NMAT Reviewer: Social Science Section
Terms in this set (143)
What do you call the historical, economic, social, and cultural factors that influence mental processes and behavior?
*Everything that people think, say, and do is affected and influenced by these factors. Hence, context must be taken into account in psychology
Who do most historians credit with establishing the first scientific laboratory dedicated to studying behavior?
*opened in Leipzig in 1879
One evening, Genie jumps into a pool and shivers at the coldness of the water. After five minutes, however, she has gotten used to the cold and is "ignoring" it as if she does laps across the pool. This is an example of what?
*diminished sensitivity to a stimulus due to prolonged stimulation
Howard is an expert wine-taster. He can tell vintage wines apart with just single drops upon his tongue, no matter how similar the samples taste. This demonstrates
difference threshold/just noticeable difference
*smallest difference in stimulation required to discriminate one stimulus from another 50% of the time
Which of the following EEG patterns occur in awake individuals?
alpha waves --> usually occur in individuals who are in a relaxed or drowsy state
beta waves --> arise during high frequency electrical activity in the brain such as during periods of concentration
As a boy, John was bitten by a large red ant and developed a phobia for ants. However, he also developed a fear of all insects. In classical conditioning, this is an example of what?
*tendency of a new stimulus - similar to an original conditioned stimulus - to produce a response similar to the conditioned response
Generalization also occurs in operant conditioning
giving the same response to similar stimuli
e.x. an infant who has been taught to call a four-legged hairy animal "dog" may call a horse "dog"
Classical conditioning emphasizes the relationship between ____ and ____; operant conditioning emphasizes the relationship between _____ and ____.
*tends to focus on the stimuli that precedes the behavior
point of interest is the resulting behavior upon application of a stimulus
best at explaining how neutral stimuli can become linked to unlearned involuntary responses (not effective in explaining voluntary behaviors)
*stimuli that govern the behavior follow the behavior
form of learning in which the consequences of behavior produce changes in the behavior's occurrence
Which style of parenting is most likely to raise children who lack self-control and who always expect to get their way?
style wherein parents are involved with their child; however, the parents place few demands and restrictions on the child --> social incompetence and lack of self-control
restrictive, controlling, and demanding style
given little opportunity to disagree and is expect to follow without question
style wherein the parents are uninvolved in the child's life
child tends to show poor self-control and does not handle independence well
encourages a child to be independent without neglecting to place limits and controls on behaviors
parents tend to be nurturant, and good communication is encouraged
child --> socially-competent, self-reliant, and responsible children
Which of the following personality theories generally tends to be pessimistic about human nature?
tends to view people as being purely driven by unconscious sexual and aggressive instincts that follow the pleasure principle (always seek pleasure, avoid pain)
Little attention is given to conscious decisions of the ego (rational mind) and the superego (the morality dimension of the mind)
Trait theory and behavioral theory
tend to be neutral about human nature
Humanistic theory and cognitive social learning theory
tend to be more optimistic about the nature of people
According to Freud, which structure of personality consists of instincts and is completely unconscious?
Freud believed there are two basic drives that guide and shape human behavior. What did he call these two drives?
eros and thanatos
*reflection of the pleasure principle, which drives people towards seeking pleasure and avoiding pain
reflects the sexual drive
reflects the aggressive survival instinct
Shane has strong aggressive - even violent - tendencies. To prevent himself from possibly doing harm to others, he chooses to engage in American football and boxing as outlets. What defense mechanism did he use?
ways through which the ego deals with conflict by distorting reality
these are unconscious methods of dealing with conflict; by distorting reality, the ego protects itself from anxiety
ego replaces an unacceptable impulse with a socially approved course of action
Convergence is a monocular cue for depth perception in which the eyes turn more inward as an object gets closer --> binocular cue
Gestalt psychologists believe that the whole is not equal to the sum of its parts
Binocular cues are depth cues based on the simultaneous working of both eyes
Linear perspective is an example of monocular depth cue
see depth by using monocular and binocular cues
an approach to perception --> states that people organize perceptions according to patterns
*whole does not equal the sum of its parts
examples of monocular cues
A cheerleading squad found out that the cheers they have been practicing for a competition had been "stolen" by their previous captain from another squad. The group must decide whether they should change their routine or stick to the stolen one. Eliza thinkings they should create a new routine. However, since the competition was just a few days away, everyone else said they should just do the old one. Eliza, despite her personal opinion, then pretends that she also feels they should do the old routine. This clearly demonstrates
an individual's adopting of attitudes and behaviors of others because of pressure (real or imagined) to do so
Which of the following best defines "behavior"?
Everything we do that can be directly observed
thoughts, feelings, memories, and motives that each of us experiences privately but cdannot be directly observed
*can also be seen as covert behaviors
Little Ros wants to keep a piece of paper from flying away. The only available heavy object nearby is a large drinking glass. However, she does not think of using it since she knows the purpose of the glass is for drinking; thus, she tries to look for other actual paperweights. What has she not been able to overcome?
inability to solve a problem because the things involved are viewed only in terms of usual functions
In an experiment, what occurs when the expectations of a participant, not the experimental treatment, produce the desired outcome?
To reduce placebo effects
control group could have been given a placebo
Which of the following time frames of memory can hold information from the world in its original sensory form for a brief instant?
Three types of memory based on the variation of time frames in which memory can hold information
Holds information in its original sensory form for a brief instant
Rich and detailed, but the information is quickly lost unless moved to working or long-term memory
*Sensory memory does not retain information for long unless processed
Working memory (aka short-term memory)
holds information for up to 30 seconds or a bit longer
Limited in capacity
can hold large amounts of information over a long period of time --> relatively permanent
Which of the following learning differences involves deficits in doing arithmetic?
Other types of learing differences
dyslexia --> negative influence on the ability to read
problematic writing skills
difficulties in speech expression
Which of the following approaches in therapy does not work with individuals in the context of a larger system?
*humanistic therapy developed by Frederick Perls
a therapist questions and challenges the client to aid them towards awareness of feelings and to be able to face problems
*Concerned with individual clients per se rather than with individuals in the context of larger groups
Approaches wherein individuals are helped in the context of a larger group
E.x. group therapies and community psychology
Following model that best represents positive reinforcement
Behavior: Bulit tells Marga a joke
Consequence: Marga laughs and responds with interest
Future behavior: Bulit tells Marga many more jokes
In operant conditioning
reinforcement is a consequence that increases the probability that certain behaviors will happen
frequency of the response increases because a stimulus follows it
frequency of the behavior increases because a stimulus is removed or avoided
e.x. the tendency to use more ointment for complete healing
decreases the probability that a behavior will occur
decrease in the possibility of a behavior's occurrence if the behavior results in neither positive nor negative consequences
Which of the following is not a paraphilia?
psychosexual disorders wherein the source of a person's sexual satisfaction is an unusual object, ritual, or situation
Examples of paraphilias
exhibitionism, fetishism, masochism, pedophilia, sadism, transsexualism, transvestism, and voyeurism (A person who derives sexual gratification from observing the naked bodies or sexual acts of others, especially from a secret vantage point)
Incest is not a paraphilia because
The source of sexual gratification is not an unusual object, ritual or situation
Can be psychologically harmful for family and future relationships of those involved in it
Adverse biological consequences --> high change of mental retardation in offspring resulting from incest
Which of the following specific disorders are not correctly paired with the general type of disorder to which they belong?
obsessive compulsive disorder - personality disorder
substance-use disorder - personality disorder
OCD is an anxiety disorder
Characterized by ritualized activities to alleviate anxious thoughts
Has anxiety-provoking thoughts that do not go away (obsession) and/or urges to perform repetitive behaviors to produce or prevent some future situation (compulsion)
Obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD)
individuals are exacting, precise, and orderly --> make others feel uncomfortable when they demand the same precision from them
A meticulous and demanding style
Substance-use disorder is not a personality disorder
1. uncontrollable pathological use and frequent intoxication
2. impairment of social and/or occupational functioning
3. physical dependence that can lead to serious withdrawal problems when substance us is stopped
Results from bulimia
depression and gastric/chemical imbalances in the body
The difference between anorexia nervosa and bulimia is that
the former involves starvation, while the latter follows a binge-and-purge eating pattern
Which branch of Industrial/Organizational (I/O) psychology focuses on the design of machines that workers can use to perform their jobs, and on the environment in which humans function to make it safer and more efficient?
Human Factors Psychology
deals with the workplace - both the workers and the organization employing them - and how to improve and make work
Human factors psych
E.x. assist in designing visually-helpful instrument panel displays in vehicles to make driving easier
deals with the design of machines that workers can use to perform their jobs more efficiently and safely
Also deals with the environment in which humans function in their work
Branches of I/O psych
Industrial psychology (personnel and human resource management)
Organizational psychology (social and group influences in an organization)
Human Factors psychology
Which statement is true?
Exceptional learners include students with physical and health problems, a learning disability, mental retardation, communication problems, and behavioral problems; also included are gifted and talented students
Antidepressant drugs are commonly called tranquilizers
Biofeedback is the system of thought and form of practice that incorporates exercises to attain bodily or mental control and well-being as well as enlightenment
Rapport talk is talk that is designed to give information
Biofeedback is the process in which a person's muscular and visceral activities are monitored by instruments
information gained is given to the person in order to help them learn how to voluntarily control such physiological activities
System of thought and form of practice that incorporates exercises to attain bodily or mental control, well-being, and enlightenment
Rapport talk is the language of conversation
connections are established and relationships are dealt with
type of talk designed to give information
antianxiety drugs --> reduce anxiety by making individuals calmer and less excitable
aka modern instinct theory
the study of the biological basis of behavior in natural habitats
do not study behavior in controlled settings
Believes that behavior is best understood in the context from which it resutls
A person is deemed fit to be part of society
when s/he learns and applies acceptable norms
Which of the following is one of two major macro-level theories (theories that focus on large-scale social units are used to view contemporary American sociology)?
Two approaches to sociology
approaches to sociology that focus primarily on society and/or other large social units
deal with individual interactions within smaller social units
Two major macro-level theories
usually more optimistic and view society as a system of differentiated, interrelated elements that tend to move towards stability
*Initially derived from the work of Karl Marx
tend to be more pessimistic and view society as full of conflicting elements that can play a role in social change and even upheaval
What do you call mores that define what must not be done?
social rules that differentiate between apt and inappropriate behaviors
morally significant norms that define appropriate behavior considered indispensable in the structure and functioning of society
Subcultures that conflict with general societal norms give rise to what?
Within larger and more diverse socieities
subcultures tend to develop
Given the following two situations:
I. Maggie wears the latest in fashion
II. Maggie is required to wear some form of clothing.
Respectively, what norms do the above two situations reflect?
Norms that refer to minor issues and do not carry much moral weight
norms that reflect much larger issues necessary for the functioning of society and have more moral significance than folkways
Biological sex is an example of what kind of status?
one's position in a network of social relationship
such as sex and race, are conferred to people without their own choice
Charlene, an English teacher, maintains friendly relationships with her students. However, she is expected to give objective evaluations and grades for their performances in their upcoming speech delivery exams. This can, on Charlene's part, lead to
happens when contradicting roles for the same status are both tried to be attained
Can lead to psychological stress
What is the difference between prejudice and discrimination?
the former is an attitude, the latter is a behavior
The secessionist movement in Mindanao reflects what form of intergroup interaction?
segregation --> physical and social separation of groups, usually ethnic and racial groups
Several type of intergroup interactions
What form of kinship system is prevalent in contemporary Filipino families?
type of kinship system wherein heritage is traced through both the men and the women from both parents' sides
To which sector of economy do lawyers and doctors belong?
obtains resources from nature
e.x. farming, mining, fishing
Transforms said resources via manufacture
e.x. food canning industries, phone manufacturers
provides services that society needs
e.x. lawyers, doctors, teachers
What is another term for an active crowd?
composed of highly excited individuals that, as a group, release their emotions in violent and/or destructive ways, usually to right perceived wrongs
Which of the following, according to social area analysis, are the factors that govern residential choices?
race and ethnicity
Social area analysis
statistical technique used to examine the characteristics of people in the same area
Points out three factors that influence a person's choice of residence
Places such as Metro Manila, New York, Paris, and Tokyo are most likely to be described as what type of community?
Two types of communities as classified by Ferdinand Toennies
composed of people who have common interests, know each other well, and who have strong ties
Composed of diverse people with weak ties and more inclined towards self-interest
Whose traditions do not bind them much
Which term refers to the number of children the average woman can bear during her childbearing years?
refers to the actual number of children born within a society
*always less than fecundity
refers to birth rate
Which statement would a structural-functionalist most likely make in viewing science?
Science facilitates understanding of the social and physical world that helps society deal with its problems
Social benefits arise from the use of science
Conflict theorist most likely make in viewing science
science as a tool that is by no means neutral and is in fact manipulated by the few members of the ruling class for their own selfish purposes.
Social benefits arise incidentally.
In Sweden, the government operates key sectors such as education while some other economic activities are carried out by private organizations. What economic system is this?
combines aspects of both the socialist and capitalist systems
Socialist --> education and transportation
Capitalist --> private companies for profit
What is the difference between a political revolution and a coup d'etat?
A political revolution attempts to overthrow the existing political system to replace it with a new one; a coup d'etat only seeks to overthrow the leader's of the system, which will not be changed
Ways to try and change existing political systems include
While reform attempts internal change of the system through processes such as legislation, revolution, and coup d'etat
more often than not use violence as a means to achieve the desired change
A revolution seeks to replace the existing political system with a new one
Coup d'etat only aims to oust the people running the system without changing the system
Which form of religious organization has a leadership based more on person charisma that on bureaucractic structure?
Four basic forms of religious organizations
church, sect, denomination, cult
*usually conflict with the society at large as they commonly believe in isolating their members from the world around them
has a leadership based more on charism than bureaucratic structure
Found is usually dependent on a charismatic leader
Sect, church, denomination
more or less organized forms
sect + denomination are more loosely organized than a church
What do you call a societal system of ranking categories in a form of hierarchy and is characteristic of the society, not the individual?
characteristic of the society, not the individual, because it is basically a societal system
An individual's position in such a system can be attributed not only to social forces but in certain cases also to the individual
Examples of systems of stratification
What is the mechanism through which a society's heritage is transmitted from generation to generation?
*allows society to survive and even proliferate beyond the lifespans of individual members
lifelong process of learning how to become functioning, contributing members of society
*heritage and culture of a society can be passed on from generation to generation
In which of the following stratification systems is social mobility most impossible, or at least nearly so?
chang ein a person's social position
Can either be vertical (i.e. social ladder) or horizontal (one status to a new status comparable in level to the original)
Social mobility is most impossible in a caste system because
it is considered a closed system of stratification
*a person is placed in a particular caste at birth and by virtue of birth, and no change in caste is permitted
Caste positions are usually based on
Ascribed statuses such as race, religion, and/or sex
What are the three dimensions of Weber's notion of social class?