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Bio II Fetal Pig Vocabulary
Terms in this set (76)
situated at the front of, head region
toward the head (human)
Toward the feet (human)
Flat level surface that is situated across
toward the head (pig), front/belly (human)
from front to back in the median plane in a plane parallel to the median
toward the tail (pig), back (human)
plane of, if, or at the front
situated away from attachment; as of limb or bone; terminal
directed away from sagital plane, along dental arch
toward the front/belly (pig)
situated at point of attachment as of limb or bone
toward the back (not rear)
hollow part of the body that is below the diaphragm and above pelvis; contains organs of digestion, excretion, and reproduction
contains the 2 umbilical arteries and umbilical vein. It serves as the connection between the fetus and placenta. The vessels withing the cord are responsible for nutrient, gas, and waste between the fetus and the mother
Rows of nipples
None in males, female has one ventral to the anus
The genital papilla and urogenital opening are ventral to each other in females
In males, it is towards the umbilical cord. In females, the digestive system and urogenital opening exit at the anus.
female- small fleshy conical prejection ventral to the anus
male- located on the mid-ventral surface, posterior to (below) the umbilical cord
toward the nose
Single opening. Terminal opening of the digestive tract. It is located just ventral to the base of tail in both males and females
swelling ventral to anus, scrotal sacs / contain testes
Tongue and papillae
The tongue often protrudes from the anterior opening of the oral cavity. The tongue is a highly manipulative, muscular structure, that contributes to chewing, swallowing, and sensing food.
Chemical sensation occurs at sensory papillae, visible on the tongue. Taste cells within buds of the papillae detect chemical features that the brain interprets as salty, sweet, sour, and bitter (in humans).
Hard and Soft Palates
The hard palate makes up the anterior part of the roof of the mouth. Made of bone and covered with folds of mucus membrane, the hard palate separates the oral cavity from the nasal cavities.
The surface of the soft palate is a posterior continuation of the mucous membrane, but it contains no bone.
Note the epiglottis (small flap of tissue at rear of pharynx) visible in this picture. This fold of skin covers the opening to the trachea during swallowing to prevent food entry into the trachea.
slit-like opening to the trachea, protected by the epiglottis, tops trachea
part of the pharynx behind and above the soft palate, directly continuous with the nasal passages
muscular tube, located dorsal to the trachea, food is pushed forward in the esophagus by the rhythmic contractions of its walls, connects the oral cavity to the stomach
the process of removing cellular metabolic wastes from the body. These wastes include chemicals from cellular metabolic activity and foreign substances like drugs.
The pharynx is the region encompassing the base of the tongue and the junction of the passageways for food (esophagus) and air (trachea).
Thymus gland (endocrine)
Gland located near the heart; produces several hormones which stimulate development of cells important in immunity
In the young pig, the thymus is large because it is a critical in the development of the immune system. Later in life, the thymus decreases in size and becomes fairly unimportant.
Thyroid gland (endocrine)
endocrine gland that's located at the base of neck and that produces secretions important in regulating many aspects of metabolism and mineral balance
Stores food while it is being mixed with enzymes that continue to break down the food; secretes strong acids and enzymes to assist in the breaking down process.
Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum (Small intestine)
The bile is then released into the duodenum (anterior section of the small intestine) via a duct. Bile is not enzymatic; it serves as an emulsifier of fats to increase fat breakdown.
Responsible for most chemical digestion and absorption of nutrients.
Cecum, Ascending colon, Spiral colon, Rectum (Large intestine)
Receives the liquid waste product of digestion and reabsorbs water and minerals
Rectum (Large intestine)
The rectum is the distal-most section of the large intestine and forms and stores feces.
The liver secretes bile, which is a mixture of bile salts and breakdown products (e.g., from blood). As it is secreted, it flows into the gall bladder for short-term storage
During digestion, the small intestine signals for the gall bladder to release the bile to aid in the digestion process.
Pancreas (exocrine and endocrine)
The exocrine pancreas produces enzymes used to chemically digest food. These enzymes exit the pancreatic duct and enter the duodenum of the small intestine via the common bile duct.
The endocrine pancreas produces hormones -- insulin and glucagon -- that control the level of glucose in the blood. These hormones exit the pancreas via the circulation.
The spleen is found along the left external margin of the stomach. It is an immune system organ that fights infection and also breaks down expired red blood cells.
Cardiovascular System function
The circulatory system (also called the cardiovascular system in mammals) of the pig is responsible for the transportation of nutrients, gases, wastes, and hormones.
Additionally, it is involved with the control of body temperature, provides channels for the immune system to protect the body, and participates in the maintenance of body fluid homeostasis.
Circulation of blood between the heart and the lung and then the heart to the lungs and back to the heart.
Circulation of blood between the heart and the rest of the body
Contains the heart, Thick membrane fluid filled sac which encloses, protects, and nourishes the heart.
Right and Left Atrium
Receives blood from other parts of the body.
Right and Left Ventricle
Separated by the interventricular septum
The aorta exits the left ventricle
The aorta carries oxygenated blood under high pressure as it leaves the left ventricle of the heart.
The left and right ventricular walls are about equal in thickness. Following birth the left ventricular wall gradually becomes thicker because the left ventricle has to pump blood out to the systemic circuit.
Pumps blood out of the heart
The vessels that supply the heart muscle with blood rich in oxygen.
Cranial and Caudal vena cava
Two large veins that drain blood from the upper body and from the lower body and empty into the right atrium of the heart.
Two vessels that transport deoxygenated blood to the lungs from the right ventricle.
Carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium.
The AV valves are found between the atria and the ventricles and ensure that blood flows in only one direction -- from the atrium to the ventricle.
Separate the atria from the ventricles and allow blood to flow from the atria to the ventricles, but prevent the flow of blood from the opposite direction
Aortic semilunar valve
Prevents the backflow of blood when the left ventricle of the heart is returning to the relaxed state after pumping
Pulmonary semilunar valve
One of the two valves that allow blood to leave the heart via the arteries.
Aortic arch and dorsal aorta (same blood vessel in two locations)
Three main arteries leave the aortic arch to supply blood to the upper (more rostral) body, and blood flows caudally (orange arrow) in the aorta to supply the lower (more caudal) body.
curved portion of the aorta between the ascending and descending portions that give rise to the brachiocephalic trunk, the left carotid artery, and the left subclavian artery.
Right and left Brachiocephalic vein
Either of the veins formed by the union of the internal jugular and subcalvian veins above the heart. Carries deoxygenated blood to the right atrium of the heart through the anterior vena cava
Right and left Subclavian vein
Either of the two veins that returns blood from the arms to the heart
Right and left Cephalic vein
subcutaneous vein that arises at the radial border of the dorsal venous network of the hand, passes upward anterior to the elbow, and along the lateral side of the arm. Empties into the upper part of the axillary vein
Right and left Internal jugular vein
Either of the veins on each side of the throat close to the larynx that drain blood from the heart
Right and left External jugular vein
Either of the veins on each side of the throat that drain blood from the face and jaw
Right and left Common carotid artery
Artery on each side of the neck that supplies blood to the head
Right and left Subclavian arteries
Either of the arteries that carry blood into the arms
Supplies blood to the tissues of the brain and the head
Umbilical arteries (2)
In utero, the umbilical arteries carry de-oxygenated blood and metabolic waste products away from the fetus to the placenta. From there the waste products and carbon dioxide diffuse to the mother's blood and are then cleared from her body.
Either pair of arteries that arise from the hypogastric arteries of the mammalian fetus and pass through the umbilical cord to the placenta too which they carry deoxygenated blood from the fetus.
Umbilical vein (1)
In utero, oxygen and nutrients from the mother's arterial blood diffuse into the fetal blood of the placenta and are carried to the fetus via the umbilical vein
A vein that passes through the umbilical cord to the fetus and returns oxygenated and nutrient blood from the placenta to the fetus.
the continuation of the left umbilical vein through the liver to the vena cava
A short vessel through which blood headed from the heart via the pulmonary artery to the lungs is shunted before birth
Connects the left and right atria allowing blood to flow directly from the left and right side of the heart that only exists in fetus.
the ring-like involuntary muscle that controls the movement of chyme from the stomach into the small intestine
Inside the stomach are rugae, ridges that increase the surface area of the stomach and stretch out to increase stomach volume when the stomach is full.
The coronary artery runs on the ventral surface of the heart (shown here from the labeled line to the yellow dot and further to the pig's right). This blood vessel supplies oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood to the ventral portion of the heart (a dorsal artery does the same on the opposite side). A blockage of these arteries cause heart attacks (often called "coronaries").
The coronary artery also serves as a good landmark indicating the underlying interventricular septum, which separates the right and left ventricles.
The aorta exits the left ventricle (exit point is obscured by the overlying pulmonary trunk, outlined in dashed orange line), and forms the aortic arch as it turns to project caudally (outlined in dashed yellow line). The aorta remains at the dorsal midline of the thoracic and abdominal cavities.
The aorta carries oxygenated blood under high pressure as it leaves the left ventricle of the heart. Three main arteries leave the aortic arch to supply blood to the upper (more rostral) body, and blood flows caudally (orange arrow) in the aorta to supply the lower (more caudal) body.
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