43 terms

Chapter 6 study guide: Gender

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

William & Best (1990a) - Sample?
in this study, they used a wide sample of participants from 27 countries
William & Best (1990a)- Participants?
-2800 university students
William & Best (1990a)-Instrument?
-The adjective check -list (ACL)
*an assessment used to identify common psychological traits.
*contains a 300 item checklist of adjectives
*can be used in different ways
William & Best (1990a)-task?
To decide whether each adjective is more frequently associated with men or with women

-forced choice-no neutral words-either male/female
William & Best (1990a)-Results?
-BIG/LARGE difference in how males and females were perceived in all countries
-there was a high degree of pan-cultural agreement regarding perception
William & Best (1990a)- conclusion?
- they seemed to establish a universality in gender stereotypes
William & Best (1990a)-What kind of differences existed across countries for favorability?
-little difference in favorability across countries
William & Best (1990a)-Overall, were males and females viewed with the same or different degree of favorability?
males and females were viewed with the same degree of favorability
The male stereotype is most favorable in ___________, ____________, _____________
-Japan

-Nigeria

-South Africa
The female stereotype is most favoravle in ___________, ______________
Italy
Peru
William & Best (1990a)-Activity
variability between activity levels of males and females
William & Best (1990a)--Which gender is considered more active?
males were considered to be much stronger than females
William & Best (1990a)-In every culture, how were males and females described?
in every culture males and females were described in very different terms
William & Best (1990a)-Across cultures, was there a high degree of similarity?
there was a high degree of agreement /similarity across cultures
William & Best (1990a)-interpretation?
Three ways:
1. biological differences
2. Different treatment and perception
3. methodological limitation
1. possibility of explaining the findings-***Biological differences
- males and females are very different psychologically because of their biological differences
2. possiblility of explaining the findings
**different treatment and perception
- the sexes are not different psychologically, but because of gender ideology, we treat them differently because we see them as different
*this leads to distorted perceptions
3. possibility of explaining the findings
** methodological limitation
- the research is methodologically flawed
*methodological limitations in using university students; could lead to the wrong conclusion
William & Best (1990a)- follow up study
- Identical results
- male and female gender stereotypes
- this follow up study makes the third possibility of interpretation/explanation of there being a methodological limitation highly unlikely
What is Gender role ideology?
- attitudes about what males and females should be like
William & Best (1990b)- subjects?
- university students from 14 countries
William & Best (1990b)-Actual self ACL ?
- fill it out according to how you see yourself
William & Best (1990b)-Ideal Self ACL?
- fill it out according to who you would like to be
William & Best (1990b)-How males and females should be (SRI) ?
- * different instrument (not checklist)
* 30 item Likehart scale
~ how strongly you agree/disagree on a number scale ranging from 1-7
Scale of polar opposites:

Traditional and Egalitarian

- Traditional = low scores
- Egalitarian = high scores
William & Best (1990b)- Results?
- Little variation across cultures on ratings by males and females regarding ideal and actual self
-- Their ideal self for both males and females was more masculine than their actual self
-- significant sex and cultural differences on ratings of how men and women should be
More egalitarian scores were obtained in countries with:
-high socioeconomic development
-high proportion of Protestant Christians
-Low proportion of Muslims
- high percentage of women employed outside the home and studying at the university level
- high score on individuality scale
This study showed what in terms of gender role ideology?
- a rather large variation in gender role ideology
Trend is toward what type of view of the sexes?
Egalitarian
why is trend toward a more Egalitarian view of the sexes?
- as a society industrializes, labor saving devices become more common.
* this creates more leisure time
~ males can become more domesticated
~females can do other things besides slaving over cooking/cleaning
- technology
Is the egalitarian attitude equally acceptable among women and men?
- no; it is more accepted among women and less accepted among men
areas where western psychologists have identified psychological gender differences across cultures?
Cognition
Deference
Aggression
In Western countries, males tend to have better or worse spatial abilities?
- males have better spacial abilities than females
* example-maps
- the biggest psychological difference in cognition: spatial abilities is shown through tests involving 3-D objects
Berry (1977)
Block design task
Participants in 17 countries.
-block design task was given to males and females in 17 different cultures
- a stimulus card depicting a geometric representation of a set of blocks was presented and the task was to re-create the design provided.

* in a number of cultures, males did better than females on the task; HOWEVER, in other cultures
females did better than males
* doesn't tell us why the gender difference occured
Female superiority found in what type of cultures?
- loose
-nomadic
- based on hunting/gathering
Male superiority found in what type of cultures?
-tight (relatively homogeneous)
-sedentary
-agricultural based
Deference
Women tend to be deferential to men in conversation.

- men less likely to integrate a woman into conversation
- not very many studies
- room for research
- SES-status of women in varying cultures does not matter
~you would think that women in countries/cultures where women do not have a high status, this would be more likely; however, it happens in many different cultures
Maccoby (1990)- what did he study?
-Children at play
* American toddlers
-he studied american toddlers that were 2 years and nine months old playing with toys
Maccoby (1990)-Results?
(girls and boys showed equal amounts of passivity)
(but the girls behavior was greatly affected by the sex of their play partner)
-girls were not passive with other girls; but were passive to boys
Westfield et al., (1982) had simmilar findings to Maccoby (1990) with what two ethic groups?
-Hopi Children in Arizona
-African American children in chicago
Berry (1997)-found larger/smaller gender differences on conformity and obedience in tight cultures?
found LARGER gender differences on conformity and obedience in tight cultures; not as great in loose cultures
Berry (1997)-Females were more or less conforming?
-MORE
Males are more aggressive than females across cultures or just in some cultures?
- MALES ARE MORE AGRESSIVE THAN FEMALES ACROSS CULTURES
Can socialization increase or decrease the affects of biological factors on aggression?
***YES
MODERATING FACTORS

-AGRESSION PROVOKED-GENDER DIFFERENCE IS MUCH SMALLER
-UNPROVOKED-GENDER DIFFERENCE IS MUCH LARGER
-WHETHER BEHAVIOR OCCURS FACE TO FACE OR ANONOMOUSLY
*Example-FINDING BASED ON VIOLENT VIDEO GAME STUDY-PARTICIPANTS MET-GENDER DIFFERENCE; IF THEY DIDN'T,SMALLER DIFFERENCE
~WHY??? --GENDER STEREOTYPE IS AN INFLUENCE;CONFORM TO STEREOTYPE
-OTHER WAYS OF BEING AGGRESSIVE OTHER THAN PHYSICAL--OTHER TYPES OF AGGRESSION

~BIGGEST DIFF. IS PHYSICAL
~BUT VERBAL OR RELATIONAL--SMALLER OR NO GENDER DIFFERENCE OR FEMALES BEING MORE AGGRESSIVE