38 terms

Common Lab Values

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ALT
Alanine aminotransferase

Norms: 4-26 IU

Used to identify hepatocellular disease
AST
Aspartate aminotransferase

Norms: 0-35 units/L

Used in conjunction with ALT to ID hepatocellular disease
The 2 liver function tests (LFTs)
ALT/AST
Amylase
Norms: 60-120 units/dL

Used to detect & assist in management of pancreatitis. Detects pancreatic cell injury
Arterial Blood Gas (ABGs)
pH: 7.35-7.45
pCO2: 35-45
pO2: 80-100
HCO3: 22-26
O2 Sat: 95-100%
Base Excess: O +/- 2 mEg/L

Provides pertinent lab values that assess & manage therapies for a patient's ventilation & metabolic acid base homeostasis
ABO
Blood typing

Used to determine blood compatibility and include type and Rh antigens

O blood type = universal donors; no antigens attached to RBCs
Bilirubin
Norms: 0.3-1.0 mg/dL (Adult)
1.0-12.0 mg/dL (newborns)

Adults: detect hemolytic anemias
Newborns: measure jaundice

High lvls seen in end-stage liver disease caused by hepatobillary obstructive process
Calcium
Norms: 9.0-10.5 mg/dL

Evaluates parathyroid function & Ca++ metabolism. Often assessed in renal failure patients, cancer, & sepsis
Lipid Panel
Cholesterol/HDL/LDL/VLDL/Triglycerides

Cholesterol: <200
HDL: >40 (males), >50 for females
VLDL: <30
Triglycerides: 40-160 (males), 35-135 (females)

Patients must be fasting for at least 8-12 hrs. Used to ID risk factors for coronary heart disease
Complete Blood Count (CBC)
Includes RBC, Hemoglobin (HGB), Hematocrit (HCT), Platelets, White Blood Cells (WBC)

Provides knlg into a patient's overall well-being & hematological system
Creatinine Kinase (CPK)/CPK-MB
Norms: 55-170 (males), 30-135 (females)

CPK evaluates muscle breakdown due to injury

CPK-MB specifically evaluates breakdown of cardiac muscle from injury

Collected at admission & again 8 hrs to evaluate trend
Creatinine
Norms: 0.6-1.2 mg/dL (+/- 0.2)

Used to monitor renal function & guide dialysis. Catabolic product of skeletal muscle contraction excreted by kidneys
D-Dimer
Norms: <0.4 mcg/ml

Used to identify intravascular clotting. Often seen elevated in pulmonary embolus (PE)
Glucose
Norm: 70-110 fasting

Daily DM management
HCG (Pregnancy Hormone)
HCG will double every 48-72 hours

Draw HCG every 2-3 days to monitor of pregnancy
HCT
Hematocrit

Norms: 42-52 (males), 37-47 (female)
HGB
Hemoglobin

Norms: 14-18 g/DL (males), 12-16 g/dL (females)
Hemoglobin A1C
Goal: <7.0

Measurement for DM control
HIV Quantitative
Norm: none detected

Confidential test used to evaluate the amt and presence of HIV viral load in the blood
INR
International Normalized Ratio

Norm: 1 (absence of blood clotting abnormalities), 2-4 (pts on Coumadin)
Lactic Acid
Norms: 5-20 mg/dL

Used to quantify degree of tissue hypoxemia associated with shock/sepsis
Lipase
Norms: 0-160 units/L

Used to evaluate pancreatic disease; elevated levels caused by pancreatic cell injury or gallbladder disease
Magnesium
Norms: 1.3-2.1

Used to evaluate serum level of the electrolyte which increases intestinal absorption of Ca++. Low levels --> Torsades de pointes cardiac rhythm (looks like sharp points on EKG)
Natriuretic Peptides (BNP)
Norms: <100 ng/L

Used to guide CHF therapies
Partial Thromboplastin Time (PTT)
Norm: 60-70 secs

Used to test intrinsic system for clot formation when monitoring heparin therapy
Phosphorus
Norm: 3.0-4.5 mg/dL

Evaluates parathyroid/Ca++ abnormalities. Assess whether adequate blood levels exist. Increased levels in bone metastasis
Platelet Count
Norm: 150,000-400,000/mm3

Used to determine actual count of platelets in body and evaluate clotting abilities (may be decreased after taking Heparin [HIT])
Potassium
Norm: 3.5-5.0 mEg/L

Serum electrolyte monitored b/c of its effects on renal function, dehydration, heart rhythms
Prealbumin
Norm: 15-36 mg/dL

Used to evaluate a pt's nutritional status/TPN administration efficacy
Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA)
Norm: elevated at >2.6

Screen for/early detection of prostate cancer
Prothrombin Time (PT)
Norm: 11.0-12.5 secs

Used to evaluate extrinsic system & clotting mechanisms and tested monthly for pts on Warfarin
TSH
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone

Norm: 0.3-5 mU/L

Used to diagnose primary hypothyroidism. With T3 Thyroxine: dx hyperthyroidism. With T4 free: examine overall thyroid fnc
Troponins
Norm: <0.03 ng/ml

Drawn as series of 3, 6-8 hrs apart, to monitor for cardiac injury due to ischemia; reflects lvl of myocardial damage
Urea Nitrogen (BUN)
Norm: 10-20 mg/dL

Evaluates hepatic & liver function b/c urea is formed in the liver and transported to kidneys for excretion
Uric Acid
Norm: 4.0-8.5 (males), 2.7-7.3 (females)

Evaluate amount of uric acid in bloodstream; hyperuricemia = gout
Urinanalysis (UA)
Norm: clear, yellow, no protein/blood/pus/glucose

Routine annual diagnostic tool used to detect presence of UTI; requires clean catch
WBC
White Blood Cell (aka Leukocyte) Count

Norm: 4000-11,000

Routine diagnostic evaluator
Sodium
135-145