Nutrition Through the Lifespan Lesson 8&9
Terms in this set (80)
The onset and severity of __ of the ten leading causes of death have risk factors that can be modified through changes in nutrition and PA.
Since the first Healthy People 2000 report was generated in 1979, which of the following has NOT declined?
Men and women continue to develop bone density until roughly age __.
Hearing loss begins as early as age __
By middle adulthood, physical changes become more apparent with the decline in muscle mass and increase in
Menopause is associated with an increased risk of
Obesity is associated with high levels of __ in men and women.
The largest component of daily energy expenditure, __% for most adults, is the involuntary process of internal chemical activities that maintain the body.
Thermic effect of food (TEF) accounts for approx. __% of energy needs in normal weight people.
The most variable component of energy expenditure is activity thermogenesis which accounts for __% of total energy expenditure.
To lose one pound per week, an adult would need to create a negative calorie balance of __ cals daily.
The current trend of higher body weight and the increasing rate of overweight and obesity through the adult decades is associated with all of the following factors except
innate physiological ability to adjust caloric intake with energy expenditure (behavioral, social, environmental)
The MyPlate food guide helps adults use the Dietary Guidelines for Americans to find balance between food and physical activity and get the most nutrition out of their calories.
Overall, __% of adults in the US drink alcohol.
What percent of calories come from beverages?
According to the NHANES survey, water and other beverages supplied __% of total water needs of adults.
No evidence connects drinking coffee or tea or other caffeine-containing fluids with dehydration.
A food product that has a physiological benefit or reduces the risk of chronic disease beyond basic nutritional functions is called an __ food
Deficiency of which nutrient is highly prevalent, present in approx. 50% of the general population?
Data from the survey shows that intakes of which nutrients exceed recommendations?
protein, total fat, sat fat, sodium
Avg daily dietary fiber recommendations are __ grams for males and __ grams for females.
Vitamin E has anti-inflammatory properties and is involved in maintenance and repair of cellular membranes
Decreased calcium bioavailability can be due to low __ intake.
PA guidelines for Americans 2008, says __ mins of moderate PA a week for adults.
Evolving research indicates a dual role for __ in carcinogenesis. It protects against some cancers, but high intakes can be cancer promoting
Chronic inflammation, which may contribute to atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes, cancer and heart failure, is more frequently found in adults with __ intakes below 50% RDA.
Three nutritional related disease that are the highest contributors to premature death among adults are
cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes
The Census Bureau has determined that approx. __% of adult US residents, age 18-64, live in poverty.
The largest of all nutritional assistance is the
Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)
Nearly __ of all US adults are obese.
Obesity and overweight are high for all segments of the population, but vary across __.
age, gender, race, income categories
Adipocytes comprise an active endocrine organ that secretes hormone-like factors associated with chronic low grade inflammation and
Obesity in adults is defined by BMI of __ or greater.
Which of the following is amore important indicator of health than BMI?
body fat content
For persons w extreme obesity, which is the most effective for weight management?
Statins work by blocking the enzyme __ which is responsible for making cholesterol in the liver.
The Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes recommended by the National Cholesterol Education Program includes the following EXCEPT:
polyunsaturated fatty acids should not contribute more than 20% of calories (saturated fat should be less than 7% of calories, monounsaturated should contribute up to 20% of calories, total fat should not contribute range from 25-35% of calories, dietary cholesterol should be less than 200 mg per day)
When carb counting, the food groups that contain the most carbs per serving are
fruit and grain
In type 2 diabetes, modest weight loss of __% body weight shows improved glucose control in overweight and obese people.
Persons with HIV have high rates of
metabolic syndrome, heart disease, and type 2 diabetes
What percent of North Americans are aged 65 and older?
Avg life expectancy in the US is __ years.
The greatest dietary improvement in the elderly would be to eat more
Animal studies show that an energy restricted diet that meets micronutrient needs can be life prolonging.
Of all the physiologic changes that do occur during aging, the biggest effect on nutritional status is due to the shifts in the __ system.
Losses of fat-free mass leave older people with lower __ reserves to call upon when needed.
water, muscle, and mineral
Elderly people have a stronger sense of smell than younger people.
Older adults are not consuming enough of the following nutrients:
fat soluble vitamins (A, E, D, and K)
Over a decade, daily energy needs decline by __ calories.
In general, adequate carb intake is not a problem in the elderly.
Eggs, which have a high cholesterol content, are a nutrient dense, convenient and safe food for most people who do not have a lipid disorder.
Age related metabolic changes affect vitamin D status, primarily due to
decreased ability of the skin to synthesis vitamin D
Many of the elderly may be unable to utilize vitamin B12 due to existing
Plasma levels and liver stores of __ increase with age.
Women's __ needs decrease after menopause.
Which nutrient is a potent antioxidant that can enhance functions and cognitive status, but causes increased mortality at higher doses
Low calcium intake have been linked to
colon cancer, overweight, HTN
Supplementation with this nutrient has been linked to reduced bone fractures.
In general, multivitamin/mineral supplements should be used in physiologic doses rather than high potency doses to maintain a balance of vitamins and minerals
Leading practices that put an older person for risk of food borne illness are
improper holding temps of foods, poor personal hygiene, contaminated food preparation equipment, inadequate cooking time
Some habits of those who enjoy a long life include being active, stopping eating when 80% full and drinking red wine in moderation.
Senior Nutrition, now called the Title IIIC of the Older Americans Act, is a community based program hat provides all of the following except:
medications (congregate meals, home delivered meals, nutrition screening and education, and increased social contact)
Participants in home delivered or congregate meals had up to __% higher intakes of recommended nutrients as compared to non-participants.
What percentage of older people (65-74) believed they had good to excellent health?
In free living adults, __ was found to be the most important predictor of the total number of physician visits, visits to the ER, and hospitalization.
nutritional risk status
Which of the following is not a risk factor for stroke?
gender (cigarette smoking, excessive use of alcohol, PinA, long term high BP)
Moderate amounts of any type of alcohol can be protective against stroke.
Nutrition strategies to normalize BP include all of the following except
adequate chromium intake (weight management, adequate potassium/magnesium/calcium intake)
The DASH diet (dietary approaches to stop HTN) is useful in decreasing BP and stroke,a nd is especially high in
fruits and veggies
Older adults with diabetes may have an increased risk of falling due to
reduced peripheral nerve function, reduced renal function, reduced vision
Diabetics who have chronic kidney disease need to limit __ intake.
Diabetes leads to a 10 fold greater risk of
amputation, visual loss, neuropathies
Diabetics who maintain their glycosylated hemoglobin below __% can lead a better quality life and result in fewer long term complications.
Decreased functional status in older age may exacerbate obesity, but more importantly, it may interfere with
The following in needed for healthy bones EXCEPT
all are needed - calcium, phosphorus, weight-bearing exercise, and vitamin D
For older adults, extra weight during illness episodes, especially hospitalizations, seems to be protective.
Which of the following are not nutritional remedies to increase calcium intake and absorption?
all are remedies - increase fruit and veggie intake for alkalizing effect, get adequate vitamin D, spread calcium supplements throughout the day, avoid excess sodium
Hormones replacement can effectively increase __ in postmenopausal women.
bone mineral density
An amino acid that is associated wth the promotion of poor vascular health and cognitive decline is
Signs of dehydration include all of the following except
edema (speech difficulty, confusion, sunken appearance of eyes, muscle weakness in upper body)