34 terms

Environmental Science for AP - Friedland and Relyea Chapter 1

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environment
the sum of all the conditions surrounding us that influence life
environmental science
the field that looks at interactions among human systems and those found in nature
system
any set of interacting components that influence one another by exchanging energy or materials
ecosystem
a particular location on Earth whose interacting components include living or nonliving components
biotic
living
abiotic
nonliving
environmentalist
a person who participates in environmentalism
environmentalism
a social movement that seeks to protect the environment through lobbying, activism, and education
environmental studies
a broader field that environmental science is a subset of which it also includes, environmental policy, economics, literature, and ethics
ecosystem services
the processes by which life-supporting resources such as clean water, timber, fisheries, and agricultural crops are produced
environmental indicators
describe the current state of an environmental system
sustainability
living on Earth in a way that allows us to use its resources without depriving future generations of those resources
biodiversity
the diversity of life forms in an environment
speciation
the evolution of new species
background extinction rate
the average rate at which species go extinct over the long term
greenhouse gases
heat-trapping gases in the atmosphere
anthropogenic
effects derived from human activities
development
improvement in human hell-being through economic advancement
sustainable development
development that balances current human well-being and economic advancement with resource management for the benefit of future generations
ecological footprint
a measure of how much that person consumes, expressed in area of land
scientific method
an objective way to explore the natural world, draw inferences from it, and predict the outcome of certain events, processes, or changes
hypothesis
a testable conjecture about how something works
null hypothesis
a statement or idea that can falsified, or proved wrong
replication
the process of taking several sets of measurements
sample size
number of times a measurement is replicated or the number of sets of measurements
uncertainty
an estimate of how much a measured or calculated value differs from a true value
inductive reasoning
the process of making general statements from specific facts or examples
deductive reasoning
the process of applying a general statement to specific facts or situations
critical thinking
the process of reading findings with a critical eye; questioning the source of the information, considering the methods of processes that were used to obtain the information, and drawing your own conclusions
theory
a hypothesis that has been repeatedly tested and confirmed by multiple groups of researchers and has reached wide acceptance
natural law
a theory to which there are no known exceptions and which has withstood rigorous testing
control group
a group that experiences exactly the same conditions as the experimental group, except for the single variable under study
natural experiment
occurs when a natural event acts as an experimental treatment in an ecosystem
environmental justice
a social movement and field of study that works toward equal enforcement of environmental laws and the elimination of disparities, whether intended or unintended, in how pollutants and other environmental harms are distributed among the various ethnic and socioeconomic groups within a society

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