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The type of cell division that makes animals and plants grow. A parent cell divides into two identical daughter cells. These daughter cells divide in two and so forth. Also the way in which old and damaged cells are replaced. Specifically, it refers to the process of nuclear division that occurs before a cell physically divides in two. During mitosis, the cell's DNA is copied into each of the two daughter cells. In multicellular organisms, mitosis provides new cells for growth and tissue repair. In eukaryotes, it can be a form of asexual reproduction. This most commonly occurs in single-celled organisms, such as yeast. Also known as nuclear division, makes up 5-10% of the cell cycle and is considered a separate process to cytokinesis (cytoplasmic division)
genetically identical cells
All the genes and chromosomes from the parent cell must be copied and passed on to the daughter cells. Normally, a cell only contains one copy of each chromosome, but before dividing a cell must duplicate all of its chromosomes. This means that all the genes will also be duplicated
A cell's chromosomes are usually long, thin strands. Just before the cell divides however, the chromosomes become shorter, thicker and more visible. They are said to condense.
One of the two strands formed when each chromosome duplicates
The point where two chromatids are joined
process of mitosis
DNA replication, mitosis and two diploid cells; Each chromosome replicates so it contains two identical chromatids, the chromosomes align in the middle of the parent cell, the two chromatids in each chromosome are pulled apart into separate halves of the cell, and the cell splits in two to produce two daughter cells, each containing the same chromosomes
Mitosis involving copying a cell and its chromosomes exactly
Stage 1 of what happens during mitosis
All chromosomes are found in the nucleus of a cell. The nucleus is surrounded by a membrane called a nuclear envelope
Stage 2 of what happens during mitosis
Before mitosis begins, each chromosome duplicates to consist of two strands called chromatids. Each chromatid is thin and long
Stage 3 of what happens during mitosis
The chromatids condense- they become shorter, thicker and more visible. They are joined together at the centromere. The nuclear envelope disappears
Stage 4 of what happens during mitosis
Tiny spindle fibers spread out from each end of the cell and attach to the centromere of each chromosome. The spindle arranges each chromosome in the center of the cell
Stage 5 of what happens during mitosis
The spindle fibers contract, pulling the two chromatids apart. A nuclear envelope forms around each new set of chromosomes, and the cell itself starts to divide
Stage 6 of what happens during mitosis
The cell finishes dividing in two and the chromosomes, become longer and thinner. Both cells contain 46 chromosomes and are identical
The Stages of Mitosis
Chromosomes become shorter and thicker. Sprindle fibers attach to the chromosomes. Chromosomes align in the center of the cell. Sprindle fibers shorten, separating the chromosomes. Chromatids move to opposite sides of the cell. The cell divides into two daughter cells
What happens during mitosis?
Before the process of nuclear division begins, the cell is carrying out all its normal functions. DNA synthesis and checking are complete. Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
Mitosis begins. The chromatin condenses into discrete bodies and becomes inactive. Centrioles migrate in pairs to opposite poles, and the nuclear envelope and nucleolus break up.
The chromosomes are now tightly coiled and visible as separate bodies under the microscope. The mitotic spindle begins to form at the centrioles
The mitotic spindle grows further and attaches to the centromere of each chromosome. The fibers then arrange the chromosomes to line up along the cell equator
The centromere of each chromosome breaks. Sister chromatids separate into daughter chromosomes. The cell starts to elongate as cytokinesis begins.
New nuclear membranes and nucleoli form around the daughter chromosomes. The chromosomes start to unwind back into chromatin and are no longer visible under the microscope.
Finally, the cytoplasm is divided between the two daughter cells to finish the cycle. Each new cell enters interphase and resumes its normal functions
The process of growth and division that cells go through
4 major parts of the Cell Cycle
G1: growth phase 1, S: Synthesis, G2: growth phase 2, Division: Mitosis and Cytokinesis
Why does the cell need to duplicate DNA?
Because if it didn't, then each daughter cell would only have half of its DNA
A cell in interphase is a cell that is not currently dividing. During interphase, a cell carries out its normal functions, and prepares for the next division in three phases: G1, S and G2
A period of rapid growth, immediately following cytokinesis
The period during which DNA replication (synthesis) takes place.
A second growth phase, in preparation for mitosis
A process of asexual reproduction in which prokaryotic organisms divide, creating identical copies of themselves. The process is similar to mitosis in that the cells divide to make identical copies. Unlike mitosis, it is a form of reproduction. However it is different from sexual reproduction. DNA from two prokaryotes are not combined, instead bacteria undergo the process alone
steps of binary fission
1.) Before binary fission the bacterium has tightly coiled DNA 2.) The DNA of the bacterium has replicated 3.) The DNA is pulled to the separate poles of the bacterium as it increases size to prepare for splitting 4.) The growth of a new cell wall begins to separate the bacterium 5.) The new cell wall fully develops, resulting in the complete split of the bacterium 6.) The new daughter cells have tightly coiled DNA, ribosomes and plasmids
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