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MCAT Behavioral Sciences: Chapter 3
Terms in this set (90)
The way in which we acquire new behaviors.
Anything to which an organism can respond.
Repeated exposure to the same stimulus that can cause a decrease in response.
Recovery of a response to a stimulus after habituation has occurred.
Creation of a pairing, or association, either between two stimuli or between a behavior and a response.
Creates associations between two unrelated stimuli. Involves the stimulation of innate or reflexive physiological response. Pavlov's Dogs.
In Classical Conditioning, is the stimulus that brings about such a reflexive response.
Innate or reflexive response to an unconditioned stimulus.
Stimuli that do not produce a reflexive response.
A normally neutral stimulus that becomes a reflexive response.
Reflexive response to a conditioned stimulus.
The process of turning a neutral stimulus into a conditioned stimulus.
The reversal of the conditioned stimulus creating a conditioned response when done too frequently.
The use of an extinct conditioned stimulus to create a weak conditioned response.
Stimulus similar enough to the conditioned stimulus can also produce the conditioned response.
Distinguish between two similar stimuli.
Links voluntary behaviors with consequences in an effort to alter the frequency of those behaviors.
All behaviors are conditioned.
Increasing the likelihood that an individual will perform a behavior. Positive reinforcers increase a behavior by adding a positive consequence or incentive following the desired behavior. Negative reinforcers will increase a behavior by removing something unpleasant.
Types of negative reinforcement
1. escape learning
2. avoidance learning
The role of the behavior is to reduce the unpleasantness of something that already exists, take aspirin to get rid of headache
Prevent the unpleasantness of something that has yet to actually happen. Studying for mcat to eliminate unpleasantness of a poor score
A natural response, i.e. fish to a dolphin.
A secondary item that helps to create a sense of reinforcement when tied to a primary reinforcer.
Reduces the occurrence of a behavior. Positive punishment adds an unpleasant consequence in response to a behavior to reduce that behavior. Negative punishment is the reduction of a behavior when a stimulus is removed.
Fixed Ratio Schedules
Reinforce a behavior after a specific number of performances of that behavior.
Fixed Ratio schedule in which the behavior is rewarded every time it is performed
Variable Ratio Schedules
Reinforce a behavior after a varying number of performances of the behavior. Average number of performances to receive a reward is relatively constant.
Fixed Interval Schedules
Reinforce the first instance of a behavior after a specified time period has elapsed.
Variable Interval Schedules
Reinforce a behavior the first time that behavior is performed after a varying interval of time.
Process of rewarding increasingly specific behaviors.
Learning that occurs without a reward but that is spontaneously demonstrated once a reward is introduced. An example is rats that were carried through a maze, but then given food as an incentive.
Analyzing a situation and responding correctly the first time. This type of learning avoids trial-and-error.
Behaviors that coincide with their natural behaviors.
The difficulty in overcoming instinctual behaviors.
Process of learning a new behavior or gaining information by watching others.
Located in the frontal and parietal lobes of the cerebral cortex and fire both when an individual performs an action and when that individual observes someone else performing that action. They are related to empathy.
People learn what behaviors are acceptable by watching others perform them.
The process of putting new information into memory.
Information that is gained without effort.
Active memorization to gain information.
Visualizing the meaning of information.
Store the way it sounds in memory.
Put into a meaningful context. The strongest and visual coding is the weakest
Recalling information best when it is put into the context of our own lives.
Repetition of a piece of information to either keep it within working memory or to store it in short-term and eventually long-term memory.
Acronyms or rhyming phrases that provide a vivid organization of the information we are trying to remember.
Method of Loci
Association of each item in the list with a location along a route through a building that is already memorized.
Association of numbers with items that rhyme with or resemble the numbers.
Taking individual elements of a large list and grouping them together into groups of elements with related meaning.
Consists of iconic (visual) and echoic memory. It lasts only for a short amount of time, fades quickly, and is lost easily.
Having to recite a whole array at once.
Having to recite a specific amount at once.
Fades quickly, but over the course of 30 seconds without rehearsal. Limited in capacity to approximately seven items usually stated as the 7 +/- 2 rule.
Enables us to keep a few pieces of information in our consciousness simultaneously and to manipulate that information. This helps with simple math.
Association of the information to knowledge already stored in long-term memory. Relating a fact to a memory already stored helps us remember long term.
A type of long-term memory, consists of our skills and conditioned responses.
A type of long-term memory, consists of those memories that require conscious recall. The types of explicit memory are episodic and semantic
A type of explicit memory, consists of the facts we know.
A type of explicit memory, consists of our experiences.
The process of demonstrating that something that has been learned has been retained.
The retrieval and statement of previously learned information
Process of identifying a piece of information that was previously learned. Most common for multiple choice.
Faster re-memorization of information after learning it the second time through.
The longer the amount of time between relearning, the greater the retention rate. studying ahead better than cramming
Concepts are linked together based on similar meaning.
Part of priming, in which recall is aided by first being presented with a word or phrase that is close to the desired semantic memory.
Memory is aided by being in the physical location where encoding took place.
Memory is aided by being the same mental state in which encoding took place.
Serial Position Effect
Higher recall for the first few and last few items in a list.
Primacy and Recency Effects
The remembrance of early and late items, respectively.
Degenerative brain disorder thought to be linked to a loss of acetylcholine in neurons that link to the hippocampus. Leads to dementia and memory loss, with atrophy of the brain.
Loss of cognitive function.
Neurofibrillary Tangles and B-amyloid Plaques
Found in Alzheimer's patients.
Increase in dysfunction in the late afternoon and evening in alzheimer's patients
Thiamine deficiency causing memory loss. Marked by retrograde amnesia and anterograde amnesia. Also include confabulation, the process of creating vivid but fabricated memories.
Retrograde vs. anterograde amnesia
-Retrograde amnesia is amnesia where you do not remember events before the accident
-Anterograde amnesia- inability to form new memories
Loss of ability to recognize objects, people, or sounds, though usually only one of the three. Usually caused by physical damage to the brain, such as stroke or multiple schlerosis.
Neurochemical trace of a short-term memory fades. Memory will fade over a couple of days.
Retrieval error caused by the existence of other information. Proactive is when old information is interfering with new learning. Retroactive is when new information causes forgetting of old information.
Proactive vs retroactive interference
Proactive interference is where old information inhibits new learning, retroactive is where new information inhibits recall of old information... i.e. a teacher will learn names of new students and forget old students names
Aging and Memory
Larger range for memory ability in 70 year olds than there is for 20 year olds. However, the peak period of remembrance is usually in a person's 20's.
Remembering to perform a task at some point in the future. Remains intact when event-based.
Memories are influenced both by thoughts and feelings.
Fabricated memories that are created when we fill in gaps in our memories.
When given new information that contradicted the old, many people will go with the new information despite seeing the correct one. happens when a person's recall of episodic memory becomes less accurate because of post-event info.
Confusion between semantic and episodic memory: remembering details, but confuses the context.
Neural connections form rapidly in response to stimuli. They also reorganize in order to fix the brain.
Weak neural connections are broken while strong ones are bolstered, increasing efficiency of our brain's ability to process information.
As a stimulus is repeated, the stimulated neurons become more efficient at releasing their neurotransmitters and at the same time receptor sites on the other side of the synapse increase. how long term memory works
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