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Anatomy-Chapter 12 exam V
Terms in this set (92)
those with receptors widely distributed throughout the body, including the skin, various organs, and joints.
have more specialized receptors and are confined to structures in the head, such as the eyes and ears.
the raw form in which receptors send information
the way the brain interprets information sent by by receptors
chemoreceptors, pain receptors, thermoreceptors, mechanoreceptors, photoreceptors
what are the different types of receptors?
respond to changes in the concentration of chemicals. examples are receptors associated with the senses of smell and taste. these in internal organs detect changes in the blood concentrations of oxygen, hydrogen ions, glucose, and other chemicals.
pain receptors; nociceptors
also called ____; respond to tissue damage; triggering stimuli include exposure to excess mechanical, electrical, thermal, or chemical energy.
sense temperature change
mechanoreceptors; proprioceptors; baroreceptors; stretch
are of several types and sense mechanical forces by detecting changes that deform the receptors; they include a number of receptors in the skin that respond to physical contact, and several receptors in the ear that provide information about balance and vibrations from sound. _____ sense changes in the tensions of muscles and tendons; _____ in certain blood vessels detect changes in blood pressure; ______ receptors in the lungs sense degree of inflation
the ability to ignore unimportant stimuli; it may reflect a decreased response to a particular stimulus from the receptors or along the CNS pathways leading to the sensory regions of the cerebral cortex;
exteroreceptive senses, interoceptive senses, proprioceptive senses
what are the 3 types of general senses?
associated with changes at the body surface. they include the senses of touch, pressure, temperature, and pain
associated with changes in viscera (blood pressure stretching blood vessels, an ingested meal stimulating pH receptors in the small intestine, and so on)
associated with changes in muscles and tendons and in body position
pain that feels as if its originating from a part other than the site being stimulated; may derive from common nerve pathways that sensory impulses coming both from skin areas and from internal organs use. example would be pain originating in the heart may be referred to the left shoulder or the medial surface of the left upper limb.
thin membrane that covers the auditory canal and separates the outer ear from the middle ear; the eardrum
aka acute otitis media; these occur because the mucous membranes that line the auditory tubes are continuous with the linings of the middle ears , enabling bacteria infecting the throat or nasal passages to reach the ear; greater in children because their auditory tubes are shorter than those in adults;
the inner ear is a complex system of intercommunicating chambers and tubes called a _____
bony labyrinth; membranous labyrinth
each ear has two regions: the _____ _____ and the _____ _____
bony; membranous; bony
the ____ labyrinth is a cavity within the temporal bone; the _____ labyrinth is a tube that lies within the _1_ labyrinth and has a similar shape.
between the bony and membranous labyrinths is a fluid called _____, secreted by cells in the wall of the bony labyrinth. in the membranous labyrinth is a slightly different fluid called _____
cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibule
what are the 3 parts of the labyrinths?
function in hearing; tube shaped a bit like a snail shell, coiled around a bony core, the models.
there are 3 of these that provide a sense of equilibrium
a bony chamber called the ____, between the cochlea and the semicircular canals, houses membranous structures that serve both hearing and equilibrium
the organ of Corti which contains about 16000 hearing receptor cells, is on the superior surface of the basilar membrane and stretches from the apex to the base of the cochlea.
secretes tears; located in the orbit, superior and lateral to the eye; secretes tears continuously, which pass through tiny tubules and flow downward and medially across the eye
cornea; cold, heat & touch
the anterior sixth of the outer tunic bulges forward as the transparent _____, the window of the eye. it helps focus entering light rays; largely composed of connective tissue with a thin surface layer of epithelium; is transparent because it contains no blood vessels and the collagen fibers form unusually regular patterns; is well supplied with sensory nerve fibers that enter its margin and radiate toward its center; these fibers are associated with many pain receptors that have very low thresholds. ___ receptors are also abundant in the cornea but ___ and ___ receptors are not.
the cornea is continuous with the ____, the white portion of the eye; this makes up the posterior five-sixths of the outer tunic and is opaque due to many large, seemingly disorganized collagen and elastic fibers. it protects the eye and is an attachment for the extrinsic muscles.
the ____ is a thin diaphragm mostly composed of connective tissue and smooth muscle. seen from the outside, it is the colored portion of the eye; extends forward from the periphery of the ciliary body and lies between the cornea and lens; it divides the space separating these parts, called the anterior cavity, into an anterior chamber (between the cornea and the iris) and a posterior chamber (between the iris and the vitreous humor, occupied by the lens)
aqueous humor; pupil; nutrients; shape
the epithelium on the inner surface of the ciliary body continuously secretes a watery fluid called ____ _____ into the posterior chamber. the fluid circulates from this chamber through the ____ which is a circular opening in the center of the iris, and into the anterior chamber. the fluid fills the space between the cornea and the lens, providing ______ and maintaining the ___ of the front of the eye.
vitreous humor; supports; shape
the space enclosed by the lens, ciliary body, and retina is the largest compartment of the eye and is called the posterior cavity. it is filled with a transparent, jellylike fluid called _____ ____, which with some collagen fibers comprise the vitreous body, which ____ the internal structures of the eye and helps maintain its ____
The photoreceptors of the eye are modified neurons of two distinct types. one group of receptor cells, called ____, have long thin projections at their terminal ends. the cells of the other group, called ____, have short, blunt projections.
rods and cones occupy the deep layer of the retina. ___ are hundreds times more sensitive to light and as a result, they provide vision in dim light; they also produce colorless (black and white) vision and produce general outlines of objects. in contrast, ___ detect colors, provide sharp images.
simultaneously perceives distance, depth, height, and width of objects. such vision is possible because the pupils are 6-7 cm apart. requires vision w two eyes
eyeballs are too short; convex surfaces help this; eyes remain focused for distant vision; aka presbyopia
person is able to focus on close objects but distant vision is poor; helped with concave surfaces; aka myopia; eyeballs are too long
provide sharp images
what is the main function of cones in the eye?
the snail-like structure located in the inner ear that contains receptor cells that detect sound is called the ____
the white fibrous outer layer of the eyeball is the ____
which cranial nerve functions in the sense of smell?
free nerve; little
pain receptors consist of ____ _____ endings. these receptors are widely distributed throughout the skin and internal tissues. pain receptors adapt very ___. once a pain receptor is activated, even by a single stimulus, it may continue to send impulses in the CNS for some time.
common nerve pathways
referred pain may derive from ____ ____ _____ that sensory impulses coming both from skin areas and from internal organs use.
fast pain fibers and slow pain fibers
what are the two main types of axons that conduct impulses away from pain receptors?
The ___ ____ fibers (also knowns as A-delta fibers) are myelinated. they conduct impulse rapidly at velocities up to 30 meters per second. These impulses are associated with the immediate sensation of sharp pain.
The ____ ____ fibers (C fibers) are unmyelinated. they conduct impulses more slowly, at velocities up to 2 meters per second. these impulses cause a delayed, dull, aching pain sensation that may be widespread and difficult to pinpoint. visceral pain impulses are typically carried on these.
thalamus; cerebral cortex
sensation of pain begins when pain impulses reach the level of the ____; however the ____ ____ must judge the intensity of pain and locate its source, and it is also responsible for emotional and motor responses to pain.
can suppress both acute and chronic pain impulses. they can relieve strong pain sensation
stimulates other neurons to release enkephalins.
the ____ are another group of neuropeptides with pain-suppressing, morphinelike actions. they are found in the pituitary gland and in regions of the nervous system that relay pain information.
____ _____ cells and their membrane receptor molecules, sense odors; are chemoreceptors sensitive to chemicals dissolved in liquids
____ ____, which contain the olfactory receptor cells, also include epithelial supporting cells; appear as yellowish brown masses within pinkish mucous membrane; cover the upper parts of the nasal cavity, the superior nasal conchae, and a portion of the nasal septum.
the olfactory receptor cells are ___ neurons surrounded by columnar epithelial cells. these neurons have knobs at the distal ends of their dendrites covered with hairlike ____ which project into the nasal cavity and are the sensitive portions of the receptor cells.
chemicals that stimulate olfactory receptor cells, called ____ ____, enter the nasal cavity and dissolve at least partially in the watery fluids that surround the cilia before they can bond to receptor proteins on the cilia and be detected.
____ _____ are molecules such as proteins and glycoproteins on the cell membranes that enable cells, such as olfactory receptor cells, to respond to specific molecules
olfactory bulbs; olfactory tracts;
once olfactory receptor cells are stimulated, impulses are conducted along with their axons through tiny openings in the cribriform plates of the ethmoid bone. These fibers synapse with neurons located in the enlargements of the _____ ____, which are structures that lie on either side of the crust galli of the ethmoid bone. in these, the sensory impulses are analyzed, and as a result, additional impulses travel along the ____ ___ to portions o the limbic system and a brain center for memory and emotions. example is nostalgia from scent of past
taste buds; papillae
___ ___ are the special organs of taste. they resemble orange sections and associate on the surface of the tongue with tiny elevations called ____. ___ 1____ are also scattered in the roof of the mouth, linings of the cheeks, and the walls of the pharynx.
each taste bud includes a group of modified epithelial cells, the ___ ____ (gustatory cells), that function as sensory receptors
taste pore; taste hairs
the entire structure of the taste bud is somewhat spherical, with an opening, the ___ ___, on its free surface. tiny projections called ____ ___, protrude from the outer ends of the taste cells and jut through the ____1____. these ___2____ are the sensitive parts of the receptor cells
sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and unami
what are the five primary taste sensations?
____ receptors are usually stimulated by carbohydrates, but a few inorganic substances also elicit these sensations.
acid stimulates ____ receptors. the intensity of this sensation is roughly proportional to the concentration of the hydrogen ions in the substance being tasted.
ionized inorganic salts mainly stimulate ____ receptors. the quality of this sensation depends on the type of positively charged ion that it releases into solution.
a variety of chemicals stimulate ____ receptors, including many organic compounds. extreme sensitivity to this sensation is inherited.
one group of bitter compounds of medical interest are the ____.
the taste sensation called ____ has long been recognized in japan. arises from the binding of certain amino acids; MSG
static equilibrium; dynamic equilibrium
the organs associated with ____ ____ sense the position of the head, maintaining stability and posture when the head and body are still. when the head and body suddenly move or rotate, the organs of ____ _____ detect the motion and aid in maintain balance.
vestibule; utricle; saccule;macula
the organs of static equilibrium are in the ____, a bony chamber between the semicircular canal and the cochlea. the membranous labyrinth inside the ___1___ consist of 2 expanded chambers-a _____ and a _____. the larger utricle communicates with the sauce and the membranous portions of the semicircular canals; the saccule, in turn communications with the cochlear duct. the utricle and saccule each has a small patch of hair cells and supporting cells called ____ on its wall.
a loss of olfactory receptors
degeneration or failure of nerve pathways to the brain; affect the ability to understand speech
ringing or roaring in the ears
the inability to read small print up close as one gets older, called_______, results from a loss of elasticity in the lens, preventing it from changing shape easily.
____ develops in the eyes as a person ages when the rate of aqueous humor formation exceeds the rate of its removal.
a common eye disorder particularly in older people is ____. the lens or its capsule slowly becomes cloudy, opaque, and discolored.
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