63 terms


midterm review
A plan letter
delivers good and neutral messages it is very direct
B plan letter
delivers bad news messages, it is very indirect
Steps in planning
determine the message purpose and channel, envision the audience, adapt the message to audience needs/ concerns, organize the message, prepare the first draft, revise and proof
process of exchanging information and meaning between or among individuals through a common system of symbols, signs and behavior
Purposes of communication
inform, persuade, and entertain
communicaton model
the source/ sender, encodes a message, decides which channel will be most effective, sends it to the receiver, the receiver decodes the message and sends feedback to the sender.
the process of selecting and organizing the message
the process of interpreting a message
a receiver's response to a sender's message
also called barriers; numerous factors that hinder the communication process
examples of interferences
difference in education level, experience, or culture, physical which include a noisy environment, interuptions and uncomfortable surroundings, mental distractions such as peoocupation with other matters and developing response, rather than listening
organizational communication
the movement of information within a company structure
informal communication channel
a channel of communicatin that continuously develops as people interact within the formal system to accomodate their social and psychological needs
the best known component of the informal communication system
examples of upward communication
progress reports (spoken and written), results accomplishments,problems/ clarifications; ideals suggestions, feelings/ attitudes
examples of downward communication
policies and procedures, organizational goals and strategies, work assignments, employee development; job role/ responsibility, performance appraisal, constructive criticism, deserved praise and recognition
examples of horizontal or lateral communication
coordination of interrrelated activites, problem-solving efforts
upward communication
a type of communication that is generally a response to a request from supervisors
downward communication
a type of communication that flows from supervisor to employee, from policy maker to operating personnel, or from top to bottom on the organizational chart
horizontal or lateral communication
interactions betwen units on the same hierarchical level
internal messages
messages intended for recipients within the organization
external messages
messages directed to recipients outside the organization
examples of non verbal communication
hand gestures, expression, attitude, location, eye contact, clothing
examples of verbal communication
tone, vocabulary, inflection, tact, leading up to somthing smoothly
determine purpose and channel
during this first stage of the planning process, you will provide information, show goodwill, maintain a professional image, persuade
Envision Audience
in this second stage of the planing process, you neet to determine your audience, it is important to keep in mind their education level, culture, age, personal factors, experience, language skills, and their expectations/needs
adapt to reader
in this third stage of the planning process, make sure you make the letter personal, and not generic, include extras which can be things you have done or said, and keep in mind goodwill, how you can make the situation better and how often the you use the "you" vs "i"
Organize the message
in this fourth stage of the planning process you will decide how the information will be sent and the actual message you intend to portray. the thoughts you wish to emphasis should be in the first and last part of your message
active voice
gives instructions clearly and with authority, eliminates awkwardness, lets reader know a person, not a machine is writing to them.
passive voice
emphasizes what as done rather than the doer, can be intentionally vague as to the doer, this is used when you dont want to point out the "doer"
emphasize by position
things being equal, the first and last positions in a message are the most naturally emphatic positions. This holds true also for placement in paragraphs, sentences, and in presentations or conversations.
emphasis by reinforcement
repeating an idea several times reinforces it in the receivers mind. analysts dissect political leaders speaches carefully to count the number of times a subject or idea was mentioned. other ways is to state an idea in a related way, give examples that support it, though visuals, or by demonstrations
emphasis by space, time
in a 20 line email, if 15 of the lines are devoted to a single subject, that subject receives greater emphasis than other ideas. in a 15 minute speech the relative amount of time spent on a subject emphasises it.
examples of ways to emphasis in writing
attention getting subject line, surround the idea with white space, use a vertical listing, place it in a short sentance or one sentence paragraph, use a visual such as a chart, graph or figure. Use mechanics such as bold face, underline, italics Caps or different size fonts, color, and exclamation points, or pen in a comment
examples of ways to emphasise spoken messages
raise, lower voice for effecgt, change te pace of speech, use inflection, pause for a longer than normal time, acompany statement with strong gestures, body action, make strong eye contact, use a visual
a group of words that contain a subject and a verb.
independent clause
clauses that are grammatically complete, they make a sentence by themselves. they more strongly emphasize their content.
dependent clause
clauses that rely on other clauses for their meaning. typically begin with although, after, before, if, since, until, though, which, that, whn, whenever, while, who, whom, and unless
simple sentence
one independent clause, lacing an idea in this emphasizes it more than placing it in another sentence form.
compound sentence
one or more independent cluases, and no dependent clauses
complex sentence
one independent, and one or more dependent clauses
compound/ complex sentence
two or more independent clauses, and one or more dependent clauses
paragraph attributes
should be cohesive, the topic sentence is the key sentence as it reflects the principal thought addressed through out, should be reasonably short, 1st and last usually arte only one to four lines and other shouldnt be more than eight to nine. one sentence verison is perfectly acceptable in business writing.
steps in a B plan letter
buffer (doesnt give evidence of bad news), reason or explination (transition), bad news, counter proposal, upbeat closing.
ways to de-emphasize bad news
take out negative words, try to put bad news in a positive light, follow the bad new withan alternative or with more explination, close upbeat
generally upward communication, these are factual, objective (no bias), funtional rather than literary style, they get the message across.
step one in writing a report
determine the purpose or scope,to clearly undertand the problm/assignment, this comes from "up top" or the boss
step two in writing a report
idntify major factors, to figure out what you need to reserch, key subparts of each factor
step three in writing a report
gather the required information
step four in writing a report
interpret the findings
step five in writing a report
organize the report
step six in writing a report
write the report
key parts to a formal report
preliminaries,body, supplements
contains the title page of a report (title, submitted to, submitted by, date), letter of transmittal and summary, written as an A letter plan, table of contents
1st paragraph is a orientation for the reader, 1. introduction which states the purpose, scope and methods used, limitations, and a preview of what te paper is about. 2. analysis and results, organization is important 3. conclusion and recommendations
visuals which can include websites you may have used, graphs, charts, pictures
four major types of listening
casual, informational, analytical and emphatic
attending behaviors
spoken and non verbal behavios that contribute to an effective listening environment during the communication, such as looking at the speaker, avoiding distractions, showing interest, leaning forward
acknowledging behaviors
the listener;s spoken or non-verbal responses which reflect what has been/ is being communicated by a speaker. these may be hed nods, faial expressions, body language, "uh hmmmms," reflective statements and asking questions
reflective statements or listening checks
spoken paraphrases or play backs to the speaker to confirm your interpretation of the message
information seeking questions
questions which help listener clarify or gain additional insights from a speakers message. an example is "im not sure i understand exactly what your saying, might you be more specific?"
Fog index
a formula for determining the educational level at which your material is written for easy readability. good business writing is generally in the 9-12 range. formula is average sentence length, take the total amount of words divided by the total amount of sentences, next count the number of words with 3 or more syllables, divide that number by the number of words. add the results of step 2 and 3 and multiply by .4
steps to writing an A plan letter
upbeat good news opening, supportive details, upbeat closing