As a rule, only three whistle signals are used, since a large variety could cause confusion. The following three are commonly used whistle signals:
ATTENTION TO ORDERS is indicated by one short blast on the whistle. It is used to fix the attention of unit members on the unit leader who gives the signal and means that other signals, orders, or commands are to follow.
CEASE FIRING is indicated by one long blast on the whistle. This signal is verified immediately by an arm and hand signal or by some other means.
HOSTILE AIRCRAFT or MECHANIZED VEHICLE is indicated by three long blasts repeated several times.
Special signals cover all the special methods and devices used to transmit commands or information. Rifle shots or automatic rifle bursts maybe used when the entire command knows their meanings and the sound is distinct enough to be heard easily. An individual giving the signal should operating at night may find the use of raps on his helmet or rifle effective. Signals must be determined and practiced before they are used. Various pyrotechnic and smoke signals may be chosen as signals to attack, withdraw, mark front lines, or indicate targets. Certain special signals are standard for all branches of the armed forces to indicate the approach or presence of hostile aircraft or mechanized vehicles. They are as follows:
Three long blasts of a whistle, vehicular horn, siren, or Klaxon repeated several times.
Three equally spaced shots with rifle or pistol.
Three short bursts of fire from automatic small arms.
Arm and hand signals
Signals are used to transmit commands or information when voice communication is difficult or impossible or when silence must be maintained. Leaders should repeat signals to their units whenever necessary to ensure prompt and correct execution of orders.
A leader giving arm and hand signals should remember that these are an order of command. The signal is given smartly. Leaders must be aware of their location to ensure the signal can be seen by the intended unit.
Nature and Purpose
To put effective command and control into practice, we must first understand its fundamental nature—its purpose, characteristics, environment, and basic functioning. This understanding will become the basis for developing a theory and a practical philosophy of command and control.
Command and control enables the naval commander to understand the situation in his battle space, select a course of action, issue intent and orders, monitor the execution of operations, and evaluate the results. It is the primary tool he uses to cope with the disorder and uncertainty of warfare. Without it, organized military operations are impossible.
Command and control is "the exercise of authority and direction by a properly designated commander over assigned and attached forces in the accomplishment of the mission. Command and control functions are performed through an arrangement of personnel, equipment, communications, facilities, and procedures employed by a commander in planning, directing, coordinating, and controlling forces and operations in the accomplishment of the mission."
Command and control, therefore, refers both to the process and to the system by which the commander decides what must be done and sees that his decisions are carried out.
As both a process and a system, command and control provides insight into the nature of the military problem facing us. It promotes understanding of enemy capabilities, intentions, and vulnerabilities. It also seeks to convey understanding of our own situation-to include recognizing our own vulnerabilities. Next, it provides a vision of what needs to be done, identifying suitable and meaningful goals, and adapting those goals as the situation changes. Still more important, it helps the commander devise appropriate actions to attain those goals, and to focus and adapt efforts that create vigorous and harmonious action among the various elements of the force. It also provides security to deny the enemy knowledge of our true intentions. Above all, since we recognize that speed is a weapon, it enables us to generate a rapid tempo of operations. In summary, effective command and control allows a commander to make effective decisions and direct the successful execution of military operations.
Intelligence is "the product resulting from the collection, exploitation, processing, integration, analysis, evaluation, and interpretation of available information concerning foreign countries or areas." Integration and analysis, combined with a thorough understanding of mission requirements, convert information into usable intelligence. Thus, intelligence is the product we derive from analyzing all available and relevant information.
Strategic Intelligence is required for the formation of policy and military plans at national and international levels. At the strategic level, intelligence is oriented toward national objectives and supports the formulation of policies and determination of priorities. Strategic intelligence focuses first on discerning the capabilities and intentions of potential adversaries as well as considering the strategic intentions of allies and other potential multinational partners. Strategic intelligence plays a central role in identifying an adversary's center of gravity.
Operational Intelligence is required for planning operations within regional theaters or areas of operations. It concentrates on intelligence collection, identification, location, and analysis to support the operational level of warfare, which includes identifying an adversary's operational critical vulnerabilities. Further, it assists the commander in deciding how best to employ forces while minimizing risk.
Tactical Intelligence is required for planning and conducting tactical operations at the component or unit level. It focuses on a potential adversary's capabilities, his immediate intentions, and the environment. It is oriented more toward combat than long-range planning. Far more than at any other level, tactical intelligence support is the primary focus of naval intelligence.
Support to operating forces is the cornerstone of naval intelligence. Because of their mobility and forward deployment, as well as the unique nature of surface, subsurface, air, special and landing force operations, naval forces have special requirements for tailored intelligence on potential threats in both the maritime and littoral environments. Naval intelligence is designed to support operations at sea, from the sea, and ashore—through an organization closely linked with joint and national intelligence centers. Naval forces engaged in operations are supported by theater Joint Intelligence Centers (JICs). The theater JIC serves as a focal point to ensure that operating forces receive intelligence support from national and service intelligence centers such as DIA, CIA, NSA and the National Maritime Intelligence Center. Naval forces also maintain such organic intelligence capabilities as photographic interpretation, communications intelligence analysis, and finished intelligence production, which support not only the commander and embarked forces, but theater and national decision makers as well. Intelligence products result from a series of interrelated activities termed the intelligence cycle. This cycle normally consists of five steps: planning and directing, collection, processing, production and dissemination. This cycle greatly simplifies a dynamic and complex process, but it is useful to illustrate how the intelligence process works.
Planning and Direction. During this phase of the cycle, the commander must identify and prioritize his information requirements. This phase is instrumental to the cycle's success. Because a great number of intelligence requirements may have to be satisfied, planning and directing determines the effort required to meet our needs. After the commander identifies his requirements, the intelligence officer formulates a collection plan, taking into account the collection assets available and the commander's essential elements of information. One of the key elements in the planning phase is assessing current intelligence to ensure that it meets our requirements. Early discovery of any requirements that cannot be satisfied through organic, theater or national intelligence collection resources will highlight potential intelligence gaps. Planning further includes the identification of personnel, transportation and communications requirements.
Collection. Collection involves tasking organic, attached, and supporting collection resources to gather information. The collection process determines what will be—and what will not be—available to support decision making. Since few collection requirements can be met fully by organic assets alone, collection resources available at the theater and national level will normally be tasked as well. To do this effectively, the intelligence staff must know the capabilities and limitations of available collection resources, must understand the requirements validation process to obtain desired collection approval, and must identify the collection resources that can contribute to fulfilling mission requirements.
Processing. Processing is the conversion of collected information into a form suitable for producing usable intelligence, such as translating foreign languages, developing film from tactical reconnaissance aircraft, generating hard- or soft-copy images provided by electro-optical or infrared sensors, and converting raw electronic intelligence data into a standard message format suitable for automated handling. Timeliness and accuracy are especially relevant during processing. Organic intelligence resources are intelligence assets or capabilities permanently assigned to a particular command. Attached resources are separate assets attached to the joint force to support a particular operation or phase of the operation.
Production. Intelligence production is the integration, analysis, evaluation, and interpretation of information from all available sources into tailored, usable intelligence. A key principle in production is the fusion of information from various sources to form a complete and accurate product. Fusion is essential for an effective intelligence production process that accurately reflects and supports the commander's prioritized essential elements of information (EEI). Because of the uncertain nature of combat, the commander, operations officer and intelligence officer should review EEIs periodically to ensure that intelligence assets are supporting mission needs.
Dissemination. The goal of the dissemination process is to provide the right amount of appropriately classified intelligence when, where, and how it is needed. Getting the product to the user is the last step in the intelligence cycle; but, because the cycle is dynamic, the process does not end with dissemination.
Operation Plan. An operation plan is a plan for a single or series of connected operations to be carried out simultaneously or in succession. It is usually based on stated assumptions and is the form of directive employed by higher authority to permit subordinate commanders to prepare supporting plans and orders.
The designation "plan" is usually used instead of "order" in preparing for operations well in advance. An operation plan may be put into effect at a prescribed time or on signal, at which time, it is converted to an operation order format
Operation Order. The choice of a COA and the subsequent planning to carry out that action with available forces culminates in the issuing of an "operation order." An operation order is a directive issued by a commander to subordinate commanders for the purpose of effecting the coordinated execution of an operation.
Since it is an order to conduct an operation, it normally does not contain assumptions. Unless otherwise stated, an operation order is effective from the date and time it is signed.
Warning Order. A WO is a preliminary notice of an order or action that is to follow at some future date. It may be issued to alert subordinate commands to impending operations and to give subordinates time to make necessary plans and preparations. These orders are intended to provide subordinates maximum planning time, provide essential details of the impending operation, and detail major timeline events that will occur with mission execution.
Fragmentary Orders. A series of FRAGOs may be issued after the basic OPORD to change or modify the desired sequence of events. They are usually issued in the form of a brief oral or written messages and contain timely changes of existing orders to subordinate and supporting commanders while providing notification to higher and adjacent commands.
An order issued by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, by the authority and at the direction of the Secretary of Defense, to implement a National Command Authorities decision to initiate military operations.
An order to initiate military operations as directed.
DEPLOYMENT PREPARATION AND DEPLOYMENT ORDERS. If required by prevailing circumstances, the warning order may include a deployment preparation order or deployment order (i.e., changes to alert status of units and movement of selected forces to pre-position for impending operations).
Concept of Operations (CONOPS). A verbal or graphic statement in broad outline of a commander's assumptions or intent in regard to an operation or series of operations. The concept of operations frequently is embodied in campaign plans and operation plans; in the latter case, particularly when the plans cover a series of connected operations to be carried out simultaneously or in succession. The concept is designed to give an overall picture of the operation. It is included primarily for additional clarity of purpose.