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115 terms

anatomy and physiology test #2

STUDY
PLAY
the blood vessels/basic circulatory route
veins=heart=arteries=arterioles=capillaries/tissues= venules=veins
vessels structures
-ARTERIES
-VENIES
ARTERIES
-BLOOD FLOW AWAY FROM HEART
-ARTERIES HAVE THICKER WALL THAN VEINS
-ARTERIES HAVE HIGHEST BLOOD PRESSURE
VEINS
-BLOOD FLOW TOWARD HEART
-VEINS HAVE REGULARLY SPACE VALVES
BLOOD DISTRIBUTION AT REST
*SYSTEMIC VENOUS SYSTEM 64% (carrying blood to heart)
*HEART 7%
*SYSTEMIC CAPILLARIES 7%
*SYSTEMIC ARTERIAL SYSTEM 13%
*PULMONARY CIRCUIT 9%
VESSELS WALL STRUCTURE
*TUNICA INTIMA
*TUNICA MEDIA
*TUNICA EXTERNA
TUNICA INTIMA
made of ENDOTHELIUM, BASEMENT, ELASTIC FIBERS
TUNICA MEDIA
made of SMOOTH MUSCLE, ELASTIC FIBERS
TUNICA EXTERNA
made of COLLAGEN FIBERS, ELASTIC FIBERS
TYPES OF ARTERIES
1) ELASTIC ARTERIES
2) MUSCULAR ARTERIES
3) ARTERIOLES
1) ELASTIC ARTERIES
*more ELASTIC TISSUE than MUSCLE
*LARGER ARTERIES (aorta) TO EXPAND WHEN RECEIVING BLOOD AND RECOIL TO PUSH BLOOD FORWARD.
2) MUSCULAR ARTERIES
*more MUSCLE TISSUE than ELASTIC TISSUE
* GREATER VASOCONTRICTION AND VASODILATION to ADJUST the amount of BLOOD flow through the vessels
3) ARTERIOLES
* SMALL
* DELIVERY TO CAPILLARIES
*NOT TUNICA EXTERNA (not collage fibers)
*RESISTANCE BLOOD VESSELS (another name)
because VASOCONSTRICTION INCREASES RESISTANCE, VASODILATION (relaxation) DECREASES RESISTANCE TO BLOOD FLOW
ANASTOMOSES
*UNION OF 2 OR MORE ARTERIES SUPPLYING THE SAME TISSUE
-BLOCKAGE= *CIRCLE OF WILLIS (underneath brain)
*CORONARY CIRCULATION (heart muscle)
*COLLATERAL CIRCULATION: ALTERNATE ROUTE
CAPILLARIES
-MICROCIRCULATION
-TUBES OF ENDOTHELIUM AND BASEMENT MEMBRANE (TUNICA INTIMA)
-FUNCTION EXCHANGE OF SUBSTANCES.
-FUNCTION LIKE A NET TO FORM CAPILLARY BEDS
CAPILLARY BED STRUCTURE
ARTERIOLES= ARTERIAL CAPILLARY= VENOUS CAPILLARY= VENULE
CAPILLARY TYPES
1) CONTINUOUS CAPILLARIES
2) FENESTRATED CAPILLARIES
3) SINUSOIDS CAPILLARIES
1) CONTINUOUS CAPILLARIES
-TIGHT FIT
-LEAST PERMEABLE CAPILLARIES
-MOST IMPORTANT IN THE BRAIN
2) FENESTRATED CAPILLARIES
-PORES (holes) THROUGH THE ENDOTHELIUM CELLS
-MEDIUM PERMEABILITY
-MOST IMPORTANT IN THE KIDNEYS
3) SINUSOIDS CAPILLARIES
-LARGE GAPS BETWEEN ENDOTHELIUM CELLS
-HAVE SCANTBASEMENT MEMBRANE
-MORE PERMEABLE CAPILLARIES
-THE LARGER CAPILLARIES
MOST IMPORTANT FOR LIVER
CAPILLARIES EXCHANGE
PASSAGE OF WATER, SOLUTES BETWEEN CAPILLARY BLOOD AND INTERSTITIAL FLUID.
CAPILLARIES EXCHANGE/ 3 WAYS
1) DIFFUSION
2) TRANSCYTOSIS
3)BULK FLOW
1) DIFFUSIOIN
MOVE SOLUTE FROM HIGH TO LOW CONCENTRATION
2) TRANSCYTOSIS
MOVE LARGE MOLECULES by FORMATION OF PINOCYTOTIC VESICLES
3) BULK FLOW
2 TYPES =FILTRATION AND REABSORPTION
3) BULK FLOW/ FILTRATION
- MOVE FLUID AND SOLUTE from capillaries INTO INTERTITIAL FLUID
3) BULK FLOW/ REABSORPTION
- MOVE FLUID AND SOLUTE from interstitial fluid INTO CAPILLARIES
TWO OPPOSING PRESSURES AT WORK
1) BLOOD HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE [ BHP]
2) BLOOD COLLOIDAL OSMOTIC PRESSURE [ BCOP]
1)BLOOD HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE [BHP]
PUSHES FLUID OUT works with FILTRATION
1)BLOOD COLLOIDAL OSMOTIC PRESSURE [BCOP]
"SUCTION" PULLS FLUIS BACK IN works with REABSORPTION
VEINS STRUCTURE
-LARGE VEIN all the walls
-MEDIUM SIZED-VEIN all walls less thicker tunica externa
-VENULE only has tunica externa and endothelium
-FENESTRATED CAPILLARY only pores, endothelium cells, basal lamina
-BLOOD PRESSURE
IS THE FORCE THAT PUSH BLOOD THROUGH THE BLOOD VESSELS
-DIFFERENCE IN BLOOD PRESSURE
PRESSURE GRADIENT
-FLOWS OF BLOOD PRESSURE
FROM HIGHER PRESSURE TO LOWER PRESSURE
-WHICH KIND OF VESSELS HAVE HIGHER AND LOWEST BLOOD PRESSURE
-AORTA HAS HIGHER
-THE VENA CAVA LOWEST
(ARTERIES) blood leaves heart in high pressure and comes back lowest pressure (VEINS)
-BLOOD PRESSURE GRADIENT
1) ARTERIAL 60mmHg
2) CAPILLARY 20mmHg
3) VENOUS 15mmHg
1) ARTERIAL PRESSURE GRADIENT averages 60mmHg
FROM AORTA TO ARTERIOLES
2) CAPILLARY PRESSURE GRADIENT averages 20mmHg
FROM ARTERIOLE side TO VENULE
3) VENOUS PRESSURE GRADIENT averages 15mmHg
FROM VENULES TO VENA CAVA
MEASUREMENTS OF ARTERIAL BLOOD PRESSURE READINGS
1) SYSTOLIC PRESSURE [SP]
2) DIASTOLE PRESSURE [DP]
3) PULSE PRESSURE [PP]
4) MEAN ARTERIAL BLOOD PRESSURE [MAP]
1) SYSTOLIC PRESSURE [SP]
LEFT VENTRICLE=CONTRACTING= HIGHER NUMBER
2) DIASTOLIC PRESSURE [DP]
LEFT VENTRICLE= RELAXING= LOWER NUMBER
3) PULSE PRESSURE [PP]
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SYSTOLIC AND DIASTOLIC
4) MEAN ARTERIAL BLOOD PRESSURE [MAP]
DIASTOLE + PULSE divide 3
BLOOD PRESSURE MEASURED
-BY MILLIMETERS OF MERCURY [mmHg]
-HIGH # SYSTOLIC
-LOW # DIASTOLIC
- TYPICAL READING 120/80 mmHg
-ABNORMAL REAING 140/90(above) mmHg is HYPERTENSION
VENOUS PRESSURE AND VENOUS RETURN
venous pressure VERY LOW
FACTORS THAT AID IN VENOUS RETURN
1)CONTRACTION OF SKELETAL MUSCLE
2)BREATHING
3)VENOUS VALVES
1) CONTRACTION OF SKELETAL MUSCLE
SQUEEZES BLOOD TOWARDS HEART
2) BREATHING
SQUEEZES PULMONARY VEINS
3) VENOUS VALVES
PREVENTS BACKFLOW OF BLOOD
BLOOD FLOW
ARTERIES= FASTEST
CAPILLARIES= SLOWEST
RESISTANCES OF BLOOD FLOW
-INCREASES resistances DECREASES BLOOD FLOW
-for blood flow BLOOD PRESSURE must OVERCOME RESISTANCES
-GREATER resistance in ARTERIOLES called TOTAL PERIPHERAL RESISTANCE [TPR]
BLOOD PRESSURE FORMULA
BLOOD PRESSURE= FLOW x RESISTANCES [R]
BLOOD PRESSURE FORMULA= FLOW
+R causes -FLOW, -R causes +FLOW (opposed)
BLOOD PRESSURE FORMULA= RESISTANCES [R]
+BP causes +FLOW, -BP causes -FLOW (same)
FACTORS AFFECTING FLOW
1) CARDIAC OUTPUT [CO]=amount ejected by left ventricle in ONE MINUTE
2) BLOOD VOLUME [BV] =TOTAL AMOUNT OF BLOOD IN BODY
FACTORS AFFECTING RESISTANCES
1) DIAMETER OF THE BLOOD VESSEL= VASOCONSTRICTION INCREASES RESISTANCE
2) VISCOSITY OF BLOOD= THE #'S OF RBC'S
3) LENGTH OF BLOOD VESSELS= LONGER MORE RESISTANCE
BLOOD PRESSURE REGULATION
TWO SYSTEMS FOR REGULATION= 1) LOCAL and 2) CENTRAL
1) LOCAL AUTOREGULATION OF BLOOD FLOW (muscle acts as vasodilators)
TISSUES REGULATE BLOOD FLOW BY VASODILATORS=
O2- =CO2+ = acid+ = NO+ = TISSUE TEMPERATURE+ = INFLAMMATION CHEMICALS SUCH AS HESTIMINE (special condition)
2) CENTRAL CARDIOVASCULAR CENTERS
-CARDIOACCELERATOR, CARDIOINHIBITOR, VASOMOTOR CENTERS IN THE MEDULLA OBLONGATA
-REGULATE HEART RATE & STROKE VOLUME
-VASOMOTOR CENTER REGULATE VESSELS DIAMETER
- INPUT FROM THE BODY SENSORY RECEPTORS CENTERS & OUTPUT FROM CENTERS TO THE HEART AND BLOOD VESSESLS.
INPUT TO THE CARDIOVASCULAR CENTERS
1) HIGHER BRAIN CENTERS
2) PROPRIOCEPTORS
3) BARORECEPTORS
4) CHEMORECEPTORS
INPUT/ 1) HIGHER BRAIN CENTERS
CEREBRAL CORTEX= ANTICIPATION OF COMPETION
THE HYPOTHALAMUS= EMOTIONS
LIMBIC SYSTEM= BODY TEMPERATURE
INPUT/ 2) PROPRIOCEPTORS
MONITOR PHYSICAL ACTIVITY OR MOVEMENTS
INPUT/ 3)BARORECEPTORS
MONITOR CAHNGES IN BP IN THE VESSELS
INPUT/ 4) CHEMORECEPTORS
MONITOR CONCENTRATION OF O2, CO2, H+
NEURAL REGULATION OF BP AORTIC AND CAROTIC REFLEXES
3) BARORECEPTORS REFLEXES= a) AORTIC REFLEX b) CAROTIC SINUS REFLEX
4) CHEMORECEPTORS REFLEXS
INPUT= 3) BARORECEPTORS REFLEXES=
a) AORTIC REFLEX
-RECEPTORS ASCENDING AORTA
-SENSORY INPUT CARDIOVASCULAR MEDULLA
-MAINTAINS NORMAL SYSTEMIC BP
INPUT= 3) BARORECEPTORS REFLEXES=
b) CAROTIC SINUS REFLEX
-RECEPTORS IN ARTERY WALL
-SENSORY INPUT CARDIOVASCULAR MEDULLA
-MAINTAINS NORMAL BP
INPUT= 4)CHEMORECEPTORS REFLEXS
-DETECTS CHANGES= O2 decreases HYPOXIA
CO2 increases HYPERCAPNIA, H+ increases ACIDOSIS
-causes STIMULATION OF CARDIOACCELERATORY CENTER
-INCREASES SYMPATHETIC STIMULATION TO HEART AND VESSELS
-INCREASES CARDIAC OUTPUT & BP
- ALSO INCREASES BREATHING RATE
OUTPUT FROM THE CARDIOVASCULAR CENTER
1) HEART
2) BLOOD VESSELS
OUTPUT= 1) HEART
*SYMPATHETIC= INCREASES HEART MUSCLE CONTRACTION FORCE.
*PARASYMPATHETIC= DECREASE THE HEART RATE
OUTPUT= 2) BLOOD VESSELS
* CONTROLS SYMPATHETIC VASOMOTORS
*KEEPS TONIC CONTRACTION CALLED VASOMOTOR TONE (still circulate even when a sleep)
TYPES OF CIRCULATIONS
1) SISTEMIC CIRCULATION
2) PULMONARY CIRCULATION
3) CORONARY CIRCULATION
4) SPLANCHNIC CIRCULATION
1) SISTEMIC CIRCULATION
from LEFT VENTRICLE INTO (aorta) ARTERIES & VEINS THEN BACK TO RIGHT ATRIUM
2) PULMONARY CIRCULATION
FROM RIGHT VENTRICLE INTO LUNGS THEN BACK TO LEFT ATRIUM
3) CORONARY CIRCULATION
BLOOD SUPPLY TO THE HEART MUSCLE
4) SPLANCHNIC CIRCULATION
GUT, SPLEEN, PANCREAS, AND LIVER
THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM consist
FLUID, VESSELS, TISSUES, ORGANS
LYMPHATIC TISSUES
-MUCOSA ASSOCIATED LYMPH TISSSUE [MALT]
-RED BONE MARROW
-TONSILS
LYMPHATIC ORGANS
-LYMPH NODES
-THYMUS
-SPLEEN
LYMPHATIC SYSTEM FUNCTIONS
1) DRAINING EXTRA INTERSTITIAL FLUID
2) DRAINING PLASMA PROTEINS
3) TRANSPORT NUTRIENTS AND HORMONES
4) IMMUNITY- SPECIFIC DEFENSE AGAINST ANTIGENTS BY THE LYMPHOCYTES
LYMPH FORMATION AND FLOW
-FLUID AND PROTEINS COLLECTE BY LYMPHATIC CAPILLARIES
-MUSCLE CONTRACTION AND BREATHING
-EMPTY INTO VEINS IN THE SHOULDER- (SUBCLAVIAN VEIN)
LYMPHATIC CAPILLARIES
-POCKETS
-ENDOTHELIAL CELLS OVERLAP FPR MANY OVERLAP VALVES
-PICKUP FLUID (LYMPH)
-LACTEALS ARE SPECIAL IN THE SMALL INTESTINE THAT TRANSPORT LIPIDS.
LYMPHATIC CIRCULATION
1) LYMPHATIC VESSELS
2) LYMPHATIC TRUNK
3) LYMPHATIC DUCTS
1) LYMPHATIC VESSELS
-VEINS WITH THIN WALLS AND VALVES
-AFFERENT CARRY INTO LYMPH NODES
-EFFERENT CARRY OUT LYMPH NODES
2) LYMPHATIC TRUNK
-LYMPH PASSES FROM LYMPHATIC VESSELS INTO TRUNK
-BRONCHOMEDIASTINAL, JUGULAR, SUBCLAVIAN, INTESTINAL, LUMBAR LYMPHATIC TRUNKS.
3) LYMPAHTIC DUCTS
THERE ARE TWO DUCTS RIGHT AND THORACIC DUCTS
-RIGHT LYMPHATIC DUCT
SMALLER ONE THAT DRAINS INTO RIGHT SUBCLAVIAN VEIN
-THORACIC DUCT
LARGE ONE THAT DRAINS THE REST OF THE BODY INTO LEFT SUBCLAVIAN VEIN
LYMPHATIC CIRCULATION GUIDE
INTERSTITIAL FLUID= LYMPH CAPILLARIES= AFFERENT LYMPHATIC VESSELS= LYMPH NODES= EFFERENT LYMPHATIC VESSELS= LYMPHATIC TRUNK= LYMPHATIC DUCTS= SUBCLAVIAN VEINS
LYMPHOCYTES types
1) T-lymphocytes
2) B-lymphocytes
3) NATURAL KILLERS lymphocytes
1) T-lymphocytes
-80%
-INTRACELLULAR ANTIGENS DIVIDEN TO PRODUCE=
a) CYTOTOXIC T-cells KILL antigent-bearing CELLS
b) HELPER T-cells ACTIVE T-lymphocytes & B-lymphocytes
c) MEMORY T-cells
2) B-Lymphocytes
-15%
-EXTRACELLULAR ANTIGENTS DIVIDEN TO PRODUCE=
a) PLASMA CELLS
b) MEMORY B-cells
3) NATURAL KILLERS lymphocytes
-5%
-KILLS everything that considers ANTIGENT
LYMPHATIC TISSUES types
1) MUCOSA ASSOCIATED LYMPH TISSUE [MALT]
2) RED BONE MARROW
3) TONSILS
1) MALT
-DIGESTIVE AND RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
-APPENDIX
-PEYER'S PATCHES IN THE SMALL INTESTINE
-BRONCHI INTHE RESPIRATORY TRACT
2) RED BONE MARROW
- PRODUCE B- lymphocytes
-NATURAL KILLERS lymphocytes
3) TONSILS-
- DEFENSE AGAINST INHALED AND INGESTED MICROBES
-CONTAIN TONSILAR CRYPTS (CORREGATED) THAT TRAP MICROBES
LYMPHATIC ORGANS
1) LYMPH NODES
2) THYMUS
3) SPLEEN
1) LYMPH NODES
-WELL STRUCTURE=
OUTER CORTEX (B-CELLS), DEEP CORTEX (T-CELLS), MEDULLA (B CELLS)
-FUNCTION= TRIGGER THE IMMUNE RESPONSE
-CERVICAL LYMPH NODES, AXILLARY LYMPH NODES, INGUINAL LYMPHATIC NODES
2) THYMUS
-LOCATED in the MEDIASTINUM above THE HEART
-RIGHT AND LEFT LOBES WITH LOBULES
-LOBULE CORTEX=GROWING T-cells
-LOBULE MEDULLA=MATURE T-cells
-SECRETES= THYMOPOIETIN, THYMULYN, THYMOSIN, HORMONES
3) SPLEEN
-LOCATION: UPPER LEFT
- RED PULP: RED BLOOD CELLS
-WHITE PULP: LYMPHOCYTES
-FUNCTION: FILTERS OLD BLOOD CELLS AND BACTERIA, STORES PLATELETS AND IRON.
BODY DEFENSES
-NON SPECIFIC DEFENSE= two types
-NON SPECIFIC DEFENSE- FIRTS LINE EXTERNAL
1) SKIN
2) MUCOUS MEMBRANE
3) TEARS
4) SALIVA
5) STOMACH ACID
-NON SPECIFIC DEFENSE -SECOND LINE INTERNAL
IMMUNOLOGICAL SURVEILLANCE
1) ANTIMICROBIAL PROTEINS
2) NATURAL KILLER [NK] LYMPHOCYTES
3) PHAGOCYTES & MACROPHAGES
4) INFLAMMATION AND FEVER
-SPECIFIC DEFENSE- IMMUNITY
*INNATE IMMUNITY= GENETICALLY DETERMINED AT BIRTH
*ACQUIRED IMMUNITY=EXPOSURE TO ANTIGENTS
-ACTIVE ACQUIRED IMMUNITY= induce or natural exposure to antigents
-PASSIVE ACQUIRE IMMUNITY= induce or natural transfer of antibodies
IMMUNITY
T- &B- LYMPHOCYTES RESPOND TO SPECIFIC ANTIGENTS, TWO TYPES=
1) CELL-MEDIATED
2) ANTOBODY MEDIATED IMMUNITY
1) CELL- MEDIATED
T-LYMPHOCYTES RESPOND TO INTRACELLULAR ANTIGENTS SUCH AS VIRUS, INFECTED CELLS AND TUMOR CELLS
2) ANTIBODY-MEDIATED IMMUNITY
B-LYMPHOCYTES RESPOND TO EXTRACELLULAR ANTIGENTS SUCH AS BACTERIA
CELL MEDIATED IMMUNITY
types of lymphocytes
1) SUPPRESSOR T-CELLS= limiti activation single stimulus
2) CD4 CELLS= antigent presenting cell [APC], helper T-cell &memory cells
3) CD8 CELLS= cytotoxic T-cells & memory cells
ANTIBODY MEDIATED IMMUNITY
-EXTRACELLULAR enters and binds to B-lymphocytes receptors
-activated then divide into plasma cells & memory cells
-plasma secrete antibody
-antibodies destruction of antigents
ANTIBODY-MEDIATED IMMUNITY
ANTIBODIES DESTROY ANTIGENTS BY:
1) NEUTRALIZATION= TOXINS
2) AGGLUTANATION AND PRECIPITATION= REMOVING
3) ACTIVATION OF COMPLEMENT PROTEINS= DESTROY
4) PHAGOCYTOSIS ACTIVATION
5) OPSONIZATION= COATING PHAGOCYTES
6) STIMULATION OF INFLAMMATION= ACTIVATION MAST CELLS AND BASOPHILS
7) PREVENTION OF ANTIGENTS ADHESION TO CELLS SURFACE.
THE INMMUNE RESPOND
1) PRIMARY RESPOND
2) SECONDARY RESPOND
1) PRIMARY RESPOND
FIRST TIME EXPOSURE TO AN ANTIGEN CAUSES SLOW RISE PRODUCTION, FIRST SMALL IMMUNOGLOBULIN M(lgM) THEN (lgG)
2) SECONDARY RESPOND
SUBSEQUENT EXPOSURES SAME ANTIGEN MEMORY CELLS FASTER ANTIBODIES PRODUCTION MAINLY IMMUNOGLOBULIN G (lgG)