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Bio 202 Test 4
Terms in this set (69)
Which part of the nephron loop is impermeable to water?
Thick asending segment
Which part of the nephron loop is highly permeable to water?
Thin descending segment
What are juxtaglomerular cells?
Modified smooth muscle cells
The macula densa of the JGA monitors which important electrolyte?
What are the most toxic of our metabolic wastes?
Urea, ammonia, uric acid
Which is the most toxic of all the metabolic wastes?
What endocrine gland is ADH secreted from?
What is the direct stimulus of ADH?
Ang II, increased blood and ECF osmolarity or dehydration
What does secretion of ADH do in terms of urine volume?
Decreased water in urine, decreased urine volume
ADH promotes the conservation of?
If blood volume and BP are too high is ADH secretion increased or decreased?
ADH increases water reabsorption by inserting aquaporin channels into the
proximal convoluted tube and collecting dut
Glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed from the glomerular filtrate by what part of the renal tubule?
Proximal convoluted tube
What is the name of the mechanism that stabilizes the GFR based on the tendency of SMC's to contract when stretched?
In response to a drop in overall blood pressure, what hormone stimulates constriction of the glomerular afferent arteriole and even greater constriction of the efferent arteriole in the kidney?
Total saturation of protein transporters for a given solute in the renal tubules would result in appearance of that solute where
In the urine
Which renal structure is responsible for producing hypertonic urine?
How does the mechanism to produce hypertonic urine work?
Reabsorbs water while eating NaCL to pass through
When is the urine most likely to be hypotonic ?
When the body's water volume is high
What is the overall purpose of the counter current exchange system?
To supply renal medulla with oxygen and nutrients
Normal Urine from a healthy person is expected to contain what molecules?
Creatine, uriobilin, ammonia, magnesium
Osmosis from one fluid compartment to another is determined by wha
the concentration of solutes from each department
high sodium in blood
high potassium in blood
Do kidney proximal convoluted cells have microvilli?
What are the microvilli on PCT cells for?
to have lots of channels and transport
In the kidney PCT are aquaporin always open?
Glucose is reabsorbed from the filtrate using what kind of symporter
Na+ symporter in PCT
Na+ reabsorption occurs everywhere except?
In the descending loop of Henle
What would slow down gas exchange between the blood and alveolar air?
Increase in membrane thickness
Stretch receptors in the bladder wall send signals to the ______________ nervous system ganglion in the bladder wall
Stretch receptors in the bladder send signals to which part of the spinal cord?
If the GFR is too low, what happens to the [NaCl] in the DCT?
It is decreased
If the GFR is too high, do the fluids move too fast or too slow?
What is the consequence of GFR being it high?
Fluids move too fast to be reabsorbed
The Na+/K+ ATPase is located on what side of the kidney tubule cells?
When adjusting the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), an increase in blood pressure stretches the afferent arteriole which causes it to do what? What happens to the blood pressure?
Causes SMC in afferent arteriole to constrict, BP goes up
What are the main buffer systems in the body?
Bicarb, Kidney & Protein
Which buffer system is responsible for neutralizing more acid or base than any other system?
What is the glomerular filtration process dependent on?
Net filtration presure
What is generally not filtered by the glomerulus?
albumin and hemoglobin
What substances are generally filtered easily by glomerulus?
Water, glucose, urea, insulin
What forms the inner layer of the glomerular capsule?
What forms the outer layer of the glomerular capsule?
Where is blood plasma filtered?
What is the glomerular fenestrated capillaries
very ports increase filtration but have pores small enough to exclude proteins from filtrate, so very little protein is filtered.
Is blood hydrostatic pressure usually high or low in
What is responsible for maintaining salinity gradient in renal medulla?
What molecule does the liver make?
What hormone does the lung make?
What do kidney JGA cells secrete?
What is the RAAS composed of?
Renin, Angiotensin, Aldosterone(ADE)
Aldosterone acts on what part of the tubule?
Where are aldosterone receptors found?
Where is angiotensin secreted from
What cleves ang 1 to ang 2
What does aldosterone do
Increase Na2 in blood increase water reabsorption increase bp
Assuming all other values are normal, calculate the net filtration pressure in a patient with a drop in glomerular capsular hydrostatic pressure to 8 mmHg.
Which of the following would reduce the glomerular filtration rate?
vasoconstriction of the afferent arteriole
Aldosterone acts on
the distal convoluted tubule.
The countercurrent multiplier recaptures ______ and is based on fluid flowing in ______ direction in two adjacent tubules.
sodium; the opposite
The overall purpose of the countercurrent exchange system is
to supply salt and urea to the renal medulla.
Aldosterone increases reabsorption and secretion of what important 2 electrolytes
Molecules reabsorbed by PCT
Glucose, Amino acids, Sodium Chloride, Potassium ion, Bicarbonate ion, water
What mechanism detects increased osmolarity when dehydrated?
osmoreceptors in hypothalamus
What does boyles law say?
pressure of given quantity of gas is inversely proportional to its volume
the volume of a given quantity of gas is directly proportional to its absolute temp
total pressure of gas mixture is equal to the sum of the PP of its individual gasses
the amount of gas that dissolves in water is determined by its solubility
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