44 terms

Study guide for chapter 7: Health

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What have researchers found about how medicine works in terms of race of patients?
SOME MEDICINE WORKS FOR SOME RACES BUT NOT FOR OTHERS
What treatment changes can we expect soon?
SOON SOME MEDICINE WILL BE RACE- BASED
On many measures of physical well-being, which ethnic group tends to do worse than whites?
AFRICAN AMERICANS
life expectancy in the U.S. varies depending on:
place
race
sex
In the U.S. what ethnic/sex group is the best off?
Asian American Women
In the U.S. what ethnic/sex group is the worst off?
urban black males
why is the difference between the worst and the best off people in health terms within the US so suprising?
because is is a 21 year difference.
Biomedical or Medical Model:
disease results from what?
health is equivalent to what?
-disease results from pathogens-specific identifyable cause originating within the body
-Health is equivilant to lack of disease
Balanced State Model:
According to this model, health is the balance between what three dimensions?
Negative and positive states
self and nature
yin and yang
-sick because their energies are unbalanced somewhere in their life
Holistic Model:
According to this model, how is health defined?
Health=living inharmony with the environment
-sick bc they have sone something to disrupt the harmony
Traditional Navajo Taboos
an action leading to a consequence
ex. don't pull white hair out or you will get more
Do we have any concepts of balance in our concepts of health?
YES
ex- balanced diet/meals-food pyramid
Social isolation is related to what variable?
been found to be correlated to higher mortality rates
--someone needs to be there to intervene at a crisis
Social support mediates what variable?
stress
Hofsted's Cultural Dimensions
power distance
individual vs collectivist
masculine vs feminine
uncertainty principle
Is there a relationship between Hofstede's dimensions and disease?
yes; shown in Matsumoto & Fletcher (1996)
Matsumoto & Fletcher (1996)
All of the cultural dimensions were related to the cross-cultural incidence of one or more diseases.
Is there a relationship between individualism - collectivism and heart disease?
yes
Heart Disease (Triandis et al., 1988)
shows that there may be a relationship between individualsm-collectivism and heart disease
Caucasian Americans
highly individualistic group; had high incidence of heart disease
Trappist monks
highly collectivist; lowest incidence of heart disease
Heart Disease (Triandis et al., 1988)-This research suggests that what type of cultures may have a higher risk of heart disease?
individualistic cultures
Is SES (socioeconomic status) related to health and mortality?
yes
Lower SES levels are associated with higher or lower rates of disease and mortality?
higher
Alcohol Use Across Cultures
-Bales (1949)
- Four cultural attitudes toward alcohol
-Complete Abstinence
-ritual attitude
-convival drinking
-drinking utilitarian
Range of Alcohol Consumption- Israel et al. (1991)-surveyed how many countries?
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Range of Alcohol Consumption-Per Capita Range: Highest? Lowest?
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Range of Alcohol Consumption-There was a strong correlation between per capita alcohol consumption and what disease?
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Alcoholism Rates (Helzer et al., 1990)
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Consumption Rates Low for Asians
-Why?
-Cultural reasons?
- Physiological reasons?
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Alcohol Sensitivity by Race (Reed, 1985)
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What striking differences may occur between Asians and non-Asians?
- Facial flushing



- ALDH-I deficiencies
Why the high rate of alcoholism among Koreans?
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Park et al. (1984)
- What difference between Koreans and Taiwanese has been observed in terms of facial flushing?
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A cultural difference in the sensitivity to alcohol with a biological basis?
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Acupuncture Theories
Traditional Chinese medicine:

- Over 2,000 acupuncture points

- Meridians (pathways)

- Qi (energy) regulates balance

- Yin and Yang
What is acupuncture thought to do?
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Do meridians actually exist?

-Along nerve or circulation pathways?

-Through connective tissue?

-Don't exist?
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Mechanisms of Action
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- Conduction of ... ... Signals

- Activation of ... ... Systems

- Changes in Brain Chemistry, Sensation, and Involuntary Body Functions
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NIH Consensus Statement on Acupuncture
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Is accupuncture practiced much in the U.S.?
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What is accupuncture known to be effective for?
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Accupuncture: Useful as an Adjunct or Alternative Treatment for:
Addiction
Stroke rehabilitation
Headache
Menstrual cramps
Tennis elbow
Fibromyalgia
Myofascial pain
Osteoarthritis
Low back pain
Carpal tunnel syndrome
Asthma
Lowers need for pain-killing drugs