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Terms in this set (69)
The tree of life has three main branches, called domains:
Eukarya, Bacteria, Archae
an ancestral character
Character found in only one species
A derived character state that is shared by two or more taxa and is postulated to have evolved in their common ancestor.
A small ring of DNA that carries accessory genes separate from those of the bacterial chromosome
oxygen producing photosynthesis - strips the hydrogen atoms from H2O leaving O2 as waste
light energy is captured and converted to ATP, without the production of oxygen. Water is therefore not used as an electron donor.
CO2 is the exclusive source of assimilated carbon, and energy is derived from chemical processes rather than light.
Respiration that requires oxygen
Respiration that does not require oxygen
provides an alternative to cellular respiration as a way of extracting energy from organic molecules. Partial oxidation of organic compounds.
Loss of electrons
Gain of electrons
obtain energy from light
obtain energy from chemicals
Use organic molecules for their carbon
Use CO2 as their source for carbon
Primary producers turning sulfates into organic sulfur
Process of converting nitrogen gas into ammonia
ammonia is converted to nitrate ions (NO3-) or nitrite ions (NO2-)
Conversion of nitrates into nitrogen gas
Bacteria that can carry out oxygenic photosynthesis. Evolved into chloroplasts
Bacteria that do aerobic respiration.
Evolved into mitochondria.
Ex: E. coli.
Live on us
Largest, most diverse archaea group.
Don't like high temperatures
Live in the ocean but not on the top layer
Like very hot temperatures (close to boiling)
Framework of the cell composed of a variety of filaments and fibers that support cell structure and drive cell movement
(genetics) an organism or cell having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number
(genetics) an organism or cell having only one complete set of chromosomes
The engulfment of a cyanobacterium by a larger eukaryotic cell that gave rise to the first photosynthetic eukaryotes with chloroplasts.
a process in eukaryotic evolution in which a heterotrophic eukaryotic cell engulfed a photosynthetic eukaryotic cell which survived in a symbiotic relationship inside the heterotrophic cell
The two hypothesis for the origin of the eukaryotic cell
1. Infolding of membrane first, then engulfing of proteobacteria
2. Symbiont with proteobacteria and then infolding of membrane
First five superkingdoms
(posterior flagellum) Fungi, Animals
(psuedopodia) Plasmodial slime mold, Cellular slime mold, Disentery
process by which two species evolve in response to changes in each other
Process by which unrelated organisms independently evolve similarities when adapting to similar environments
cells merge but cells do not undergo cytokinesis, hence a lot of nuclei floating around
(primary endosymbiosis) Plants, Red Algae, Green Algae
(two flagella; one hairy, one smooth) Diatoms, Brown Algae
(fluid filled vesicle under the outer membrane) Dinoflagellates, ciliates, apicomplexans
A eukaryotic organism that cannot be classified as an animal, plant, or fungus.
this describes a many-celled organism where cells adhere together. Each cell is independent.
Reasons for multicellularity:
1. cannot be eaten
2. allows for more efficient resourcing
Six times that complex multicellularity evolved across eukaryotes
1. red algae
2. brown algae
5. & 6. fungi
Move things through cell much faster than diffusion
Criteria for complex multicellularity
1. Cells must stick together using adhesion proteins
2. Cells must communicate with one another
3. Cells must be able to regulate its genome in order to produce different tissues.
Adhesion proteins for animals
Adhesion protein for plants
Gap junctions (for animals)
Points that provide cytoplasmic channels from one cell to another with special membrane proteins. Also called communicating junctions.
Plasmodesmata (for plants)
An open channel in the cell wall of plants through which strands of cytosol connect from adjacent cells
Long filament of cells that makes up the body of fungus.
dense interconnected network of hyphae only formed when fungi is in contact with food
(only advanced fungi) Walls that partially divide the hyphae cells. Allows to save undamaged cells.
Example of reversal evolution. Single celled. Fungi that don't produce hyphae due to their moist and nutrient rich environment.
Whenever a derived trait causes the species to look like an ancestral species.
Fungi hyphae that surrounds roots, aiding the plant in the absorption of water and nutrients in return for sugar.
can grow on almost anything (ex: rocks). Forms symbiosis between fungi and green algae/cyanobacteria
Algal cells provide sugar made from photosynthesis
Hyphae provide minerals/nutrients and protection
complex multicellular bodies designed to produce spores constantly through the thousands of sporangium found on the bottom.
Fusion of cytoplasm; two nuclei in one cell
Fusion of two haploid nuclei to form a diploid nucleus. Occurs in many fungi, and in animals and plants during fertilization of gametes
type of recombination occurring in mitosis rather than meiosis only found in fungi
Change to a chromosome in which a fragment of the chromosome is removed
is the failure of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids to separate properly during cell division.
Eats using rhizoids which came from flagella
Don't have septa
Can't make fruiting bodies, only sporangia
ex: Bread molds.
Whole life cycle depends on plants.
Briefly haploids as spores
After plasmogamy the grow a whole organism and a subset of that organism goes onto karyogamy
Bacterial Cell Wall
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