36 terms

Environmental Science for AP - Friedland and Relyea Chapter 1


Terms in this set (...)

the sum of all the conditions surrounding us that influence life
environmental science
the field that looks at interactions among human systems and those found in nature
any set of interacting components that influence one another by exchanging energy or materials
a particular location on Earth whose interacting components include living or nonliving components
a person who participates in environmentalism
a social movement that seeks to protect the environment through lobbying, activism, and education
environmental studies
a broader field that environmental science is a subset of which it also includes, environmental policy, economics, literature, and ethics
living on Earth in a way that allows us to use its resources without depriving future generations of those resources
ecosystem services
Ecosystem services are benefits obtained from ecosystems. Ecosystem services are grouped into four broad categories: provisioning, such as the production of food and water; regulating, such as the control of climate and disease; supporting, such as nutrient cycles and oxygen production; and cultural, such as spiritual and recreational benefits.
environmental indicators
describe the current state of an environmental system
includes: biodiversity, food production, global temperatures, human population & resource depletion
the diversity of life forms in an environment including species diversity, genetic diversity and ecosystem diversity
the evolution of new species
greenhouse gases
heat-trapping gases in the atmosphere
background extinction rate
the average rate at which species go extinct over the long term
effects derived from human activities or "caused by human activities"
improvement in human well-being through economic advancement
sustainable development
development that balances current human well-being and economic advancement with resource management for the benefit of future generations
ecological footprint
a measure of how much that person consumes, expressed in area of land, usually global hectares
a hectare is 10000 square meters or about 2.5 acres.
scientific method
an objective way to explore the natural world, draw inferences from it, and predict the outcome of certain events, processes, or changes
a testable conjecture about how something works
null hypothesis
a statement or idea that can falsified, or proved wrong
the process of taking several sets of measurements
sample size
number of times a measurement is replicated or the number of sets of measurements
an estimate of how much a measured or calculated value differs from a true value
inductive reasoning
the process of making general statements from specific facts or examples
deductive reasoning
the process of applying a general statement to specific facts or situations
critical thinking
the process of reading findings with a critical eye; questioning the source of the information, considering the methods of processes that were used to obtain the information, and drawing your own conclusions
a hypothesis that has been repeatedly tested and confirmed by multiple groups of researchers and has reached wide acceptance
natural law
a theory to which there are no known exceptions and which has withstood rigorous testing
control group
a group that experiences exactly the same conditions as the experimental group, except for the single variable under study
natural experiment
occurs when a natural event acts as an experimental treatment in an ecosystem
environmental justice
a social movement and field of study that works toward equal enforcement of environmental laws and the elimination of disparities, whether intended or unintended, in how pollutants and other environmental harms are distributed among the various ethnic and socioeconomic groups within a society
scientific method
a method of procedure that has characterized natural science since the 17th century, consisting in systematic observation, measurement, and experiment, and the formulation, testing, and modification of hypotheses.
The pumping of water at high pressure to break apart rocks in order to release natural gas

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