Upgrade to remove ads
Arts and Humanities
Music History Review - Renaissance
Terms in this set (68)
(Italian) Without instrumental accompaniment (with reference to choral performance; literally, "in the chapel."
A learned society, founded in imitation of Plato's Academy for the purpose of furthering the arts, literature, or science. In the Renaissance the idea of the academy took root in France and Italy. The Baroque period brought the establishment of academies all over Italy, many of which cultivated music and even gave private and public concerts.
Air de cour
(French) An accompanied French strophic song for one or two voices from the Late Renaissance and Baroque periods.
(England) The anthem evolved from the Latin motet after the Reformation. Despite Latin titles, it was sung in English and assumed the role of the motet in English Anglican and Protestant services. Anthems are usually simpler, more homophonic in style than the motet, and more solicitous of conveying the text clearly. The verse-anthem, a late Renaissance genre introduced by Byrd, alternates solo sections with sections for full choir.
(Italian) A dance-like vocal piece in homophonic style. Many balletti were composed in the late Renaissance by Giovanni Gastoldi. In English and German the form is called a ballet.
(French) One of a family of Renaissance dances which apparently used a gliding or walking step; the music seems to have been mostly improvised, and very little is extant.
A disguised V - I cadence often used by the Burgundians in three-part music. The highest voice moves from the seventh to the octave (perhaps, in Landino fashion, by way of the sixth), the middle voice leaps up an octave from the dominant, and the lowest voice descends one step to the tonic.
(Italian) A type of instrumental composition derived from the chanson and retaining that genre's sectional structure, varied textures, and lively rhythms.
(Italian) A short composition of the canzona type for voices; noteworthy for its light character.
A Protestant hymn, a form cultivated especially during the Renaissance and Baroque periods; hymn tunes were frequently employed by composers as cantus firmi.
(Italian) A term derived from concerto and used as an adjective to mean concerto-like with reference to the contrasting instrumental and/or vocal groups in music of the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
(English) A term used in the seventeenth century for a small instrumental ensemble. A consort is said to be "whole" or "broken".
A late sixteenth- and early seventeenth- century composition that features one or two voices with the accompaniment of a consort, often of viols. A prominent composer of consort songs was William Byrd.
(Latin) the substitution of a new text for the original one, most often of a sacred for a secular one, as in the borrowing of secular tunes for use with Protestant chorale texts.
(Italian) Divided choirs, a practice which originated in sixteenth century Venice. Music for cori spezzati is referred to as polychoral.
The appearance of a note in two versions, one chromatically altered within the space of a measure or so in two different voices; also used to describe the effect produced by the presence of the tritone.
The use of the same or closely-related thematic material in some or all of the movements of a large-scale composition, as in the Renaissance Mass.
Improvised embellishment of a melodic line by introducing faster motion or running passages
An adjective referring to notes that sound the same but are written differently.
A term referring to passages in vocal music sung in chordal or homophonic fashion; used in contrast to a learned, or contrapuntal style.
(Italian) A term that encompasses a great variety of works in improvisatory style from the Renaissance to the Romantic period; generally denotes solo pieces for lute or keyboard instrument of the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
(French) A controversial tem referring to a technique that results in three voices singing in parallel first inversion chords. Used by Dufay.
Used before 1600 to denote polyphony (versus plainchant).
(Italian) An aristocratic Italian secular song of the middle Renaissance that was often of a popular, dance-like character. The settings, usually in a treble-dominated style of lighter tone and texture than the Renaissance madrigal, were used for various poems of appropriate meter and generally intended for solo performance.
(French) A leaping dance in fairly fast triple meter; often preceded by a pavane in a paired set.
(German) Late in getting started, German polyphonic song flowered in the Renaissance, assisted greatly by such Netherlanders as Isaac and Lassus. It soon acquired a national character and distinction in the works of Heinrick Finck and Paul Hofhaimer.
The highly developed use of tone-painting in the madrigal, a characteristic that then appeared in both chanson and motet.
Terms that refer to music based on the church odes, which governed Western polyphony before the advent of tonality. There were two closely related scale arrangements of four basic modes: Dorian, Phrygian, Lydian, and Mixolydian. In the Renaissance came recognition of two additional modes: Ionian and Aeolian, which together formed the basis of tonal music from the Baroque period to the present.
The term refers to a motive that appears at the beginning of several or all of the movements of a Renaissance Mass.
A varied version of a given melody in the Renaissance; the technique was often used by Dunstable, Dufay, and Josquin.
The practice of reworking a polyphonic composition (such as a motet or chanson) so that it forms the basis of a Mass.
(Italian) A moderately fast dance in quadruple meter; often followed by a saltarello.
(French) A dignified courtly dance in quadruple meter; often followed by a saltarello.
Points of Imitation
Sections beginning contrapuntally with the same motive in each voice.
Employing two or perhaps more distinct choirs of voices and/or instruments, as in the works of Giovanni Gabrieli.
A book of musical settings for Protestant congregational singing.
(Italian) A term for several types of instrumental pieces; the most significant type is a work for keyboard or ensemble of the sixteenth century which resembles the motet in its use of successive points of imitation. Since recercare were often composed on a single theme, they anticipate the later fugue.
The musical portions of the Anglican liturgy, including the portions from the Mass Ordinary. In the Renaissance the Service was cultivated by Tye, Tallis, and Byrd in two forms - Short (if set concisely and syllabically) and Great (if set in expansive counterpoint).
(Italian) Improvisation of counterpoint on a given part; also known as discantus supra librum and conrappunto alla mente
One of several systems of notation using various symbols rather than notes on a staff; often used for lute music.
(Latin) A continuing but unaccented pulse, a Renaissance concept differing from the later concept of beat by being relatively fixed in duration rather than extremely flexible (as in later music).
(Italian) An idiomatic keyboard genre in improvisatory style.
The art of depicting word-meanings or imitating natural sounds in musical tones
A type of composition based upon varied repetition of a theme or a harmonic pattern, with the overall structure of phrases and sections generally being maintained throughout. Variations emerged in Spain and England during the Renaissance. There most noteworthy exponents were, respectively, Cabezon and Byrd. The variations of the Dutchman Sweelinck, who was influenced by the English, represent the culmination of Renaissance types. Two kinds of variations were favored in the period, one unfolding in discrete sections on a melodic theme and the other proceeding more continuously on a repeated bass or on a harmonic pattern.
(Spanish) A Spanish song of the Renaissance in a form similar to the Italian balata. It was written fo three and four voices, and also for accompanied solo voice.
A popular type of chordal song composed in the Renaissance.
(English, c. 1390 - 1453) Regarded as the best composer of his generation. Combined English features (thirds and sixths) with French polyphonic tradition. Helped establish structural and harmonic traits later adopted by the Burgundians.
John Dunstable Works
Motets, Mass sections, Misc.
John Dunstable Style
Style is characterized by beautifully shaped, long melodies and strongly consonant sound of triads. Textures alternate between equal-voice two-part counterpoint and treble-dominated three-voice polyphony. Dissonance is carefully controlled. Pieces nearly always begin in triple meter, and usually contain a duple meter section in the middle.
(Franco-Flemish, c. 1400 - 1474) Celebrated as the greatest composer of his time based on his technical skills and output, and by the importance of his positions and commissions, and by the extensive performance and preservation of his compositions. He was the most imporant figure in the creation of the expressive and vertically oriented Burgundian style. Prominent in the development of the new cyclic concept of the Mass Ordinary as a large-scale, musically unified whole based on a borrowed cantus firmus.
Masses/sections (at least 8), Chansons (over 70), Motets (about 90)
(Franco-Flemish, c. 1420 - 97) Leader of the second generation of Netherlands composers, Demonstrated unsurpassed creativity and won universal respect. Raised the mass to the principal form of composition of his time. He achieved a free contrapuntal style in four thoroughly equalized voices within an expanded vocal range, with the bass voice exploring new depths. Significant in establishing an instrumental type of piece based on one or more parts from a pre-existing chanson.
13 cyclic Mass Ordinaries, One requiem, about 20 chansons, 9 motets.
Josquin Des Prez
(Franco-Flemish, c. 1440-1521) The greatest composer of his time. Gave greater attention to prosody than his predecessors. Reflected the impact of humanism. Made the motet the leading musical genre. Perhaps the first to use systematic point imitation as the basis for composition, a style that became standard for the remainder of the Renaissance. The greatest chanson composer of his time, often forgoing the formes fixes and employing the imitative style of the motet.
Des Prez Works
about 100 motets, about 18 masses, 70 Chansons.
Des Prez Style
His music displays remarkable inventive power and an equally noteworthy ability to control large-scale structures. He gradually moved away from the free melismatic counterpoint of his early works towards a systematic use of imitation, with contrasting passages in familiar (chordal) style. Always displayed considerable concern for expressive depiction of the text.
Giovanni Pierluigi Da Palestrina
(Italian, c. 1525 - 94) Created an exemplary style of church music expressing the spirit of the Counter-Reformation, a style upheld as a model during his lifetime as well as by succeeding generations, consciously imitated by later composers, and officially sanctioned by the Church. He was the first Renaissance composer whose works were published in a complete edition.
104 masses, more than 375 motets, about 140 Madrigals.
Smooth and exquisitely balanced style. Treatment of both rhythm and harmony is completely controlled. Textures range from chordal to man-voiced imitation. Clarity is always achieved.
(Franco-Flemish, 1532-94). Culminating figure in the line of Franco-Flemish composers and the most versatile and cosmopolitan of them all. He composd idiomatically in all genres and styles. He succeeded in musically expressing the meaning of his texts so effectively that his work served as a model and inspiration for many young composers.
500 Motets, 60 Masses, Misc. Sacred, Secular works (chansons, madrigals, lieder).
His ability to move listener's emotions was likened to rhetoric. Mastered imitative counterpoint with emphasis on free imitative techniques and the use of parody. His style is characterized by thematic originality and mastery of vocal scoring. Much use of wide leaps, dotted rhythms, and various kinds of homophony.
(English, 1543 - 1623) The finest of Elizabethan composers. He was responsible for continuing the English tradition of polyphony. He exerted a great influence on other English composers. His perfection of English virginal music from primitive beginnings may be his greatest accomplishment. He may invented the verse anthem for the new Anglican service. Tone painting is present but not madrigalism.
3 masses, many motets, many English anthems and Great/Short Services, misc. vocal music, keyboard music (virginal).
(Italian, 1553 - 99) Perhaps the greatest Italian composer of the sixteenth century. He was the most influential of all the madrigalists. Served as an important model for the English madrigalists.
16 books of Madrigals, villanellas, Motets, 3 masses.
(Italian, c. 1556 - 1612) Gabrieli is significant for having established a truly instrumental style in his canzonas and sonatas. He was perhaps the first to write vocal works with independent instrumental accompaniment, and one of the first to designate specific instruments for pieces. Venetian vocal and instrumental traditions during the Renaissance culminated with him. Made significant use of polychoral techniques.
Moets in concertato style (Sacrae symphoniae), Instrumental ensemble works (canzonas, sonatas), Organ music (ricercari, canzonas, fantasias, toccatas), about 30 madrigals.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Music History: Romantic Period
Music History - Romantic Era
Music History: Classical Period
Music History (Forms/Styles)
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Music History II Composers
Music Appreciation Chapters 22-34
Music Appreciation Chapters 22-34
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Music History Review - Baroque
Music History Study Guide - Medieval