NASM FNS Ch. 2 - Terminology
Terms in this set (46)
A description of the healthfulness of foods. Foods high in nutrient density are those that provide substantial amounts of vitamins and minerals and relatively few calories; foods low in nutrient density are those that supply calories but relatively small amounts of vitamins and minerals (or none at all)
U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)
The government agency that monitors the production of eggs, poultry, and meat for adherence to standards of quality and wholesomeness. The USDA also provides public nutrition education, performs nutrition research, and administers the WIC program.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS)
The principal federal agency responsible for protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services. The agency is especially concerned with those Americans who are least able to help themselves.
Dietary Guidelines for Americans
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans are the foundation of federal nutrition policy and are developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). These science-based guidelines are intended to reduce the number of Americans who develop chronic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obesity, and alcoholism from Elsevier.
Nutrition Recommendations for Canadians
A set of scientific statements that provide guidance to Canadians for a dietary pattern that will supply recommended amounts of all essential nutrients while reducing the risk of chronic disease.
Canada's Guidelines for Healthy Eating
Key messages that are based on the 1990 Nutrition Recommendations for Canadians and provide positive, action- oriented, scientifically accurate eating advice to Canadians.
Eating Well with Canada's Food Guide
Recommendations to help Canadians select foods to meet energy and nutrient needs while reducing the risk of chronic disease. The Food Guide is based on the Nutrition Recommendations for Canadians and Canada's Guidelines for Healthy Eating and is a key nutrition education tool for Canadians aged 4 years and older.
Categories of similar foods, such as fruits or vegetables.
Food Guide Pyramid
A graphic representation of U.S. dietary guidelines; now replaced by MyPyramid.
An educational tool that translates the principles of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and other nutritional standards to help consumers in making healthier food and physical activity choices.
Lists of foods that in specified portions provide equivalent amounts of carbohydrate, fat, protein, and energy. Any food in an Exchange List can be substituted for any other without markedly affecting macronutrient intake.
Set of values for recommended intake of nutrients.
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)
A framework of dietary standards that includes Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), Adequate Intake (AI), and Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL).
Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNIs)
Canadian dietary standards that have been replaced by Dietary Reference Intakes.
Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs)
The nutrient intake levels that meet the nutrient needs of almost all (97 to 98 percent) individuals in a life-stage and gender group.
Food and Nutrition Board
A board within the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences. It is responsible for assembling the group of nutrition scientists who review available scientific data to determine appropriate intake levels of the known essential nutrients.
The lowest continuing intake level of a nutrient that prevents deficiency in an individual.
Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)
The intake value that meets the estimated nutrient needs of 50 percent of individuals in a specific life-stage and gender group.
Adequate Intake (AI)
The nutrient intake that appears to sustain a defined nutritional state or some other indicator of health (e.g., growth rate or normal circulating nutrient values) in a specific population or subgroup. AI is used when there is insufficient scientific evidence to establish an EAR.
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs)
The maximum levels of daily nutrient intakes that are unlikely to pose health risks to almost all of the individuals in the group for whom they are designed.
Estimated Energy Requirement (EER)
Dietary energy intake that is predicted to maintain energy balance in a healthy adult of a defined age, gender, weight, height, and level of physical activity consistent with good health.
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDRs)
Range of intakes for a particular energy source that are associated with reduced risk of chronic disease while providing adequate intakes of essential nutrients.
Labels required by law on virtually all packaged foods and having five requirements: (1) a statement of identity; (2) the net contents (by weight, volume, or measure) of the package; (3) the name and address of the manufacturer, packer, or distributor; (4) a list of ingredients; and (5) nutrition information.
Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
The federal agency responsible for ensuring that foods sold in the United States (except for eggs, poultry, and meat, which are monitored by the USDA) are safe, wholesome, and labeled properly. The FDA sets standards for the composition of some foods, inspects food plants, and monitors imported foods. The FDA is an agency of the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS).
Nutrition Labeling and Education Act (NLEA)
An amendment to the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938. The NLEA made major changes to the content and scope of the nutrition label and to other elements of food labels. Final regulations were published in 1993 and went into effect in 1994.
Statement of identity
A mandate that commercial food products prominently display the common or usual name of the product or identify the food with an "appropriately descriptive term."
A portion of the food label that states the content of selected nutrients in a food in a standard way prescribed by the Food and Drug Administration. By law, Nutrition Facts must appear on nearly all processed food products in the United States.
To add vitamins and minerals lost or diminished during food processing, particularly the addition of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid, and iron to grain products.
Refers to the addition of vitamins or minerals that were not originally present in a food.
Daily Values (DVs)
A single set of nutrient intake standards developed by the Food and Drug Administration to represent the needs of the "typical" consumer; used as standards for expressing nutrient content on food labels.
Nutrient content claims
These claims describe the level of a nutrient or dietary substance in the product, using terms such as good source, high, or free.
Any statement that associates a food or a substance in a food with a disease or health-related condition. The FDA authorizes health claims.
These statements may claim a benefit related to a nutrient-deficiency disease (e.g., vitamin C prevents scurvy) or describe the role of a nutrient or dietary ingredient intended to affect a structure or function in humans (e.g., calcium helps build strong bones).
Measurement of the nutritional health of the body. It can include anthropometric measurements, biochemical tests, clinical observations, and dietary intake, as well as medical histories and socioeconomic factors.
Poor health resulting from depletion of nutrients due to inadequate nutrient intake over time. It is now most often associated with poverty, alcoholism, and some types of eating disorders.
The long-term consumption of an excess of nutrients. The most common type of overnutrition in the United States is due to the regular consumption of excess calories, fats, saturated fats, and cholesterol.
ABCDs of nutrition assessment
Nutrition assessment components: anthropometric measurements, biochemical tests, clinical observations, and dietary intake.
Measurements of the physical characteristics of the body, such as height, weight, head circumference, girth, and skinfold measurements. Anthropometric measurements are particularly useful in evaluating the growth of infants, children, and adolescents and in determining body composition.
A method to estimate body fat by measuring with calipers the thickness of a fold of skin and subcutaneous fat.
Assessment by measuring a nutrient or its metabolite in one or more body fluids, such as blood and urine, or in feces. Also called laboratory assessment.
Assessment by evaluating the characteristics of well-being that can be seen in a physical exam. Nonspecific, clinical observations can provide clues to nutrient deficiency or excess that can be confirmed or ruled out by biochemical testing.
Record of food intake and eating behaviors that includes recent and long-term habits of food consumption. Done by a skilled interviewer, the diet history is the most comprehensive form of dietary intake data collection.
Detailed information about day- to-day eating habits; typically includes all foods and beverages consumed for a defined period, usually three to seven consecutive days.
Weighed food records
Detailed food records obtained by weighing foods before eating and then weighing leftovers to determine the exact amount consumed.
Food frequency questionnaire (FFQ)
A questionnaire for nutrition assessment that asks how often the subject consumes specific foods or groups of foods, rather than what specific foods the subject consumes daily. Also called food frequency checklist.
24-hour dietary recall
A form of dietary intake data collection. The interviewer takes the client through a recent 24-hour period (usually midnight to midnight) to determine what foods and beverages the client consumed.