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PSY 2012 Final Ch. 10
Terms in this set (46)
A condition marked by especially abnormal or impaired development in social interactions, spoken language, and sensory-motor systems. Autistics characteristically have few activities or interests and spend long periods of time repeating the same ritualistic physical behaviors. Signs of autism begin in a child's first three years.
Behavior Modification Or Behavior Mod
A treatment or therapy that changes or modifies problems or undesirable behaviors by using learning principles based on operant conditioning, classical conditioning, and social cognitive learning.
Innate tendencies or predispositions that may either facilitate or inhibit certain kinds of learning.
A kind of learning that involves mental processes, such as attention and memory; may proceed through observation or imitation; and may not involve any external rewards or require the person to perform any observable behaviors.
A mental representation of the layout of an environment and its features.
The systematic reinforcement of desired behaviors and the withholding of reinforcement or punishment of undesired behaviors.
The simplest reinforcement schedule, in which every occurrence of the operant response results in delivery of the reinforcer.
Critical Or Sensitive Period
In imprinting, a relatively brief time during which learning is most likely to occur. Also called the sensitive period.
A continuous written record that shows an organism's responses and reinforcements.
In classical conditioning, the tendency for some stimuli but not others to elicit a conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the tendency for a response to be emitted in the presence of a stimulus that is reinforced but not in the presence of unreinforced stimuli. In social psychology, specific unfair behaviors exhibited toward members of a group.
In conditioning, a cue that behavior will be enforced.
Behavioral biologists who observe and study animal behavior in the animal's natural environment or under relatively naturalistic conditions.
In classical conditioning, the reduction in a response when the conditioned stimulus is no longer followed by the unconditioned stimulus. As a result, the conditioned stimulus tends to no longer elicit the conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the reduction in the operant response when it is no longer followed by the reinforcer.
In conditioning, a schedule in which a reinforcer occurs following a subject's first response after a fixed interval of time.
In conditioning, a schedule in which a reinforcer occurs only after a fixed number of responses by the subject.
In classical conditioning, the tendency for a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus to elicit a response that is similar to the conditioned response. Usually, the more similar the new stimulus is to the original conditioned stimulus, the larger will be the conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the situation in which an animal or a person emits the same response to similar stimuli.
Inherited tendencies or responses that newborn animals display when they encounter certain stimuli in their environment.
A mental process marked by the sudden and unexpected solution to a problem; a phenomenon often called the "ah-ha!" experience.
Learning that is not demonstrated in behavior until its application becomes useful.
Law Of Effect
The principle that behaviors followed by positive (pleasurable) consequences are strengthened (and thus will likely occur in the future), while behaviors followed by negative consequences are weakened.
Learning Performance Distinction
The idea that learning may occur but may not always be measured by, or immediately evident in, performance.
Removal of a reinforcing stimulus (for example, taking away a child's allowance) after a response. This removal decreases the chances that the response will recur.
The occurrence of an operant response that either stops or removes an aversive stimulus. Removal of the aversive stimulus increases the likelihood that the response will occur again.
In children, refusal to follow directions, carry out a request, or obey a command given by a parent or caregiver. Noncompliance is one of the most common complaints of parents in general and the most frequent problem of parents who bring their children to clinics for treatment of behavioral problems.
A kind of learning in which the consequences—reward or punishment—that follow some behavior increase or decrease the likelihood of that behavior's occurrence in the future. Also called instrumental conditioning.
A response that can be modified by its consequences. Operant responses offer a way of dividing ongoing behavior into meaningful and measurable units.
A schedule of reinforcement in which the response is reinforced only some of the time.
A behavioral disorder in which individuals eat inedible objects or unhealthy substances. Pica can lead to serious physical problems, including lead poisoning, intestinal blockage, and parasites, and is most often seen in individuals with mental retardation.
The presentation of an aversive stimulus (for example, spanking) after a response. The aversive stimulus decreases the chances that the response will recur.
The presentation of a stimulus that increases the probability of a behavior's recurrence.
Preparedness Or Prepared Learning
The innate or biological tendency of animals and humans to recognize, attend to, and store certain cues over others, as well as to associate some combinations of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli more easily than others. Also called prepared learning.
A stimulus, such as food, water, or sex, that is innately satisfying and requires no learning on the part of the subject to become pleasurable.
A consequence that occurs after behavior and decreases the likelihood that that behavior will recur.
A consequence that occurs after behavior and increases the likelihood that that behavior will recur.
A stimulus that increases the likelihood that the response preceding it will occur again.
Schedule Of Reinforcement
In conditioning, a program or rule that determines how and when a response will be followed by a reinforcer.
Any stimulus that has acquired its reinforcing power through experience; secondary reinforcers are learned, for example, by being paired with primary reinforcers or other secondary reinforcers.
In operant conditioning, a procedure in which an experimenter successively reinforces behaviors that lead up to or approximate the desired behavior.
Used in operant conditioning, a small enclosure that is automated to record an animal's bar presses and deliver food pellets as a consequence. The Skinner box is an efficient way to study how an animal's ongoing behaviors may be modified by changing the consequences of what happens after a bar press.
Social Cognitive Learning
learning A form of learning that results from watching, imitating, and modeling and does not require the observer to perform any observable behavior or receive any observable reward. Formerly called observational learning.
Social Cognitive Theory
The theory that grew out of the research of a number of psychologists—Rotter, Bandura, and Mischel—that says that personality development is primarily shaped by three forces: environmental conditions, cognitive-personal factors, and behavior, which all interact to influence how we evaluate, interpret, organize, and apply information. See also Bandura's social cognitive theory.
In classical conditioning, the temporary occurrence of the conditioned response to the presence of the conditioned.
In operant conditioning, any behavior that increases in frequency because its occurrence is accidentally paired with the delivery of a reinforcer.
In training children, a form of negative punishment in which reinforcing stimuli are removed after an undesirable response. This removal decreases the chances that the response will recur. In time-out, the child is told to sit quietly in the corner of a room or put in some other situation where there is no chance to obtain reinforcers or engage in pleasurable behaviors.
A conditioning schedule such that the time between the response and the subsequent reinforcer is variable.
A conditioning schedule in which the subject must make a different number of responses for the delivery of each reinforcer.
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