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Chapter 5 Liver
Terms in this set (54)
alpha-fetoprotein; a tumor marker frequently elevated in cases of hepatocellular carcinoma and certain testicular cancers
alkaline phosphatase; an enzyme found in liver tissue that can be elevated with biliary obstruction
alanine aminotransferase; a liver enzyme most specific to hepatocellular damage
aspartate aminotransferase; an enzyme found in all tissues, but in largest amounts in the liver, an increase can indicate hepatocellular damage
fold in the parietal peritoneum that extends from the umbilicus to the diaphragm and contains the ligamentum teres
a fibroelastic, connective tissue layer that surrounds the liver
blood flow away from the liver; normal flow in the hepatic veins is hepatofugal
blood flow toward the liver; normal flow in the portal vein is hepatopetal
yellowish pigmentation of the skin and whites of the eyes caused by increased levels of bilirubin in the blood
remnant of the obliterated left umbilical vein seen as a triangular echogenic foci dividing the medial and lateral segments of the left lobe of the liver in transverse plane
remant of the ductus venosus seen as an echogenic line separating the caudate lobe from the left lobe
main lobar fissure
divides the right and left lobes of the liver; seen in the sagittal plane as an echogenic line between the gallbladder neck and the main portal vein
knows as the gate to the liver, a fissure where the portal vein and hepatic artery enter the liver and the common hepatic duct exits
anatomic variant in which the right lobe is enlarged and extends inferiorly as a tongue-like projection
What structure can present as a thick lucent band sometimes identified anterior to the spine, IVC, or aorta?
crus of the diaphragm
Which Doppler finding indicates a thrombosis following a transjugular intrahepatic portosystmeic shunt?
What is the location of a mass detected anterior and to the left of the ligamentum venosum
To visualize the normal anatomical areas of the subdiaphragmatic, subhepatic, and hepatorenal spaces, the sonographer would select what anatomic scanning location?
What structure along with the left hepatic veins separates the left hepatic lobe from the caudate lobe?
ligamentum venosum fissure
In which vessels does the right branch bifurcate into an anterior branch and a posterior branch?
Approximately what percentage of the liver's blood is supplied by the hepatic artery?
Fatty infiltrative disease has the same echo appearance as which pathology?
MC organ on the left lateral border of the liver is often demarcated by strong C-shaped echoes?
Which vessel supplies the liver with oxygen-rich blood?
ALP __________ with biliary obstruction.
ALT ___________ with hepatocellular disease and infections.
Fatty infiltration of the liver is associated with all of the following except:
a. diabetes mellitus
b. ethanol abuse
d. intravenous antibiotics
e. oral contraceptives
Segement IV within Couinaud's diagram is indicating which of the following?
a. anterior right lobe
b. posterior right lobe
c. medial segment of the left lobe
d. lateral segment of the right lobe
e. caudate lobe
medial segment of the left lobe
Normal portal flow into the liver is referred to as ___
What is the most common primary liver malignancy in an adult?
As a blood reservoir, the liver has the capacity to enlarge and store how much blood?
200 to 400 mL
What straddles the midline, is superior to the head of the pancreas, and is anterior to the inferior vena cava?
On a longitudinal image, which of the major vessels is located to the right of midline with the cephalic portion curving ventrally?
Inferior vena cava
What area is carefully scanned on a follow-up examination on a patient with a history of cavernous transformation?
What is the most likely explanation when a 43-year-old woman is clinically jaundiced and has a marked elevated serum conjugated (direct reading) bilirubin level?
What is the location of a mass detected anterior and to the left of the ligamentum venosum?
Severe sound attenuation is associated with which pathology?
A marked increase of AST variance, greater than 1,000 U/mL, is clinically indicative of what pathology?
Acute severe fulminating hepatitis
If a malignant neoplasm appears as an anechoic mass, what is a likely explanation for this echo characteristic?
The central liquefaction of necrosis
What separates the intrahepatic right lobe from the left lobe?
Main lobar fissure
Which vessels are used to delineate the right and left lobes; the right posterior and right anterior segments; and the left medial and left lateral segments?
What is the term that describes embryonic production of blood cells?
Which scanning plane should the sonographer initially select to best visualize the lower liver segment?
Right posterior oblique
Normal diameter of bile duct
Maximum internal diameter of hepatic artery
The basic functional unit of hepatic lobes
A very small functional unit of liver parenchyma
What vascular tumor is composed of blood vessel cells with a nonspecific sonographic appearance
porta hepatis (portal triad) contains the portal vein, hepatic artery, and what other structure?
Common hepatic duct
Which of the following imaging modalities is considered noninvasive?
The functional or true right and left intraheptic lobar divisions are between what structures?
Inferior vena cava and gallbladder fossa
In addition to a central portal vein branch and hepatic artery, what other structure is contained in
each of the eight segments described by Couinard?
What Doppler signal would be expected in the portal vein of a patient with portal hypertension?
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