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Most Great Plains Indians in the mid-nineteenth century:

hunted the migratory buffalo herds and utilized the animals' meat, hides, and bones

Custer's Last Stand occurred during an army campaign aimed at

forcing the Sioux to settle at government agencies and give up the Black Hills (gold)

The Dawes Severalty Act

benefited land-hungry whites much more than it did Indians (intended to destroy the traditional Indian culture and way of life by turning Indians into landowners and farmers

The Homestead Act

attracted many immigrants from Northern and Western Europe to the Great Plains, provided 160-acre farms to anyone who would live on the land for five years and improve it, and because of flaws in the law and its enforcement, much of the best land went to speculators and railroads (just under 90%)

In the latter half of the nineteenth century, the federal government attempted to confine all Plains Indian tribes on two big reservations located in

Oklahoma and South Dakota

The first transcontinental railroad was

completed in 1869 with the joining of the Union Pacific and the Central Pacific tracks in Utah

Although the new state governments in the West were generally conservative, the one area in which they were ahead of the eastern states was in

grant women suffrage (Idaho, Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado had all granted women full voting rights by 1910)

Whose campaign to protect the wilderness led to establishing Yosemite National Park and the founding of the Sierra Club?

John Muir

The days of the open range and great cattle drives came to an end after 1886 because of

overgrazing and crowding of the range, severe winters and dry summers in 1885 and 1886, expansion of the railroads throughout the West, and increasing number of cattle raised outside the Great Plains

The Indian leader who helped defeat Custer at the Little Big Horn, traveled with Buffalo Bill's Wild West show, and was killed in 1890 by reservation agents trying to suppress the Ghost Dance

Sitting Bull

Western Indians in the mid-nineteenth century

were continued to be ravaged by disease

The purpose of the Sioux Indian Sun Dance was to

gain access to spiritual power and to benefit weaker members of the community

Factors in the destruction of the Great Plains buffalo herds:

the eastern fad of buffalo robes, slaughter of the herds to feed railroad crews, and army encouragement of destruction of the herds as a way of undermining Plains Indian tribes

"Kill and scalp all, big and little. Nits make lice" was said by

Col. John M. Chivington, chief of the militia, at the Sand Creek Massacre

The goal of the Board of Indian Commissioners was to

convert the Indians to good Christian farmers who stayed on their reservations

Helen Hunt Jackson was

author of "A Century of Dishonor," an angry book about the betrayal of the Indians

The death of Chief Sitting Bull

grew out of army concern about the Ghost Dance movement

The purpose of the Carlisle Indian School was

to turn Indian children into refined, cultured American citizens who had forsaken Indian ways. It was founded by Richard Henry Pratt who believed that the only humane way to civilize the Indians and strip away their barbarian tradition was to provide Indian children with formal schooling in English.

Luther Standing Bear was

a graduate of the Carlisle school who strongly influenced federal Indian policy in the 1930s. He became a strong advocate for Native American tradition

Wounded Knee is best descried as

the site of a massacre of more than 300 Sioux by the United States Army and it marked the end of Indian resistance on the Great Plains

Relations between Anglos and Mexican-Americans in Texas in the 1840s and 1850s were characterized by

harassment of Mexican-Americans by Anglos and retaliation by Mexican bandits. The Texas Revolution and the Mexican-American War had left terrible bitterness behind them, and relations between Anglos and Mexican-Americans remained strained.

Joseph G. McCoy turned the cattle industry into a bonanza by

building a new stockyard in Abilene, guaranteeing the transport of his steers in railcars, thus earning a kickback from the railroads, and surveying and shortening the Chisholm Trail. He also organized the first Wild West show to publicize western beef.

Cowboys were

not well paid, not always white, and were not usually the owner-operators of cattle ranches

Texas fever was

a disease that killed thousands of cattle. A tick-borne, fatal cattle disease, it caused serious clashes between drovers and farmers.

The wheat boom in the Dakota territory produced the nation's first "agribusinesses," which depended on

large investment of capital, heavy investments in labor, and heavy investments in equipment. There were no government subsidies.

Who was Frederick Jackson Turner?

A historian who put forth the thesis that the frontier was the key the American character

What was an outgrowth of the way in which Americans viewed the frontier West?

destructive actions toward the environment. American mythology about the West of seemingly boundless resources justified the reckless exploitation of natural resources.

The conservation movement

was an attempt to educate the public about the rapacious destruction of the environment. Individuals like John Wesley Powell and John Muir wrote passionately about the beauty of the land and the spiritual necessity of its preservation in an unspoiled state.

Western farmers generally

specialized in a single cash crop such as wheat or corn. Given the investment necessary to farm on western lands, farmers needed a quick profit, and wheat and corn offered the hope of such a profit.

The western ideal of individualism and self-reliance

was belied by the truth that westerners depended heavily on the federal government and on eastern and even foreign funds.

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