withan alternative or with more explination, close upbeat


generally upward communication, these are factual, objective (no bias), funtional rather than literary style, they get the message across.

step one in writing a report

determine the purpose or scope,to clearly undertand the problm/assignment, this comes from "up top" or the boss

step two in writing a report

idntify major factors, to figure out what you need to reserch, key subparts of each factor

step three in writing a report

gather the required information

step four in writing a report

interpret the findings

step five in writing a report

organize the report

step six in writing a report

write the report

key parts to a formal report

preliminaries,body, supplements


contains the title page of a report (title, submitted to, submitted by, date), letter of transmittal and summary, written as an A letter plan, table of contents


1st paragraph is a orientation for the reader, 1. introduction which states the purpose, scope and methods used, limitations, and a preview of what te paper is about. 2. analysis and results, organization is important 3. conclusion and recommendations


visuals which can include websites you may have used, graphs, charts, pictures

four major types of listening

casual, informational, analytical and emphatic

attending behaviors

spoken and non verbal behavios that contribute to an effective listening environment during the communication, such as looking at the speaker, avoiding distractions, showing interest, leaning forward

acknowledging behaviors

the listener;s spoken or non-verbal responses which reflect what has been/ is being communicated by a speaker. these may be hed nods, faial expressions, body language, "uh hmmmms," reflective statements and asking questions

reflective statements or listening checks

spoken paraphrases or play backs to the speaker to confirm your interpretation of the message

information seeking questions

questions which help listener clarify or gain additional insights from a speakers message. an example is "im not sure i understand exactly what your saying, might you be more specific?"

Fog index

a formula for determining the educational level at which your material is written for easy readability. good business writing is generally in the 9-12 range. formula is average sentence length, take the total amount of words divided by the total amount of sentences, next count the number of words with 3 or more syllables, divide that number by the number of words. add the results of step 2 and 3 and multiply by .4

steps to writing an A plan letter

upbeat good news opening, supportive details, upbeat closing

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