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Terms in this set (137)
Destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem
The Council of Jerusalem
Year of the "founding of the city of Rome" (AUC 1)
Birth of Christ
A mystery religion
a cult that tried to mimick the elements of Christianity to compete with it
Flesh and matter=evil; spirit and soul=good
The hermeneutical method that allows any text to mean almost anything
The doctrine that church authority was passed from the apostles to the bishops they trained
A Roman historian who corroborates the existence of Christ
The place where the term "Christian" was first used. Here the name Christian, first given in ridicule, originated and became the honored designation of the followers of Christ.
Peace and vast road system
A cultural contribution of the Romans to the environment enabling the spread of Christianity
Philosophy of history and linear time
a contribution of the Jews to the environment enabling the Christianity
Roman poet who wrote On the Nature of Things, a poetic expression of Epicurean philosophy popular in the 1st century AD.
The great Jewish rabbi that trained Paul
T/F: Those who reject the three-fold position of "pastor", "elder", and "deacon" maintain that the Greek word "episkopos" and "presbyteros" mean the exact same thing
T/F: In the first decade of the church it was clear to all Christians that salvation and the church were open to all people (Gentiles) without Jewish legalistic requirements
T/F: The Romans during the early church era were staunchly intolerant of other religions
Author of "Cyclus Paschalis"
Author of "City of God"
Author of Jewish Wars; Antiquities
List contributions of the Greeks to the rise of Christianity
1) Universal language 2) Greek philosophy 3) Destruction of polytheistic system
List and explain in the each of the four ways that the early Christian church closed its ranks to protect itself from heretical teaching and persecution?
1) Canon 2) Monarchical Bishop 3) Development of creeds 4) Liturgy
Neoplatonic philosopher, said all emanates, radiates from the ONE.
Acts 11:20 says this is the place the word "Christian" was first used
Early apologist, appealed to common ground of philosophy and reason. The Logos is a universal seed.
Issued first official policy in Roman Empire for persecution
"The blood of the martyrs is the seed of the church!"
Head of Alexandrian School, compiled Hexapla and Against Celsus
a non Christian historian who corroborates Christ's existence
Seeing a cross in the sky and an "χ" in a dream, and hearing "In this sign you will conquer!" he won the battle of Milvian Bridge, converted, and changed Christianity and western civilization
Schismatics who claimed that a sacrament (baptism) is invalidated by bishop's lapse in persecution
Unleashed the worst systematic persecution Christians had endured and forced upon Christians the problem of the canon of the New Testament
The "golden-mouthed" preacher, patriarch of Constantinople
He disliked the use of the term theotokos (God-bearer) as a name for Mary, the mother of Jesus, because it seemed to exalt her unduly. He offered the word Christotokos as an alternative, arguing that Mary was only the mother of the human side of Christ.
Unfortunately, he chose an incorrect date to begin the Christian calendar; in his Cyclus Paschalis he chose 754 a.u.c. (from the founding of Rome) instead of the more accurate 749 a.u.c. for the date of Christ's birth.
He felt that Judaism was evil and, therefore, he hated the Jewish Scriptures and the Jehovah described therein. He set up his own canon of Scripture, which included a truncated gospel of Luke and ten of the letters of the New Testament associated with the name of Paul.
Eusebius of Caesarea
One of the most widely studied of the church fathers he has as much right to the title of Father of Church History as Herodotus has to the title Father of History.
In 386 came the crisis of conversion. Meditating on his spiritual need one day in a garden, he heard a voice next door saying, "Take up and read." He opened his Bible to Romans 13:13-14, and the reading brought to his soul the light he had been unable to find either in Manicheanism or Neoplatonism.
The Vulgate translation of the Bible, which he began at Damasus's request while he was his secretary, added to the prestige of the occupants of the episcopal chair in Rome.
In an attempt to avoid the undue separation of the human and divine natures of Christ, he taught that Christ had a true body and soul but that the spirit in man was replaced in Christ by the logos. The divine element actively dominated the passive element, the body and soul, in the person of Christ.
Council of Nicea (date)
Edict of Milan (date)
Council of Constantinople (date)
Council of Chalcedon (date)
The infamous fall of the Roman Empire and deposing of Romulus Augustus (date)
The first sacking of Rome (by the Visigoths, led by Alaric) (date)
Council of Ephesus (date)
Vandals sacked Rome; Leo I negotiates their departure (date)
He believed that each man is created free as Adam was and that each man has the power to choose good or evil. Each soul is a separate creation of God and, therefore, uncontaminated by the sin of Adam.
He said "there was when he (Christ) was not."
They may be said to have erred because of their excessive zeal in emphasizing the unity of God in opposition to any attempt to conceive of God as three separate personalities.
Christ had two natures and two persons in one body; Mary was not Theotokos
In the development of his peculiar doctrine concerning inspiration, this heretic contended that inspiration was immediate and continuous and that he was the paraclete or advocate through whom the Holy Spirit spoke to the church.
There is only one God manifested in three manners or modes. Thus there were not three persons in the Godhead but three manifestations.
They believed that the Jewish law (e.g., circumcision) was the highest expression of His will and that it was still binding on man. Jesus was Joseph's son who attained a measure of divinity when the Spirit came upon Him at baptism.
Claims there exists an eternal dualism of good and evil, light and darkness that will continue forever.
Babylonian captivity of the Papacy (date-date)
Crowning of Charlemagne as Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III
Beginning of Islam (starting year of the Muslim calendar)
Synod of Whitby, gave the Roman Catholic church dominance in England over the Celtic form of Christianity (date)
Schism between the Eastern and Western church (date)
King Recared of the Spanish Visigoths became orthodox Christian (date)
Fall of Constantinople to the Turks/End of the Byzantine Empire (date)
T/F: Because the men of the Renaissance deeply respected the Medieval period they called them the Middle Ages deeming them as a vital link and conduit to ancient sources of wisdom.
T/F: Feudalism may be defined as a system of political organization based on possession of land for which one gave military services to the lord.
T/F: Charlemagne made the first attempt to revive the Western Roman Empire after its fall.
Using early critical methods in 1440, he discovered the Donation of Constantine to be forged in the 8th century and not written in the 4th century as it purports to be
The name for those who want to destroy images and their use in religion
Built in Constantinople in 535-37, it was originally a Christian church, became a mosque, and is now a museum for Byzantine art
A first century mystery religion popular with roman soldiers
Pope Leo IX
Issued a decree of excommunication in 1054 that separated the Roman Catholic church from the Eastern Orthodox church, thus causing a permanent schism between the east and the west which has never been fully reversed.
Pope Innocent III
He launched the crusade to kill 10k Albiginsian heretics, and in 1209, the 4th crusade. He was the most powerful pope in history, the "Vicar of Christ" on earth
Known as the "Hammerer", he defeated the Islamic Moors at Tours, France, and saved W. Europe
He started the Irish church
He wrote the book Of the Body and Blood of the Lord which taught transubstantiation
Fourth Lateran Council, 1215
Transubstantiation became official Christian doctrine here though it had been believed for many centuries (name, date)
The two general curricula in medieval schools that led to the rise of universities
Trivium and quadrivium
He issued "Unam Sanctum", a bull claiming sweeping power just as the papacy was falling into subjugation
Supposedly declares the Doctrine of Apostolic Succession and Petrine Supremacy (bible verse)
Mendicant orders of friars
Black Death (date)
Fall of Constantinople/End of Byzantine Empire (date)
Crusades launched/1st crusade (date)
Martel beats Muslims at tours (date)
Crusades end/Kingdom of Acre falls (date)
Babylonian captivity of the Papacy (dates)
Act of Supremacy, made Henry VIII head of Anglican church. Thus England's reformation was political, not theological like Luther's
Magellan completes 1st circumnavigation around earth
Council of Trent begins
Beginning of Protestant Reformation
Luther appears before Diet of Worms
Defeat of Phillip II's Spanish Armada and the triumph of Protestantism in England
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre of French Hugenots
Emperor of Germany who opposed Luther and the German Reformation at the Diet of Worms
Key Protestant reformer in Zurich Switzerland; opposed Anabaptist beginnings
The ignominious first Grand Inquisitor of the horrific Spanish Inquisition
Luther's rediscovery of justification by faith alone started with this verse
Catholic group that held to Augustinian theology of sin and grace; opposed Jesuits, promoted by Pascal
Key Lutheran leader who helped Luther organize and he picked up the movement after Luther died
Adopted a via-media between Catholicism and Protestantism, a shrewd leader
He wrote a Treatise of the Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity that taught the infamous doctrine of thee divine right of kings
Mary Tudor, trying to restore Catholicism to England, burned these famous English martyrs
Founder of the Society of Jesuits; wrote Spiritual Exercises
Group that splintered from the Swiss Reformation; held to believer's baptism
Excommunicated Luther in 1520, causing the final split and creating Protestantism
Pope Leo X
The Archbishop of Canterbury who schemed Henry VIII's break from Rome so he could marry Anne Bolyn
Early Anabaptist leader, burned at the stake; his wife drowned in Danube by RCC
Tried to reform Calvinistic theology, denied its central tenets such as total depravity
The outcome of many years of violence, this principle of "whose realm, his religion" allowed temporal rulers to pick the religion of his realm
Cuius regio, eius religio
Dutch Renaissance scholar Catholic theologian who sought to revive classical texts from antiquity, restore simple Christian faith based on Scripture, and eradicate the improprieties of the medieval Church. His works include The Manual of the Christian Knight (1503) and The Praise of Folly (1509)
The agent for Archbishop Albert and Pope Leo X who sold indulgences for all sins forever
Changed the name of Anabaptists to Brethren and gave solid leadership in Netherlands
Luther's spiritual mentor and the vicar-general of his Augustinian Order
The German prince who protected and promoted Luther
Frederick elector of Saxony
Earliest leader of Anabaptists, taught believer's baptism, separation of church/state
Spanish monarch, married Mary Tudor, launched Spanish Armada to crush Elizabeth I
Led by Jan Matthys and John Leyden, who tried to implement radical violent reforms
First Baptists in England, General Baptists, practiced believer's baptism in 1608
John Smyth, Thomas Helwys
Protestants in France who underwent severe persecution in 17th and 18th centuries
Daughter of Catherine of Aragon/staunch Catholic, tried to restore England to Roman Catholicism for 5 yrs
Mary Tudor "Bloody Mary"
The "monstrous regent" who thwarted Knox's Protestant reforms and Presbyterianism
Mary Stuart Queen of Scots
United Scotland and England in one crown and began the Stuart line of monarchs
Tried to reform the Rom.Cath. Church by attacking the sacramental system of salvation
Paradise Lost (author)
Provincial Letters, Pensees (author)
Institutes of the Christian Religion (author)
Pilgrim's Progress (author)
Second Treatise on Government (author)
Exsurge Domine (author)
Pope Leo X
Of Plymouth Plantation (author)
John the Apostle
Freedom of the Will/ In Praise of Folly (author)
Spiritual Exercises (author)
Bondage of the Will (author)
The First Blast of the Trumpet Against the Monstrous Regiment of Women (author)
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