Freshman Summer Homework Vocabulary

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Terms in this set (...)

glossary
a list of difficult or specialized words with their definitions, often placed at the back of a book (e.g. Textbook)
index
an alphabetical list of names, titles, subjects, etc. together with the page numbers where they appear in the text, usually placed at the end of a book or other publication
thesaurus
a book that lists words grouped together based on similarity of meaning, containing synonyms and sometimes antonyms. Although including synonyms, a thesaurus should not be taken as a complete list of all the synonyms for a particular word. The entries are also designed for drawing distinctions between similar words and assisting in choosing exactly the right word.
active listener
a communication technique that requires the listener to understand, interpret and evaluate what they heard. Active listening is a way of listening and responding to others that focuses attention on the speaker.
summarize
to give the main points and express concisely
proofread
to read or proof for purposes of error detection and correction; carefully examining written text to correct typographical mistakes and other related errors
outline
a preliminary draft or plan; a summary of a written work or speech; a description summarizing the main point
draft
any preliminary version of a written work. An author may write dozens of drafts which are revised to form the final work, or he or she may write only 1, with few or no revisions.
revise
to prepare a newly edited version of; to rewrite or reorganize, especially for the purpose of updating and improving
word choice
choice and use of words in speech or writing
paragraph
a self-contained unit of a discourse in writing dealing with a particular point or idea. Paragraphs consist of 3 or more sentences. The start of a paragraph is indicated by beginning on a new line and the first line is indented.
paraphrase
a restatement of a text or passage, using other words. A paraphrase typically explains or clarifies the text that is being paraphrased.
direct quotation
a report of the exact words used, set off by quotation marks
citation
quoting of an authoritative source for substantiation; the quoting of a book or author in support of a fact; a short note recognizing a source of information or of a quoted passage
thesis
has 2 parts: a topic, which states what you are writing about, and a comment which makes an important point about the topic. A thesis makes an argument clear and interesting. It usually comes at the end of the first paragraph.
topic sentence
a term to describe the sentence in a paragraph which summarizes the main idea of that paragraph. It is usually, but not always, the first sentence in a paragraph. The topic sentence offers the reader an insightful view of the writer's main ideas for the following paragrph.
transitional sentence
used between paragraphs to help tie together the supporting paragraphs in an essay. They enable the reader to move smoothly from the idea in one paragraph to the idea in the next paragraph.
plagiarism
the use or close imitation of the language and thoughts of another author and the representation of them as one's own original work
chronological order
arranging events in the order of occurrence in time
inference
the process of drawing a conclusion by a applying logic, statistics, observations or hypotheses.
context clues
hints that an author provides to help define or explain a difficult or unknown word; the author includes other words or phrases to help with the understanding of the new word.
content area reading
content area reading is reading that you do in different subject areas such as mathematics, social studies and science
theme
the central idea; the main idea
symbol
in the simplest sense, anything that stands for or represents something else

Ex: Dove representing peace; bald eagle representing America
genre
a type or class; a category of artistic composition, as in literature, marked by a distinctive style, form, or content

Ex: poetry, drama
simile
a figure of speech in which two unlike things are compared with the use of "like" or "as"

Ex: Your eyes are like pools of water.
metaphor
a figure of speech in which a word or phrase that ordinarily designates one thing is used to designate another, thus making an implicit comparison (not using like or as)

Ex: Your eyes are deep pools of blue water.
prefix
a letter or group of letters placed in front of a word to form a new word
suffix
a letter or a group of letters added to the end of a word to change its meaning
root word
stem word; base word when all the affixes (prefix, suffix) have been removed
adjective
adjectives modify nouns or pronouns
adverb
adverbs modify verbs , adjectives or other adverbs
action verb
express a physical or mental action

Ex: He runs. She eats. They dance. We jump.
linking verb
links the subject of a sentence to a word in the predicate or expresses conditions; verbs that help describe a subject by connecting it to another word.

Ex: The man is handsome. (Linking verb: is)
noun
a word that names a person, place, thing, or idea

Ex: Common nouns (any person, place or thing) school, teacher, city
Proper nouns (specific person, place or thing) St. John Villa, Mrs. Smith, New York City
pronoun
a word used in place of a noun or another pronoun. Note: there are many forms of pronouns - subject, object, possessive, demonstrative

Ex: Subject (personal) pronouns - I, he, she, you, it, we, they
preposition
indicate the relationship, often spatial, of one word to another

Ex: "around" the tree, "under" the rock, "between" the houses
kinds of sentences
There are 4 kinds of sentences: declarative (makes a statement, ends with a period); interrogative (asks a question and ends with a question mark); imperative (gives a command and usually ends with a period); exclamatory (expresses strong emotion and ends with an exclamation point)
clause
group of words that contains both a subject and a verb
run-on sentences
two or more complete sentences incorrectly joined as one

Ex: The Internet is a little over 30 years old, it was created in 1967 for government communication.
sentence fragment
a part of a sentence that is punctuated as if it were a complete sentence

Ex: With the development of color television.
pretentious language
fancy, elevated words

Ex: Using "it was a splendid opportunity to get some slumber." rather than "It was a good chance to get some sleep."
cliche
an expression that has been worn out by constant use. They are common in speech but should be avoided in writing. Use fresh, original words.

Ex: short but sweet; work like a dog; through thick and thin
slang
vivid and colorful words used in place of formal writing. Students should avoid using slang when writing. Slang goes out of date and different groups of people may not understand word use.

Ex: we stuffed our faces; they freaked out; tell them to get off my case
format
the formal characteristics of a written assignment-comprising such things as paper size, margins, spacing, font
homophone
words with the same sounds but different meanings and spellings

Ex: Knew and new; hear and here; right and write; weather and whether
active/passive voice
Active Voice - when the subject performs the action expressed by the verb
Passive Voice - when the subject receives the action expressed by the verb

Ex: Active: My family bought a new home. (subject family performs the action)
Passive: Homes are being sold by the builder. (Subject homes receives the action)
double negative
A double negative occurs when two forms of negation are used in the same clause.

Ex: She hardly never eats worms.
synonym
Synonyms are different words with identical or very similar meanings.

Ex: sick and ill; buy and purchase; student and pupil
antonym
Antonyms are opposites.

Ex: hot and cold; slow and fast; tall and short