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Music History Review - Baroque
Terms in this set (69)
(Italian) A keyboard ornament formed by simul
(French) A term used for melodic ornaments in French music; generally indicated by signs or abbreviations.
(French) A stylized dance movement in moderate quadruple time, generally the first movement in a baroque suite.
(Italian) A formal song used in opera, oratorio, and cantata; generally distinguished from ordinary song by its greater length and its emphasis upon musical rather than textual factors.
(Italian) A type of solo vocal writing that is more songlike than recitative and less formal than aria.
(French) Shifting back and forth quickly between two or more violin strings while playing a repeated tone.
(Italian) A continuing bass part indigenous to Baroque music; it requires realization by a keyboard instrument and usually a low string instrument. A basso continuo part may be figured or not.
(Italian) "Beautiful Singing" as exemplified in Italian vocal music and vocal technique of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, including the works of Carissimi, A. Scarlatti, Hasse, and Mozart.
A two-part form (with each repeated) that has one main theme or motive, the first part moving from tonic to dominant and the second from dominant back to tonic. In minor mode, the progression is usually from tonic to relative major and back. Often called Baroque binary form.
(French) A dance movement, usually duple and rather fast; optional in the Baroque suite.
(Italian for a small chamber) A small Renaissance academy, the most famous of which met in Florence about 1580 at the palace of Count Giovanni de'Bardi. Seeking to rediscover the expressive power of Greek music led the group to experiment with Baroque monody.
(Italian) A male soprano whose vocal quality was the result of early castration; an exotic manifestation of Baroque opera.
(French) A set of variations based upon a repeated harmonic scheme.
(French) A harpsichord.
(Latin) Originally a music society formed by a group of amateurs for the performance of art music; now usually connected with a university ensemble and the performance upon appropriate instruments of music composed before the Classical period.
(French) A form created in 1664 by Lully and the playwright Moliere in order to fuse their musical and dramatic talents.
A term derived from concerto and used as an adjective to mean concerto-like with reference to contrasting instrumental and/or vocal groups in music of the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Used as a noun in connection with vocal works, it is a forerunner of the German church cantata.
(French) A running dance normally in triple time; it follows the allemande in the standard Baroque suite.
Da capo aria
(Italian) an Aria at the end of which is placed the term da capo, which indicated that the performer is to return to the beginning and play to the place marked finel thus a ternary aria with an exact but unwritten repeat. The performer was expected to improvise embellishments during the repetition.
A genre that preceded the oratorio and cantata in which two singers exchange conversation in music.
Doctrine of affections
An attempt by Baroque theorists and composers to codify the means of expressing emotions in music by imparting conventional meanings to certain keys, tempi, rhythmic patterns, and even to intervals. Once created, melodic figures or motives were then spun-out throughout a movement or section in accordance with the Baroque music-dramatic practice of presenting one affection at a time.
(French) An ornamented repetition of a Baroque dance movement.
In its Baroque meaning, florid polyphony using Baroque affective language, as opposed to a simple style.
A standard type of Baroque opera overture consisting of a slow section in dotted rhythms followed by an allegro in imitative style. Such a movement frequently precedes, and gives its name to, an entire suite.
Three basic terms require definition to study a fugue. The subject isthe main theme. The countersubject is the melody sung against the subject. An episode takes place between statements of the subject; its thematic material may either be new or drawn from the subject or the countersubject.
(French) A popular dance type of the Baroque period, usually in a moderate quadruple meter; an optional movement in the suite.
(French) A dance movement, the last in a typical Baroque suite; characterized by a lively compound duple meter and, often, an imitative texture.
A concise theme heard over and over in the bass part against a melody that often does not repeat.
A keyboard instrument whose strings are plucked. It became the leading continuo instrument of the Baroque period, taking the name of cembalo in Italy, clavecin in France, and virginal or spinet in England.
An English staged entertainment of the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, employing poetry, dancing, and music, as well as scenery and costumes.
Expressive accompanied solo song of the early Baroque period.
An opera made up of relatively independent individual numbers.
(Italian) Reference to the fact that a certain instrumental part is necessary; often used in connection with Bach arias in which a solo instrument is obliged to play in counterpoint with the voice.
(French) A suite-like collection of dance movements from which the performer selects several for a given performance.
Addition of mostly stereotyped melodic figures (such as the trill and the appoggiatura) to a line of music, either during the performance by way of improvisation or by the composer or an editor. In the Baroque period, as in early music in general, improvised ornamentation was expected of the performer. In French music, composers marked their scores with symbols to call for melodic ornaments.
(Italian) A melodic motive or phrasethat is persistently repeated by the composer. It is a favorite technique of Baroque and twentieth-century composers.
(Italian) In early terminology, a set of variations; in later usage, a suite.
(Italian) A variation form based on an ostinato theme usually heard in the bass.
An idyllic nature pice, usually instrumental and invoking idealized shepherds (with a reference to the Nativity), or a dramatic scene composed in the Renaissance or early Baroque (a forerunner of opera).
(Italian) A recurring instrumental theme that serves to unify a composition, whether instrumental or vocal.
(French) A dance-type characterized by a slow triple meter with stress on the second beat; the third movement in the standard Baroque suite.
(Italian) A short Baroque Dramatic composition performed in the usual setting of a secular Italian cantat, but having costumes and some scenery.
(Italian) A style of dramatic expression in which excitement is conveyed by rapid reiteration of single notes, generally in string tremolos.
A system whereby a keyboard player improvises chords over a given bass line by means of symbols placed beneath the staff. Baroque Keyboard players were expted to realize the bass line at sight, however sparsely figured.
A system of pitch organization that emphasizes one central tone and chord and gives function to the dominant and subdominant.
(Italian, 1567 - 1643) Led the madrigal away from Renaissance practice towards monody with freer dissonance treatment. With Orfeo he established opera s the leading musical genre through his extraordinary gift for expressing the emotions. He also contributed to the development of the orchestra through selection of instruments.
250 pieces of chamber music, at least 12 operas, 3 masses and other church music.
Master of late Renaissance contrapuntal style. He raised the early Baroque theatrical styles of recitative and aria to a higher artistic level, and he integrated them with choral music, dance, and instrumental sinfonias and ritornelli to create the new mixture of styles that was to culminate the brilliant psychological drama of Nero and Poppea.
(Italian, 1583 - 1643) Perhaps the most significant of early Baroque composers of keyboard music. Culmination of Renaissance genres such as toccata, canzona and ricercare. Famed as a virtuoso organist. Individual style ofgreat expressivity and improvisatory boldness while maintaining strict and masterful control.
6 books of organ works (toccatas, canzonas, ricercares, fantasias, partitas) Chamber Music, 3 organ masses, Several books of vocal music including madrigals.
(German, 1585 - 1672) Leading German composer of the early Baroque and one of the greatest composers of music history. He is significant for introduction of Italian monodic and concertato styles in Germany, the excellence with which he set the German language; his active part, as a composer and a teacher, in creating a new musical flowering in Germany after the Thirty Years War.
German Motets, Latin Motets, oratorio-like works, psalm harmonizations, madrigals, operatic works.
(Italian, 1653 - 1713) Corelli achieved enormous fame entirely through instrumental composition, the first composer to do so. His trio sonatas, solo sonatas, and concerti grossi served as models of form, style and technique for succeeding composers. Regarded as the founder of modern violin technique.
48 trio sonatas, 12 solo sonatas, 12 concerti grossi.
(English, 1659 - 95) Leading English composer of the Baroque period and among the greatest of all English composers. Known for vocal and instrumental works. His outstanding technical achievements were his master of a personal musical language that represents a fusion of Italian, French, and English elements.
More than 100 songs, chamber and instrumental music, one opera and incidental music for about 50 stage works, misc sacred and secular songs/anthems.
Leading Italian composer of vocal music in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. He was a master of opera, cantata, and oratorio.
About 100 operas, over 600 cantatas, 40 oratorios, 25 Serenatas, handful of church music, some instrumental works (concerti grossi, chamber sonatas, toccatas).
(French, 1668 - 1733) Leading French composer of the early eighteenth century. His fame rests mostly on his harpsichord suites and instrumental chamber music. He masterfully fused Italian and French traditions when it came to instrumental music. He was a distinguished teacher of harpsichord and organ.
Harpsichord music, chamber music, some church music (2 organ masses), secular vocal music.
(Italian, 1678 - 1741) Leading Italian composer of the late Baroque, Vivaldi was above all a master of the concerto. His driving rhythmic style and use of ritornello is significant. He figured prominently in the development towards the homophonic emphasis and contrasting textures of the Classical period. He contributed greatly to the development of violin technique.
about 500 concertos, nearly 50 operas, Church music, misc sonatas and sinfonias, about 40 cantatas.
(French, 1683 - 1764) Leading French composer of the mid-eighteenth century, primarily for his operas and ballets but also for his outstanding harpsichord music. He was the leading theorist of the Baroque period, his best-known work being the famous Treatise on Harmony (1722).
about 20 operas (Hippolyte et Aricie, Castor et Pollux), 3 collections of harpsichord music, misc works.
Johann Sebastian Bach
(German, 1685 - 1750) Commonly regarded as the consummate master of Baroque styles, genres, and structural principles, which he fused into a style of unmistakable individuality, great expressive intensity, and unique craftsmanship. He had a great impact on succedding generations of composers. Known during his lifetime primarily as a great organ virtuoso and consultant on organ construction as well as a great contrapuntist.
over 300 church cantatas, choral works, organ music, keyboard music, unaccompanied instrumental works, chamber music, 4 orchestral suites, didactic works.
George Frideric Handel
(German-English, 1685 - 1759) Handel was the major force in English musical life during his own time and for many years after. He was one of the greatest composers of dramatic music, being a master of both Italian opera in the late baroque and the found of the English oratorio. He was internationally renowned as a great composer and as an organ virtuoso.
more than 40 operas, 30 oratorios, about 40 sonatas, many concertos, about 100 cantatas, misc works.
(Italian 1685 - 1757) Perhaps the finest harpsichordist and harpsichord composer of his generation, and among the first to employ the thematic contrast and free homophonic textures of the early classical period. His harpsichord music is wholly idiomatic, frequently virtuosic, and in binary form.
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