Critical Thinking and Logic
Terms in this set (92)
The tendency to view everything in relationship to oneself and to regard ones own opinions, values, or interests as most important
The commitment to consider all relevant opinions equally without regard to one's own sentiments or selfish interests, brings unbiased perspective to all relevant viewpoints.
Flaws or errors in reasoning which, when found in the premise of an argument, invalidate its conclusion
Fear of ideas or viewpoints that do not conform to one's own
The act of routinely inhabiting the perspectives of others in order to genuinely understand them. The ability to reconstruct others' viewpoints.
Openness to the possibility that one's beliefs are mistaken and a willingness to reevaluate them in the face of new evidence or persuasive counterarguments
The act of working one's way through intellectual complexities despite frustrations inherent in doing so
Another term for critical thinking. It is first-order thinking (or ordinary thinking) that is consciously realized (i.e., analyzed, assessed, and improved)
The assumption that one's own social group is inherently superior to all others
The ability to win an argument regardless of flaws in its reasoning
A fixed or oversimplified conception of a person, group, or idea.
Strong-sense critical thinking
Thinking that uses critical thinking skills to evaluate all beliefs, especially one's own, and that pursues what is intellectually fair and just
Weak-sense critical thinking
Thinking that does not consider counter viewpoints, that lacks fair-mindedness and that uses critical thinking skills simply to defend current beliefs
What best defines critical thinking?
Thinking about thinking in order to make thinking better
Critical thinking involves _______ one's own thinking.
Analyzing, evaluating, and improving
What is not a bad habit of thought?
Reasoning from assumptions that are not one's own
In thinking through a problem, the critical thinker does not_____.
Gather information that supports his/her presuppositions. The critical thinker gathers relevant information.
Another term for critical thinking is____.
Critical thinking values _____ of thought over ______of thought.
To admit flaws in one's own thinking.
What is the opposite of intellectual conformity?
What is a characteristic of first-order thinking?
Relies on intuition rather than reasoned thought
Suggested tactic for improving thinking
-Use wasted time
-Deal with your ego
-Keep an intellectual journal
Which of the minds basic functions evaluates the extend to which life's events are either positive or negative?
This correctly reflects the relationship between the standards of thinking, the elements of thinking, and intellectual traits
The standards must be applied to the elements as the critical thinker learns to develop intellectual traits
Element of critical thinking
Being precise or exact, reasoning that is specific, exact and sufficiently detailed
Unstated or hidden beliefs that support our explicit reasoning. Something we take for granted as true.
Being near to the true value or meaning of something
The logical process of drawing conclusions
General categories or ideas by which we interpret or classify information used in our thinking
Point of view
The particular perspective from which something is observed or thought through
Being unambiguous and easily understood
The goal or objective of reasoning
Logically follows reasoning
The elements of reasoning are also known as
-Parts of thinking
-Fundamental structures of thought
The mind drawing conclusions on the basis of reasons
Theories are examples of______.
In reasoning, we make _____ based on _____.
Distinctions between the elements of reasoning are _____ not _____.
The standards of critical thinking must be applied to the elements as the critical thinker learns to develop intellectual traits
Mentally taking in and actively using false information
In some cases, the conclusions we draw are based on assumptions that operate at a(n)_____ level.
Three kinds of implications that may be involved in any situation
A systematic, disciplined approach to asking questions aimed at assessing truth
Question of judgment
A question with competing and debatable answers. Have more than one answer, with some answers better than others.
Common factor method
In analyzing causation, looking for a single shared factor
In analyzing causation, looking for a pattern of variation between a possible cause and a possible effect
Question of fact
A question with one answer
Question of preference
A question with many possible subjective answers
Process of elimination
In analyzing causation, successively ruling out non-causal factors until one correct causal factor remains
Single difference method
In analyzing causation, looking for a causal factor that is present in one situation but absent in another similar situation
In strategic thinking, recognizing when your thinking is irrational or flawed.
In strategic thinking, engaging and challenging your own thinking.
Taking into the mind information, that through memorized, we don't understand.
Bringing significant ideas and knowledge into the mind and are able to apply them to new situations.
-Intellectually unskilled thinkers
-Socially conditioned beliefs
-Personal beliefs often grounded in prejudice
-Motivated by irrationality, personal vanity, intellectual arrogance
-Prone to emotional counter-attacks when thinking is questioned
-See themselves and "good" and opponents as "evil"
-Weak-sense critical thinkers
-Skilled in manipulation
-Employ manipulation, domination, demagoguery
-Try to keep other points of view from being heard
Fair-Minded Critical Persons
-Strong sense critical thinkers
-Reject manipulation and controlling others
-Combine critical thinking skills with desire to serve public good
-Want all points of view expressed
-Want manipulative persuasion exposed
An error in reasoning. It is present in an argument when the premises (or reasons) given for the conclusion don't properly support the conclusion, or insufficient to warrant the conclusion. The presence of a fallacy invalidates the argument.
Begging the question
Asserting a conclusion that is assumed in the reasoning. Reason given to support the conclusion restates the conclusion.
Appeal to Authority
To justify support for a position by citing an esteemed or well known figure who supports it
Distorting or exaggerating an opponent's argument so that it might be more easily attacked
Drawing an invalid comparison between things for the purpose of either supporting or refuting some position. An analogy in which there are important relevant dissimilarities between 2 things being compared
Assuming only two alternatives when, in reality, there are more than two.
Dismissing an argument by attacking the person who offers it rather than by refuting its reasoning
To suggest that a step or action, once taken, will lead inevitably to similar steps or actions with presumably undesirable consequences
Drawing a comparison between 2 things in order to show a meaningful resemblance between them. It implies that if 2 things are alike in one respect, they will be alike in other respects.
A hunch, gut feelings, or premonition
What we see first hand
Appeal to authority
Justifying a position by citing an expert or authority who supports it
A detailed account of a person or even; a striking or dramatic anecdote. Limited reliability because it is untypical or represents the exception to the norm. Can
An account of someone else's personal experience
A research method or instrument for measuring people's attitudes or beliefs
A systematic set of observations collected through scientific methods
What we experience; what we ourselves do or go through. Can lead to hasty generalizations based on only one or a couple of experiences.
Quantifies an observation or phenomenon, expresses it as a number or empirical measure. Examples of evidence: Statistical report
Describes or recounts an observation or phenomenon. It communicates understanding and meaning, why and how something happened. Examples of evidence: Research studies, personal observations
Based on or derived from practical experiment and direct observation.
The process of selecting events or people to study
Information that is provided to support the dependability of a factual claim
Neglect of a common cause
The failure to recognize that 2 events may be related through the effects of a common third factor
Beliefs about the way the world is, was, or will be whose credibility depends on the quality of evidence offered to support them
A plausible alternative explanation for why a certain outcome happened
Risk reduction can be expressed in _____ and _____ terms
Relative / absolute
For statistical data to be valid, the sample must be _____ and sufficiently _____.
random / large
If a sample is too small or not random enough, the critical thinker must:
Be skeptical of the outcome
The frequency with which each value in a series of values occurs
The total or aggregate of something, expressed as a number without relationship to other numbers. Without knowing the it, it is impossible to interpret the significance of a percentage.
The gap between the smallest and largest values in a series of values
The average represented by the middle value in a series of values
Which report of risk reduction conveys a more significant treatment effect?