Broadly based taxes collected on the retail price of most items is __________.
General sales taxes
Taxes levied on the sale, manufacture, or use of specific items such as liquor, cigarettes, and gasoline; these are also known as excise taxes...
Selective sales taxes
Taxes included in an item's purchase price...
A tax on the gross revenues (sales) of certain enterprises...
Taxes on the production of raw materials such as oil and natural gas...
Taxes assessed according to the value of real property (land and buildings) and personal property (Possessions such as furniture and automobiles...
Ad valorem taxes
The amount per unit of taxable item or activity
The object or activity taxed...
Taxes paid by a large number of taxpayers
Taxes that reward approved behavior with lower taxation or punish socially undesirable action with a higher tax...
A tax assessed according to the services received by the payers...
Taxes apportioned according to taxpayers' financial capacity such a property, sales, and income...
Tax rates that increase as income increases, for example, the federal income tax rates...
Progressive tax rates
Tax rates that effectively decline as a person's income increases...
Regressive tax rates
The tendency, as income increases, for persons to save and invest more, thus spending a smaller percentage of their income on consumer items...
Declining marginal propensity to consume
Businesses passing taxes to consumers in the form of higher prices...
The theory that taxes on higher-income individuals should be kept low to allow them to save and incest to stimulate the economy...
Bonds to be repaid from general revenues, such as those that voters have approved to finance prison construction...
What are Revenue bonds?
Bonds to be repaid with revenues from the projects they finance, such as higher education bonds financed by tuition revenue
What are appropriations?
The process by which legislative body legally authorizes a government to spend specific sums of money to provide carious programs and services
What is school accountability?
Using measurable standards to hold public schools responsible for their students' performances and teachers' competence
What are charter schools?
Publicly funded, privately managed schools that operate independently from the district system
_________ Funding makes up a fairly small share of the cost of public education in Texas. (11%)
__________ Funding comes from a variety of sources. (43%)
_________ Funding comes primarily from ad valorem property taxes. (46%)
The _______ selects a list of approved textbooks that the state may buy for public school courses.
What is the community college approach?
Higher education policy based on open admissions, maximizing accessibility, and incorporating technical, compensatory, and continuing education among the traditional academic course offerings
What is affirmative action?
Positive efforts to recruit members of underserved populations such as ethnic minorities, women, and the economically disadvantaged
What is socialized medicine?
Strictly defined, socialized medicine is a health-care system in which the government hires medical partitioners who work at government-owned facilities to directly provide health care, as in Great Britain and in US veterans' and military hostels
The program to provide medical care for qualified low-income individuals who have enrolled; although administered by the state, this program is largely funded by federal grants-in-aid...
The program that provides health insurance for qualified low-income children who have been enrolled by their parents
Children's Health Insurance Program
The federal program to provide medical insurance for most persons older than 65 years of age
What is the Affordable Care Act?
The comprehensive federal health-care reforms designed to expand Medicaid coverage, to limit objectionable insurance company practices, and to make subsidized health insurance available to businesses and individuals through competitive insurance exchanges
What is an individual mandate?
Requirement that individuals get health insurance or pay a tax penalty to the federal government
What is unemployment insurance?
The insurance program designed to provide compensation as a partial income replacement for those who have lost their jobs
What is income redistribution?
A public policy goal intended to shift income from one class of recipients to another, regardless of whether these programs are designed to benefit lower, middle, or upper income groups
Public insurance programs such as social security and unemployment compensation in which eligibility is based on tac premiums paid by the beneficiaries or their employers rather than need alone
A standard of benefit eligibility based on need
Transport systems that carry multiple passengers, such as train and bus systems; whether publicly or privately owned, mass transit systems are available to the general public and usually charge a fare
The view that inequity is inevitable and that personal responsibility is the determinate of an individual's quality of life is an example of...
Powers assigned to both the national and state governments are called
Southern state viewed Brown v. Board of education, the 24th amendment, the civil rights act of 1964, and voting rights act of 1965 as...
An encroachment of their states' rights
State serve as public policy...
Texas grangers were opposed to the idea of...
The constitutional convention of 1974 was divided over which issue?
A right-to-work provision to restrict organized labor
A method of selecting the nominees from a political party where party members elect the candidates who represent them in the general election is known as...
To win a Texas primary election, a candidate must receive...
50 percent plus one of the votes
To win the general election, a candidate must win with __________ of the votes.
Political parties are vital to democracy in that they provide a link between...
People and government
Which of the following is NOT a distinct characteristic of american political parties?
The idea of dealignment suggest that...
Voters are calling themselves independents rather than identifying with political parties
Which of the following is NOT a function of political parties?
Simplifying the issues for voters
In 1974, the GOP held only 53 offices at the county level, and now they hold more than ______ county offices.
The primary goal of interest groups is to...
influence all beaches of government at all levels
Texas law states that ex-legislators...
can become lobbyists with no restrictions
Studies regarding the power of interest groups consistently show that...
where political parties are weak, interest groups are strong
Which group is underrepresented in the legislature relative to their percentages in the general population?
Hispanics, Females, Asians
According to your text, which statement best describe the Texas legislators?
All are true
Which committee acts as screening mechanisms to filter out bad bills or bills that have little or no political support?
When a committee refuses to release a bill, this is referred to as a...
The redrawing of district and precincts lines following the national census to reflect population changes defines...
Which term best describes the executive branch?
Which of the following does NOT provide an opportunity for the governor to have greater influence on both legislative and administrative policy?
The texas constitution
Which statement about the legislature's power to override bills vetoed by the governor is INCORRECT?
The vast majority of bills are passed and sent to the governor during the early days of the session so that he or she has plenty of time to veto them
The most distinctive characteristic of the Texas administration is...
No one officially in charge of the administrative apparatus
What is the most important constitutional duty for the comptroller of public accounts?
Certifying the approximate biennial revenue for the state
Which court has exclusive jurisdiction to try violations of city ordinances?
The justice of peace courts are authorized by...
The Texas Constitution
Texas has a ________ system of courts of last resort.
Which of the following is NOT a criticism of the Texas method of selecting Judges?
Judges elections are nonpartisan
What legal procedure guarantees fairness before the government may deprive a person of life, liberty, or property?
Which of the following is NOT a stated purpose of Texas jails and penitentiaries?
The relationship between states and local governments follows from the fact that states have a __________ system of government.
In a council-manager form of government, who is responsible for both executing council policies and managing the day-to-day operations of city government?
The city manager
In Texas, Political parties do NOT...
nominate candidates below the county level
Which type of election system has served as the primary means of increasing minority representation on city councils?
All of the following statements about county government are true EXCEPT...
Texas counties, like cities, have home-rule provisions
Attendance did not become compulsory until...
Currently ________ school districts in Texas, More than any other state.
What is the state board of education?
15 elected members who establish rules and guidelines, set curriculum standards, approve text books, monitors financial conditions of districts
Currently ____% of K-12 students in Texas come from "economically disadvantaged" families (less than 130% of poverty level)
• Spend an average of ________ per student per year in Texas. This is a full 23% LESS than the national average.
_______________ is administered by The Texas Higher Coordinating Board. (18 Members appointed by governor)
_________________________ of Regents run the big universities and battles between the Co Board and the Regents are common
About _____% of the Texas budget goes for higher Ed.
• The Bill and Melinda gates Foundation did a massive study that shows that for every dollar the government spends on education it generates _______ dollars in additional revenue
What is agenda setting?
Identifying issues and deciding what we might need to do
What is policy formation?
Identify things that might need to be worked on, debate things
What is policy adoption?
Take the law and pass it
What is policy implementation?
Have them carry out our wishes, agencies regulate their rules
What is policy evaluation?
Did it accomplish what we wanted it to? If not, get rid of it. If it did, leave it. Job of the sunset advisory
What is redistributive policy?
o Take from the rich and give to the poor (Robin hood plan) • Who does not like this? Rich people
What is distributive policy?
o Take from a broad cross-section of the nation and distribute it to others
What is Regulatory Policy?
o Control the actions of individuals or corporations • Governments use Fiscal policy (taxing and spending) along with subsides (incentives to encourage specific behavior) to influence the economy
Historically, most of our revenue came from?
Today texas relies on more than ___ types of taxes
Single largest expense is ____-____ education.
___% of Texans have no health care coverage. (6.2 Million)
Families only, NO able-bodied adult qualifies, Income must be less than 12% of the poverty level...what is this?
TANF: Temporary Support for Needy Families
____ Million Texans live BELOW he poverty level
What is the largest welfare program?
EITC: Earned Income Tax Credit
Only about ____ of texans who lose their jobs ever get unemployment rates
The US has the __________ disparity in income equality in the Western world
Texas has the _______ largest level of inequality in the US