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The Jovian Planets
The solid surface of Jupiter lies just below the cloud layers that are visible from Earth.
Jupiter emits more energy than it receives from the Sun
Although often referred to as a gaseous planet, Jupiter is mostly liquid in its interior.
The magnetic fields of both Uranus and Neptune are highly tilted relative to their rotation axes and significantly offset from the planets' centers.
The main constituent of Jupiter's atmosphere is
Saturn's cloud layers are much thicker than those of Jupiter because Saturn has
Weaker surface gravity
Uranus was discovered about the same time as
The U.S. Declaration of Independence
Compared with Uranus, the planet Neptune is
Roughly the same size
Our most detailed knowledge of Uranus and Neptune comes from
Which three played a role in the finding of Neptune?
Adams, Leverrier, and Galle
Small deviations in a planet's orbital motion
imply the nearby presence of a massive body.
Adams and Leverrier both predicted the position of Neptune, based on its effects on:
Uranus was discovered
less than 250 years ago.
At which planet can the pole remain in darkness for 42 years, then have 42 years of constant daylight?
In terms of axial tilt, which of the jovians shows us the largest inclination?
If you could find a bathtub big enough for Saturn, the planet would:
The planet whose pole was facing the Sun when Voyager 2 approached in 1986 was
Which of these is true about the seasons of Uranus?
Its strange tilt produces extreme seasonal variations, especially at the poles
The reason the jovian planets lost very little of their original atmosphere is due to their
Studying the magnetospheres of the jovians has allowed us to measure their
Essentially, the Great Red Spot is
a large cyclonic storm (hurricane).
Alternating zones of rising and sinking gas in Jupiter's atmosphere
create light and dark bands.
Which planet had the Great Dark Spot in 1989, but had lost it by 1995?
The magnetic field tilts of which two bodies are the most unusual?
Uranus and Neptune
What is the source of Jupiter's intense radio waves and magnetism?
liquid metallic hydrogen swirling in the rapidly spinning mantle
Jupiter gives back into space twice the energy it gets from the distant Sun. Where is this energy coming from, for the most part?
the slow escape of gravitational energy left from its formation
What is true of Jupiter's magnetosphere?
It has a tail that extends at least to Saturn's orbit.
What is thought to lie at the center of Jupiter?
a massive core of rocky materials with some iron mixed in
Differential rotation is when a planet's equator and polar regions rotate at different rates.
The zonal flows giving rise to the belts and zones are similar to the jet streams in our own stratosphere.
While hydrogen, helium, water, and ammonia can produce the white coloration of Jupiter's zones, the brownish color of the belts requires more complex chemistry
We have observed a comet strike Jupiter.
Jupiter's magnetic field is much stronger than Earth's, and has a magnetic tail that extends beyond the orbit of Saturn
Jupiter puts back into space twice the energy it gets from the Sun
William Herschel was the discoverer of Uranus.
Changes in the predicted motion of Uranus led to the search for an eighth planet
Saturn is less dense than water.
The axial tilts of Uranus and Neptune are similar
Helium is more abundant at Saturn than at Jupiter.
Although it is almost the same size as Jupiter, Saturn's gravity is about 2.5 times less, because of Saturn's lower mass and density
Uranus' rotation axis is tipped over 98 degrees, so its magnetosphere is tipped over the same amount
Neptune has a larger fraction of methane in its atmosphere than Uranus.
The two outer jovians appear bluish in color because
methane gas in their atmospheres absorbs red light well.
A gravitational assist, or slingshot, can be used to either speed up or slow down a spacecraft.
Galileo's early telescopes revealed the four large moons of Jupiter, the rings of Saturn, and its large moon Titan.
Like the discovery of Uranus, the finding of Neptune was accidental.
All four jovian planets are made primarily of hydrogen and oxygen
All four jovians spin faster than any of the terrestrials.
Jupiter's Great Red Spot is similar to a hurricane on Earth.
Jupiter's atmosphere looks uniform and calm, with no visible detail.
There is less ammonia in the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune than in Jupiter or Saturn.
Methane absorbs red light readily, so we would expect a planet with a mostly methane atmosphere to appear blue.
Order of jovian planets and earth by distance to sun
Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
Order of jovian planets and earth ranked by size - smallest to largest
Earth, Neptune, Uranus, Saturn, Jupiter
Order of jovian planets and earth ranked by mass - smallest to largest.
Earth, Uranus, Neptune, Saturn, Jupiter
Order of planets based on surface temperature - hottest to coolest
Mercury, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Neptune - the closer to the sun, the hotter the planet for these partiuclar planets. venus' reflectivity makes it hotter than Mercury.
Order of planets based on orbit times around sun - shortest to longest
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto
Order of planets based on number of moons - highest to lowest
Jupiter, Mars, Earth, Mercury