Critical care ch. 17 Evolve; GI alterations
Terms in this set (16)
The patient is complaining of difficulty swallowing. The nurse realizes that swallowing:
requires the pharynx to function for only a few seconds at a time.
The endocrine functions of the pancreas are accomplished by groups of alpha and beta cells that compose the islets of Langerhans. Alpha cells secrete:
The nurse is caring for a patient complaining of abdominal pain. The nurse notes that the patient's abdomen is more distended that it was earlier that morning. The nurse understands that:
the patient may have trapped air or fluid in the abdominal cavity.
The patient has end-stage chronic liver failure and has been vomiting "coffee-ground" material. The provider has ordered the insertion of a nasogastric tube. In inserting the tube, the nurse must be aware that:
esophageal varices may be present and rupture could lead to bleeding.
In implementing large-volume gastric lavage for a patient with gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, the nurse is aware that:
most upper GI hemorrhages are self-limiting.
The provider has placed an esophagogastric balloon to tamponade bleeding varices. Of the three types of tubes used for tamponade, the:
Linton tube allows for gastric and esophageal suction.
Various pharmacological therapies have been researched in the treatment of acute pancreatitis and have shown that:
somatostatin is ineffective in the treatment of pancreatitis. (a hormone secreted in the pancreas and pituitary gland that inhibits gastric secretion and somatotropin release.)
The patient is admitted with hepatitis and asks the nurse what his prognosis is. The nurse states:
"Liver cells can regenerate, so most patients with hepatitis recover and regain normal liver function."
In caring for the patient with hepatitis, it is important for the nurse to understand that:
universal precautions should be followed to prevent spread of the virus.
Cirrhosis causes severe alterations in the function of liver cells that:
lead to necrosis followed by regeneration of fibrous liver tissue.
The patient is admitted with cirrhosis and has a blood sugar of 250 mg/dL. The nurse understands that the patient's hyperglycemia is a result of:
The patient is admitted with severe ascites related to chronic liver disease. In trying to determine the cause of the ascites, the nurse should evaluate which laboratory values?
The patient has been on the progressive care unit for the past 7 days with the diagnosis of liver failure. The nurse notes that the patient has developed a flapping tremor of the hand. The nurse should:
notify the provider because this is a sign that the disease is progressing. (Asterixis, a flapping tremor of the hand, is an early sign of hepatic encephalopathy that can be assessed by the nurse. )
The patient is diagnosed with portal hypertension. The nurse would expect to see signs of:
-hyperdynamic circulation (high-output failure).
-development of esophageal or gastric varices.
The patient has end-stage liver disease. The nurse realizes that, because of this, the patient is at risk for:
The nurse is caring for a patient with hepatic encephalopathy. Management of hepatic encephalopathy involves addressing precipitation factors. The nurse should provide:
-evaluation of ordered medications for liver toxicity.