pass visible light through a specimen, magnify cellular structures with lenses
focus a beam of electrons through a specimen or onto its surface
scanning electron microscope
provides for detailed study of surface of a cell
transmission electron microscope
provides for detailed study of internal structure
takes cell apart and seperates major organelles from one another
used to fractionate cells and seperate them based on size and density
prokaryotes and eukaryotes
have ctyoplasm/ cytosol, cellular membrane/ plasma membrane/ lipid bilayer, all have chromosomes, ribosomes
simpler, doman bacteria/ archaea, hold chromosomes in nucleoid, bacteria are always smaller than eukarya
have lipid- covered membranes around all parts, always larger in size and contain a double bilayered nucleus
higher surface to volume ratio
a smaller cell has _________, facilitating the exchange of materials into/ out of the cell
the plasma membrane functions as a __________, allowing sufficient passages of nutrients and waste
encloses the nucleus, seperates it from ctyoplasm with pores
particles made of ribosomal RNA and protein (create primary structure)
regulates protein traffic and performs metabolic functions in the cell (factory)
big, connected to nuclear envelope
synthesizes lipids, metabolizes carbohydrates (breaks them down), stores calcium, detoxifies poison are all qualities of...
has bound ribosomes, produces proteins and membranes, which are distributed by transport vesicles
recieves transport vesicles from rough ER, made of membrane sacs called cisternae, modifies products of rough ER (finishes them and folds them into proteins), and manufactures ceratin macromolecules are all functions of.....
a membrane sac of hydrolitic enzymes (breaking), can digest all kinds of macromolecules
helps intercellular digestion
formed by phagocytosis
pump excess water out of protist cells
covered in tonoplast, found in plant cells, hold reserves of important organic compounds and water, metabolic waste
happen in the mitochondria (glucoes --> ATP)
smooth outer membrane and inner membrane folded into christae
the mitochondria are covered in these 2 membranes
only found in plants, site of photosynthesis (sunlight--> glucose)
chloroplasts are members of this family
this "plast" stores starch
this "plast" stores any other pigment
liquid inside the grana
stack of thylakoids
area of photosynthesis
eat/ break down H2O2 into harmless water
keep cell shape, anchor organelles, transport organelles, cell mobility are all chracteristics of the...
mictrotubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments
the cytoskeleton is broken up into 3 parts
thick pipe structure, with a 25 nm diameter, that functions as a cilia/ flagella and organizes chromosomes
space in tube (15nm)
thin wire structure, 7 nm, used for cytoplasmic streaming, and pseudopod
not thick pipe/ thin cable; in between, 12-15 nm, used for cell shape and chromosome movement
this allows vesicles to "travel" on the cytoskeleton with the use of ATP
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