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48 terms

Chapter 6: A Tour of the Cell

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light microscope
pass visible light through a specimen, magnify cellular structures with lenses
brightfield unstained
natural cell
brightfield stained
stained cell
phase contrast
see desnity
DIC
3-D image
fluorescence
UV radiation
confocal
laser image
electron microscope
focus a beam of electrons through a specimen or onto its surface
scanning electron microscope
provides for detailed study of surface of a cell
transmission electron microscope
provides for detailed study of internal structure
cell fractionation
takes cell apart and seperates major organelles from one another
centrifuge
used to fractionate cells and seperate them based on size and density
prokaryotes and eukaryotes
have ctyoplasm/ cytosol, cellular membrane/ plasma membrane/ lipid bilayer, all have chromosomes, ribosomes
prokaryotes
simpler, doman bacteria/ archaea, hold chromosomes in nucleoid, bacteria are always smaller than eukarya
eukaryotes
have lipid- covered membranes around all parts, always larger in size and contain a double bilayered nucleus
higher surface to volume ratio
a smaller cell has _________, facilitating the exchange of materials into/ out of the cell
selective barrier
the plasma membrane functions as a __________, allowing sufficient passages of nutrients and waste
nucleus
contains genes
nuclear envelope
encloses the nucleus, seperates it from ctyoplasm with pores
ribosomes
particles made of ribosomal RNA and protein (create primary structure)
endomembrane system
regulates protein traffic and performs metabolic functions in the cell (factory)
endoplasmic reticulum
big, connected to nuclear envelope
smooth ER
synthesizes lipids, metabolizes carbohydrates (breaks them down), stores calcium, detoxifies poison are all qualities of...
rough ER
has bound ribosomes, produces proteins and membranes, which are distributed by transport vesicles
golgi apparatus
recieves transport vesicles from rough ER, made of membrane sacs called cisternae, modifies products of rough ER (finishes them and folds them into proteins), and manufactures ceratin macromolecules are all functions of.....
lysosome
a membrane sac of hydrolitic enzymes (breaking), can digest all kinds of macromolecules
phagocytosis
helps intercellular digestion
autophagy
self eating
food vacuoles
formed by phagocytosis
contractile vacuoles
pump excess water out of protist cells
central vacuoles
covered in tonoplast, found in plant cells, hold reserves of important organic compounds and water, metabolic waste
cellular respiration
happen in the mitochondria (glucoes --> ATP)
smooth outer membrane and inner membrane folded into christae
the mitochondria are covered in these 2 membranes
chloroplasts
only found in plants, site of photosynthesis (sunlight--> glucose)
plastids
chloroplasts are members of this family
amloplast
this "plast" stores starch
chromoplast
this "plast" stores any other pigment
stroma
liquid inside the grana
grana
stack of thylakoids
thylakoids
area of photosynthesis
peroxisome
eat/ break down H2O2 into harmless water
cytoskeleton
keep cell shape, anchor organelles, transport organelles, cell mobility are all chracteristics of the...
mictrotubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments
the cytoskeleton is broken up into 3 parts
mictrotubule
thick pipe structure, with a 25 nm diameter, that functions as a cilia/ flagella and organizes chromosomes
lumen
space in tube (15nm)
microfilament
thin wire structure, 7 nm, used for cytoplasmic streaming, and pseudopod
intermediate filaments
not thick pipe/ thin cable; in between, 12-15 nm, used for cell shape and chromosome movement
motor protein
this allows vesicles to "travel" on the cytoskeleton with the use of ATP