Ways of the World Chapter 6

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In the Greek and Roman world, slaves were captives from war and piracy (and their descendants), abandoned children, and the victims of long-distance trade; manumission was common. Among the Greeks, household service was the most common form of slavery, but in parts of the Roman state, thousands of slaves were employed under brutal conditions in the mines and on great plantations.
LatifundiaHuge estates operated by slave labor that flourished in parts of the Roman Empire (singular latifundium).ManumissionThe act of a slave owner freeing their slaves.PericlesA prominent and influential statesman of ancient Athens (ca. 495-429 B.C.E.), he presided over Athens's Golden Age."Ritual purity"In Indian social practice, the idea that members of higher castes must adhere to strict regulations limiting or forbidding their contact with objects and members of lower castes to preserve their own caste standing and their relationship with the gods.Scholar-gentry classA term used to describe members of China's landowning families, reflecting their wealth from the land and the privilege that they derived as government officials.SpartacusA Roman gladiator who led the most serious slave revolt in Roman history from 73 to 71 B.C.E.).SudraThe lowest Indian social class of varna; regarded as servants of their social betters. The Sudra varna eventually included peasant farmers.The "three obediences"In Chinese Confucian thought, the notion that a woman is permanently subordinate to male control: first to her father, then to her husband, and finally to her son.UntouchablesAn Indian social class that emerged below the Sudras and whose members performed the most unclean and polluting work.VaisyaThe Indian social class that was originally defined as farmers but eventually comprised merchants.VarnaThe four major social divisions in India's caste system: the Brahmin priest class, the Kshatriya warrior/administrator class, the Vaishya merchant/farmer class, and the Shudra laborer class.Wang MangA Han court official who usurped the throne and ruled from 8 C.E. to 23 C.E.; noted for his reform movement that included the breakup of large estates.Wu, EmpressThe only female "emperor" in Chinese history (r. 690-705 C.E.), Empress Wu patronized scholarship, worked to elevate the position of women, and provoked a backlash of Confucian misogynist invective.WudiThe Chinese emperor (r. 141-87 B.C.E.) who started the Chinese civil service system with the establishment in 124 B.C.E. of an imperial academy for future officials.Yellow Turban RebellionA massive Chinese peasant uprising inspired by Daoist teachings that began in 184 C.E. with the goal of establishing a new golden age of equality and harmony.