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224 terms

Exam 1

McDaniel's Exam 1
STUDY
PLAY
Politics
the precess of making collective decisions to allocate public resources and to create and enforce rules for operation of society
Institutions
codified constraints on behavior
collective dilemma
situation in which there is a conflict between group goals and self interest/individual goals
collective-action problem
individuals are better off trying to free ride and benefit from a public good without contributing to it. People as a group will be better off if they all contributed
Prisoner's dilemma
interaction between two individuals in which neither actor has an incentive to cooperate, better off if they both cooperated
coordination problem
situation in which 2 or more ppl are better off if every player chooses the same course of action, there may be disagreement
unstable coalition
3 or more ppl must take a collective choice but any voting coalition for an alternative could be divided by another proposal
public good
benefit provided to a group of people such that each member can enjoy it without necessarily having to pay for it, and such that one person's enjoyment of it does not inhibit the enjoyment of it by others
private good
a product or benefit provided such that its enjoyment can be limited specific people, and one individuals consumption of it precludes others from consuming it
free riding
benefiting from a public good while avoiding the costs of contributing to it
agenda setter
an authority that controls what options are decided on by a group
principal-agent problem (delegation problem)
dilemma arising from direct conflict between individuals
bureaucracy
thought of as an agent that implements policy on behalf of Congress and the president, who are principals
institutions
established to address collective dilemmas and principal-agent problems
public policies
the programs and decisions created by government
path dependence
the notion that earlier events or decisions deeply affect current and future policy decisions
authoritarianism
a political system in which there is no expectation that the government represents the people and the institutions of government do not give the people a direct voice
dictatorship
an authoritarian political system in which sovereign power is vested in one individual (Fidel Castro of Cuba)
monarchy
a political system in which a ruler (king or queen) is chosen by virtue of being the heir of the previous ruler (Saudi Arabia and jordan)
Oligarchy
a political system in which power resides in a small segment of society
one-party states
a political system in which one party controls the government and actively seeks to prevent other parties from contesting for power (another form of oligarchy) (China)
Democracy
refers to the rule by people, nearly all are republics. Popular election of the government and basic protections of civil rights and liberties
republic
a political system in which public officials are chosen to represent the people in in an assembly, which makes important policy decisions
political rights
the degree to which a country's political process allows for open and extensive participation of citizens, with free and fair elections
civil liberties
the degree to which a countries people are free to express their views and organize into political parties and other groups, to run for office, to pressure the government, and to insist on the independence of the judiciary
political science
study of governments ,public policies, and political processes, systems, and political behavior
we study politics because...
their processes affect us directly and indirectly
We live in an imperfect world, change is slow, governments seek to improve upon policy and proess
POLITICS
a. the art or science of government
b. the art or science concerned with guiding or influencing governmental policy
c. the art or science concerned with winning and holding control over a government
PLATO (quotes about politics)
"One of the penalties for refusing to participate in politics is that you end up being governed by your inferiors"
THOMAS JEFFERSON (quotes about politics)
"Politics is such a torment that I advise everyone I love not to mix with it"
WINSTON CHURCHILL (quotes about politics)
"Politics is the ability to foretell what is going to happen, tomorrow, next week, next month and next year. And to have the ability afterwards to explain why it didn't happen"

"Politcs is almost as exciting as war, and quite as dangerous. In war you can only be killed once, but in politics many times."
Robert Dahl 1984 (academic definition of politics)
"Any persistant pattern of human relationships that involves, to a significant extent, control, influence, power or authority."
Kate Millet 1970 (academic definition of politics)
"Power structures relationships, arrangements whereby one group of persons is controlled by another"
Harold Lasswell (academic definition of politics)
"Who gets what, where, when, and how"
Max Weber (statements on government)
an institution in society that has a "monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force"
George Washington (statements about politics)
"Government is not reason, it is not eloquence-it is force."
James Madison (gov't)
If men were angels, no government would be necessary
Thomas Hobbes (gov't)
A world without government would be "a war of all against all" Life would be "nasty, brutish and short"
Property Rights
the exclusive authority to determine how a resource is used, whether that resource is owned by government or by individuals

Control the use of the property
Right to any benefit from the property
Right to transfer or sell the property
Right to exclude others from the property
Almond, Powell, Dalton and Storm (what is government?)
governments are organizations of individuals who have the power to make binding decisions on behalf of a particular community
Anthony Downs's Two Key Functions of Government
1. Every government is the locus of the ultimate power in its society
2. Its social function must at least include acting as the final guarantor behind every use of coercion in the settlement of disputes
Scarce resources
generate conflict
John Adams (government mistrust)
There is danger from all men. The only maxim of a free government ought to be to trust no man living with power to endanger the public liberty
Robert Heinlein (government mistrust)
Love your country, but never trust its government
Thomas Jefferson (government mistrust)
Every government degenerates when trusted to the rulers of the people alone. The people themselves, therefore, are its only safe depositories
P.J. O'Rourke (government mistrust)
Whatever it is the government does, sensible Americans would prefer that the government do it to somebody else
John Arthur Passmore (government mistrust)
Never trust governments absolutely and always do what you can to prevent them from doing to much harm
Government Trust
the public's belief that the government will act in the right way
Chanley, Rudolph, and Rahn (2000)
Citizen trust is necessary for political leaders to make binding decisions, commit resources to attain certain goals without coercion
Hubert H. Humphrey (government mistrust)
Surely anyone who has ever been elected to public office undertants that one commodity above all others, namely the trust and confidence of the people, is fundamental in maintaining a free and open political system
Barack Obama (government mistrust)
If the people cannot trust their government to do the job for which it exists-to protect them and to promote their common welfare- all else is lost
Robert A Dahl (democracy)
"One of the difficulties one must face at the outset is that there is no democracy theory-there are only democratic theories"

"At a minimum, it seems to me, democratic theory is concerned with process which ordinary citizen exert a relatively high degree of control over leaders"
E.E. Schattschneider (democracy)
Semi sovereign People: A realist View of American Democracy
Privatization
Individualism, Free private enterprise, localism, privacy
Socialization
equality, consistency, equal protection, justice, liberty, freedom of movement, freedom of speech, civil rights
Schattschneider
"Democratic government is the greatest single instrument for socialization of conflict int theAmerican community"

"Arguments and debates about federalism, local-state government, centralization de-centralization are all about controlling the scope of the conflict"
Schattschneider's definition of democracy
Democracy is a competitive political system in which competing leaders and organizations define the alternatives of public policy in such a way that the public can participate in the decision-making process
Higher Law Tradition
A constitution sets down an enduring body of principles and arrangements upon which government is founded
Positive-Law Tradition
Constitution makers incorporate practices into the fundamental law which is normally established by statue
Reasons for Amendments
1. Imperfect and educable human nature
2. The efficacy of deliberative process
3. Distinction between normal legislation and constitutional matters
Lutz'a Propositions
1. Longer constitutions will have higher amendment rate that shorter constitutions
2. the more difficult the amendment process the lower the amendment rate
3. the more governmental functions detailed in a constitution, the longer it will be the higher the rate of amendment
4. the further the amendment rate is from the mean level of amendment rate the greater the probability the entire constitution will be replaced
1836
Texas becomes an Independent Nation
1846
Texas is annexed into the US
1866
Texas rejoins the Union
Volden (2006)
Among the potential benefits of federalism is the ability of states to serve as policy laboratories, adopting novel policies to address their needs, abandoning unsuccessful attempts and learning from the successes of similar states
Graham, Shipan, and Volden (2008)
Diffusion occurs when one government's decision about whether to adopt a policy innovation is influenced by previous choices by other governments. Put another way, policy adoptions can be interdependent, where a country or state observes what other countries or states have done and conditions its own policy decisions on these observations.
Emulation of Successes Hypothesis
states having policies that successfully accomplish goals are more likely to be emulated than those that do not
Seeking Low-Cost Successes Hypothesis
in order to avoid policy features, states will especially rely on evidence of success when contracting their program spending
Administrators Emulating Success Hypothesis
Because of their reelection considerations, decisions by legislators will rely heavily on evidence of successes
Similar Stated Hypothesis
Based on competition and policy learning, states are more likely to emulate their geographic neighbors and those with similar political, demographic, and budgetary characteristics
Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP)
federal government provided grants to states that provide insurance for children whose families did not qualify for Medicaid, but below 200% of the federal poverty level (FPL)
CHIP Results
-Strong support for emulation of successes - Strong support for low cost hypothesis
- Little Support for administrative hypothesis
-Support for legislators hypothesis
- Support for similar states hypothesis
Professional v. Non-professional legislature
A snowball effect is expected in professional state legislatures
◦ A pressure valve effect is expected in non- professional state legislatures. (anti-smoking laws)
Strong v. Weak Policy Advocates
Strong interest groups will generate a snowball
effect
◦ Weak interest groups will generate a pressure valve effect (anti-smoking laws)
Thomas Dye (public policy)
Public policy is 'anything a government chooses to do or not to do'
DELIBERATE DECISIONS MADE BY GOVERNMENT
James Anderson (public policy)
A purposive course of action followed by an actor or a set of actors in dealing with a problem or matter of concern
Policy decisions are made by
a group of actors
William Jenkins
A set of interrelated decisions taken by a political actor or group of actors concerning the selection of goals and the means of achieving them within a specified situation where those decisions should, in principle, be within the power of those actors to achieve
Schneider and Ingram (1993) (policies)
Behavioral change is sought by enabling ot coercing people to do things they would not have done otherwise
Problem Solving
1.Problem Recognition
2.Proposal of Situation
3. Choice of Solution
4. Putting it into effect
5. Monitoring Results
Policy Cycle
1. Agenda-Setting
2. Policy Formation
3. Decision-Making
4. Policy Implementation
5. Policy Evalutation
Agenda Setting-John Kingdon (1995)
The list of subjects or problems to which governmental officials, and people outside of government closely associated with those officials, are paying some serious attention at any given time

Out of the set of all conceivable subjects or problems to which officials could be paying attention, they do in fact seriously attend to some rather than others

So the agenda-setting process narrows this set of conceivable subjects to the set that actually become the focus of attention
Problem Streams
the perceptions of problems as public problems requiring government action
Policy Stream
experts examining problems and proposing solutions to them
Political Stream
A swing in national mood, administrative or legislative turnover, and interest group pressure
Policy Window
The streams operate on different paths and pursue coursed independent of each other. However, when they do intersect they create a policy window

the creation of a policy window helps set the agenda
Policy Formation
the elimination of policy options, until one or only a few are left amongst which the policy-makers make their final selection

(must recognize limitations)
Decision Making- Gary Brewer and Peter DeLeon (1983)
"The choice among policy alternatives that have been generated and their likely effects on the problem estimated"

"It is the most overtly political stage in so far as the many potential solutions to a given problem must somehow be winnowed down and but one or a select few picked and readied for use"

"Decided not to take articular coursed of action is as much a part of selection as finally settling on the best course"
Rational Model of Decision Making
1. Goal for solving problem is established
2.Al alternative strategies of achieving the goal are explored and listed
3. All significant consequences of each alternative strategy are predicted and the probability of those consequences occurring is eliminated
4. The strategy that most nearly solves the problem or solves it at the least cost is selected
Rational Model Problems
1. limits to the decision makers ability to consider all possible options
2. assumes that decision makers know the consequences in advance
3. comparisons among alternatives are difficult
Incremental Model
Portrays public policy decision making as a process characterized by bargaining and compromise among self-interested decision makers (solving problems at hand rather than lofty goals)
Incremental Model Problems
1. Lack of any kind of goal orientation
2. Inherently conservative
3. Undemocratic
4. Promotes short sighted decisions
5. More characteristic of decision making in a stable environment
Garbage Can Model
Actors define goals and choose means as they go along in a process which is necessarily contingent and unpredictable (March and Olsen)
Policy Implementation
The process whereby programs or policies are carried out; it denotes the translations of plans into practice
Garbage Can Model Problems
1. Policy decisions involve varying degrees of technical difficulties during implementation
2. The diversity of problems targeted by a program may make its implementation difficult
3.The size of the target group
4.Extent of behavioral change
March and Olsen (Garbage Can Model)
"A garbage can into which various problems and solutions are dumped by participants. The mix of garbage in a single can depends partly on the labels attached to the alternative cans; but it also depends on what garbage is being produced at the moment, on the mix of can available, and on the speed with which garbage is collected and removed from the scene."
Policy Instruments
The actual means or devices which governments have at their disposal for implementing policies, and from which they must select

1.Voluntary
2.Compulsory
3.Mixed
Regulation
rules and standards that control economic social and political activities
1.natural monopoly
2.externalities
3.protecting the uninformed
Policy evaluation
the process of finding out about public policy in action the means being employed and the objectives being served
Administrative Evaluation
intende to ensure that policies are accomplishing their expected goals at the least possible cost and least possible burden on citizens
Judicial Evaluation
concerned with possible conflicts between government action and constitutional provisions or established standards of administrative conduct and individual rights
Political Evaluation
attempt to label a policy a success or a failure followed by demands for continuation or change
Domestic Policy
government programs and regulations that directly affect those living within a country
Social Policy
domestic policy programs designed to help those thought to be in need of government assistance
Fiscal Policy
the sum of government taxing and spending decisions, which determines the level of the deficit or surplus
Welfare State (Peterson 1985)
EX social security, unemployment insurance, medicare and medicaid
Welfare Regime
(Hacker 2002)
1.the network of direct-spending social programs
2. the constellation of more indirect or "hidden" government interventions
3. Private social protections
TARP
(Troubled Asset Relief Program)
Program to purchase assets and equity from financial institutions such as AIG or GM to strengthen the financial sector (stabilizes institutions and slows further loss)
(Oct 3, 2008 by Bush)
Health Care Reform (The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act)
Designed to address the ever increasing costs of medical care in US (signed into law on March 23, 2012 by President Obama)
reduced national deficit
Personal (Orlando Patterson)
giving a person the sense that, on the one hand, he or she is not coerced or restrained by another person in doing something desired, and, on the other hand, that one can do as one pleases within the limits of that other person's desire to do the same
Sovereignal (orlando Patterson)
the power to act as one pleases, without regard for others or simply the ability to impose one's will on another
Civic (Orlando Patterson)
the capacity of adult members of a community to participate in its life and governece
Foner's natural Rights
rights or freedoms inherent in one's humanity are what Jefferson in the Declaration of Independence refereed to as life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness
1. Civil Rights (equality under law)
2. Political Rights (right to vote)
3. Social Rights (freely choose associates)
Liberal Freedom (Richard King)
absence of arbitrary legal or institutional restrictions on the individual, including the idea that all citizens are to be equally treated
Susie Phipps v. State of Louisiana
1982 Susie challenged her racial designation as "colored" (1/32 of negro blood)
Lost case
1965 Executive Order 11246 (Lyndon Johnson)
requires federal contractors to "take affirmative action to ensure that applicants are employed, and that employees are treated during employment, without regard to their race, creed, color, or origin"
Oncale v. Sundowner Offshore Services, Inc.
Supreme Court ruled that same-sex sexual harassment is a form of discrimination protected by Title VII of the Civil Rights Act
Negative Rights
-right to be left alone
-restriction on what the government or other people can do to you
(freedom of speech and freedom of religion)
Positive Rights
-the right to have something
(right to adequate nutrition and right to housing)
Pluralistic Intolerance
the likelihood that intolerance will be benign rised if it is unfocused (James L. Gibson 2008)
Texas v. Oprah
cattle companies and feeder companies sue Oprah for an episode on her shoe on BSE
Fourth Amendment
the right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, and papers searches and seizures, shall not be violated
Mapp v Ohio (1961)
improperly obtained evidence cannot be used in court
Washington v Chrisman (1982)
Protection did not extend to dormitory rooms on college campuses
Miranda v. Arizona (1966)
Police officers are required to tell suspects their rights before being questioned
1999 Religious Freedom Act
Prohibits a government agency, state, or local, from substantively interfering with the free exercise of religion unless the agency can demonstrate that it acted from a compelling interest and had used the least restrictive means of furthering that interest.
The cases of District of Columbia v. Heller (2008) and McDonald v. Chicago (2010)
limited the laws that governments could pass restricting gun ownership.
In the case of Worcester v. Georgia (1832), the Supreme Court ruled that President Andrew Jackson's policy of removing Cherokee Indians from their land was unconstitutional. Jackson ignored this ruling and said of the Court: "They made their decision. Now, let them enforce it." Which of the following concepts was most clearly undermined in this episode?
the legitimacy of courts as arbiter
In response to social movements by women and eighteen- to twenty-year-olds, respectively, the Nineteenth and Twenty-sixth Amendments guaranteed these groups the right to:
vote
The Bill of Rights is comprised of:
the first 10 amendments to the constitution
Which of the following countries does not have a ban on speech that incites hatred?
US
The First Amendment states that Congress shall make no law abridging the right of the people peaceably to assemble. This provision is an example of:
a civil liberty
The Fourth through Eight Amendments of the Constitution all include provisions related to:
rights of criminal defendants
In the case of Mississippi University for Women v. Hogan (1982), the Supreme Court ruled that the Mississippi University for Women's School of Nursing violated the Fourteenth Amendment by not admitting men into their program. In evaluating the constitutionality of admissions, the Court made its decision based on whether the policy of only admitting women served a governmental goal of providing educational opportunities for all citizens and whether providing a unique opportunity for females but not males had a substantial relationship to that interest. What standard was being applied in this case?
intermediate scrutiny
The Supreme Court's controversial decision of Korematsu v. United States (1944) upheld what policy?
the internment of Japanese-Americans
The University of Michigan Law School allows race as a factor in admissions. Applicants from a minority group that has been previously discriminated against are considered a little more favorably than applicants not from that group. This policy is an example of:
affirmative action
The right to legal protections against arbitrary deprivation of life, liberty, or property is called:
due process
In the case of Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad Company v. Chicago (1897), the Supreme Court ruled that the states had to abide by the clause of the Fifth Amendment mandating that private property shall not be taken for public use without just compensation. What principle was the Court applying in this decision?
incorporation
civil liberties:
are freedoms protected from interference by the government or by others, such as freedom of speech and freedom of religion.
Jim crow laws were:
laws passed after the Civil War to establish a system of segregation of public facilities and private establishments that made African Americans second-class citizens.
American courts often make decisions by relying on the principle of stare decisis, meaning that they use the legal precedents set by prior court decisions. With regard to protecting civil rights and civil liberties, why might this principle be a bad idea?
If a major court decision undermines rights and liberties, then it might stand longer.
How can rights and liberties be threatened in a democracy?
A majority can enact laws that take away rights and liberties from a minority.
Taxing and spending decisions by governments are part of:
fiscal policy
From 1817 to 1825, the state of New York constructed the Erie Canal to connect the Hudson River to Lake Erie. This created a waterway from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes, and the ensuing trade benefited large portions of the population. Construction of the Erie Canal was an example of what kind of policy?
distributive policy
The role of the federal government in the economy has expanded at various times in history. Which of the following programs that expanded economic policy took place during the New Deal?
creation of Social Security
Which economic philosophy advocates that the government take a noninterventionist approach to the economy, leaving market forces alone to determine the economic behavior of people and business firms?
laissez-faire
a movie theatre is an example of a
club good
Which of the following policies could best be classified as a social policy?
offering vouchers to subsidize poor people's rent
Social policy is defined as:
government actions intended to provide a basic level of assistance with income, safety, education, housing, and health care for certain categories of people at risk.
The programs of the government devoted to social policies are called the:
the welfare state
The federal program that provides basic income assistance to retired elderly people and the disabled is:
Social Security
The Supplemental Nutritional Assistance Program is a federal government program that provides:
subsidies for poor people to buy food
Which of the following crimes would be most likely to be investigated or prosecuted at the federal level?
conspiring with terrorists
Medicaid is a federal government program that provides:
basic health insurance to the poor, cofunded by the state governments.
Which of the following is the best example of a principal-agent problem?
hiring a building contractor to construct your new house
(A building contractor (the agent) has more expertise in construction than most homeowners (the principal). )
Which of the following is the best example of a collective-action problem?
Several countries that trade with each other need to cover the cost of protecting international waters from piracy.

(Having safe international waters benefits all trading nations, but each country would most prefer to avoid paying for this public good while others bear the cost. )
The process of making collective decisions to allocate public resources and to create and enforce rules for the operation of society is called:
politics
If a group has a problem of unstable coalitions because of coalition raiding, then the group may find a stable majority coalition by using an agenda setter. Why?
The agenda setter will restrict the number of available options, reducing the opportunity for group members to weaken the coalition with new proposals.
The term oligarchy refers to:
a political system in which power resides in a small segment of society.
In general, how can governments solve collective dilemmas?
by creating institutions
Which portion of the government is most prone to pose a principal-agent problem for elected officials?
the bureaucracy
What is an example of a principal-agent problem?
hiring a building contractor to construct your new house (A building contractor (the agent) has more expertise in construction than most homeowners (the principal). )
In general, how can governments solve collective dilemmas?
creating institutions (Designing institutions and creating rules constrains behavior in a way that can solve collective dilemmas.)
When a legislator introduces a "killer" amendment to a bill, what is his or her goal?
To change the bill in a way that will reduce the bill's original coalition of supporters, thereby reducing the probability it will pass.
In the U.S. Senate, the cloture rule establishes that debate on a bill may not be forced to end unless three-fifths of all senators vote to end debate. Which of the following is the cloture rule an example of?
an institution (An institution refers to any codified constraint on behavior. The Senate itself is an institution of government, and the cloture rule is one of the Senate's institutions that constrain how its members conduct debates.)
The process of making collective decisions to allocate public resources and to create and enforce rules for the operation of society is called:
politics
The term public policy refers to:
A program or decision by the government that is enforced by the rule of law.
Which portion of the government is most prone to pose a principal-agent problem for elected officials?
the bureaucracy
A "political system" is defined as:
the way a society organizes and manages its politics across various levels of public authority.
Who said that without a sovereign, society would become a "war of all against all"?
Thomas Hobbes
Which of the following is the best example of a collective-action problem?
Several countries that trade with each other need to cover the cost of protecting international waters from piracy.
A conflict between group goals and individual goals or self-interest can generally be referred to as a:
collective dilemma
a situation in which two or more people are all better off if they coordinate on a course of action, but there is more than one possible course of action to take. is :
A coordination problem
"Path dependence" refers to:
the notion that earlier events or decisions deeply affect current and future policy decisions.
Which of the following policies expanded federal power during the Progressive era (1896-1913)?
establishment of a federal income tax after the adoption of the Sixteenth Amendment
The cases of McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) and Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) established what legal precedent?
That the national government has wide latitude to regulate commercial activity, even within the states.
What law gave the United States Department of Justice the power to oversee elections in southern states?
Voting Rights Act of 1965
A grant from the federal government to a state or locality with a general purpose that allows considerable freedom in how the money is spent is called:
a block grant
What is an example of a ballot initiative?
a group of citizens proposes a law banning gay marriage in a state, which the public then votes on in an election
Which systems of government concentrates the most power at the national level?
unitary system (Under a unitary system, all power flows through the national government. )
What clause in the Constitution gives Congress the authority to make whatever laws are "necessary and proper" in order to execute its enumerated powers?
elastic clause
Federalism is a political system in which:
there are multiple levels of government, and each level has independent authority over some important policy areas.
What is the function of a written constitution?
to establish the basic institutions of government and represent the country's legal core
Which document was used as the basis of the Bill of Rights?
the Virginia Declaration of Rights
Reserved powers are:
powers not granted to the national government by the Constitution and therefore reserved to the states.
Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution states that Congress has power to fix the standard of weights and measures. This is an example of:
an expressed power
unicameral legislature
A unicameral legislature consists of only one chamber
The authority of the Supreme Court to determine whether government actions are unconstitutional is asserted in:
the case of Marbury v. Madison.
(Although Article III of the Constitution focuses on the federal judiciary, it does not explicitly give the Supreme Court the power to declare laws unconstitutional. Not until the case of Marbury v. Madison did the Court itself assert that it had this authority.)
means-tested program
A government policy that applies to people based on whether they qualify according to a quantitative measure, such as income level. (page 527)
No Child Left Behind Act
A federal policy established in 2001 (under Bush) that links education funding levels to learning standards for states and local school districts. (page 531)
social policy
Government actions intended to provide a basic level of assistance with income, safety, education, housing, and health care for certain categories of people at risk. (page 519)
Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF)
A federal government program that provides temporary income assistance to the poor. (page 520)
capital
Goods used to create other goods in an economy. (page 508)
club good
A variant of a public good; a product or benefit provided such that its enjoyment is exclusively for those who paid for it, but for which one person's enjoyment of it does not inhibit the enjoyment of it by others. (page 489)
common good
A variant of a public good; a benefit provided to a group of people that each member can enjoy without necessarily having to pay for it, but such that one individual's consumption of it precludes others from consuming it. (page 489)
distributive policy
A government policy intended to provide benefits to large portions of the population. (page 492)
Federal Reserve Board
Board of directors, consisting of seven members appointed by the president, in charge of policies for the Federal Reserve System. (page 497)
Federal Reserve System
Network of U.S. government banks that loan money to and regulate the commercial behavior of private banks. (page 497)
authoritarianism
A political system in which there is no expectation that the government represents the people, and the institutions of government do not give the people a direct voice in who will lead. (page 24)
bureaucracy
An agency or office devoted to carrying out tasks for the government in a manner consistent with the law. (page 21)
collective-action problem
A situation in which people would be better off if they all cooperated; however, any individual has an incentive not to cooperate as long as the others are cooperating. (page 13)
collective dilemma
A conflict between group goals and individual goals or self-interest. (page 10)
coordination problem
A situation in which two or more people are all better off if they coordinate on a course of action, but there is more than one possible course of action to take. (page 16)
democracy
Rule by the people; in practice today this means popular election of the government and basic protections of civil rights and liberties. (page 25)
principal-agent problem
An instance in which one actor, a principal, contracts another actor, an agent, to act on the principal's behalf, but the actors may not share the same preferences, and the principal lacks the means to observe all of the agent's behavior. (page 20)
republic
A political system in which public officials are chosen to represent the people in an assembly, which makes important policy decisions. (page 25)
unstable coalition
An instance in which three or more people must make a collective choice from a set of alternatives, but any voting coalition in favor of an alternative can be divided by consideration of another alternative. (page 19)
bicameral legislature
A legislature consisting of two chambers or houses. (page 47)
commerce clause
An enumerated power listed in Article 1, Section 8, of the Constitution that grants Congress the power to "regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes." (page 58)
Connecticut Compromise
An agreement reached at the Constitutional Convention that there would be a bicameral legislature, with an upper house (the Senate) composed of equal representation from each state and a lower house (the House of Representatives) composed of representation from each state in proportion to its population. (page 44)
elastic clause
The provision in Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution that states that Congress can make whatever laws are "necessary and proper" in order to provide the means to carry out its enumerated powers. (page 48)
New Jersey Plan
A plan proposed at the Constitutional Convention by William Patterson of New Jersey to amend, rather than replace, the standing Articles of Confederation. The plan called for a unicameral legislature with equal representation among the states, along with a plural (multi-person) executive appointed by the legislature. (page 43)
reserved powers
Those powers not granted to the national government by the Constitution, and therefore reserved to the states. (page 51)
Virginia Plan
A plan proposed at the Constitutional Convention by Edmund Randolph of Virginia, which outlined a stronger national government, with an independent executive and a bicameral legislature whose membership in both houses would be apportioned according to state population. (page 42)
confederation
A political system with multiple levels of government, in which lower level governments retain full sovereignty and cannot be compelled by the national government to act. (page 69)
cooperative federalism
A political system in which both levels of government— national and state—are active in nearly all areas of policy and share sovereign authority. (page 72)
dual federalism
A political system in which each level of government—national and state—is sovereign in its own sphere of policy authority. (page 71)
intergovernmentalism
A system in which multiple levels of government are active in a given policy area. (page 72)
referendum
An election in which citizens vote directly on whether to overturn a bill or a constitutional amendment that has been passed by the legislature. (page 84)
unitary system
A political system in which the national government holds ultimate authority over all areas of policy and over the actions of subunit governments. (page 89)
affirmative action
Efforts to redress previous discrimination against women and minorities with the purpose of refining general law passed in legislation. (page 121)
civil liberties
Freedoms protected from interference by the government or by others, such as freedom of speech and freedom of religion. (page 101)
civil rights
Rights that (1) enable individuals to engage in activities central to citizenship or legal immigrant status, such as voting or petitioning the government, or (2) guarantee freedom from oppressive actions by others that seek to deny an individual's full status as an equal member of society. (page 101)
strict scrutiny
The highest-level standard used by the Supreme Court to determine whether a law is compatible with the Constitution. A law subject to this standard is considered unconstitutional unless it advances a "compelling state interest" and represents the least intrusive mans. (page 119)