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U1: Ancient Civilizations
Terms in this set (35)
the period of time before written records
the study of past cultures through the remains that were left behind by a group of people
Study of the origins and development of people and their societies
human-like primate that walks upright
Homo Sapiens Sapiens
Also known as "early modern humans" who became the only hominids on earth - us.
(2,500,000 BC - 10,000 BC) aka "Old Stone Age". A period of time in human history characterized by the use of stone tools and the use of hunting and gathering as a food source.
People who hunt animals and gather wild plants, seeds, fruits, and nuts to survive
having no fixed home, moving from place to place in search of food, water, or grazing land
(8,000 BC - 4,000 BC) aka "New Stone Age". A period of time in human history where humans began to domesticate animals and grow food, which led to more permanent settlements.
the keeping of animals and the growing of food on a regular basis
training and breeding animals for human use as a source of food, hides, or even used to work on farms.
a complex culture where people share commonalities. That include cities, government, religion, social structure, writing, & art
A city with a government surrounded by farmland and protected by walls
Believing in many gods
A stepped tower on which was built a temple dedicated to the chief god or goddess of a Sumerian city
A government ruled by or subject to religious authority.
A form of writing developed by the Sumerians using a wedge shaped stylus and clay tablets.
Oldest written system of laws. They were created by King Hammurabi of Babylonia and placed on stones tablets for all to see.
2700 BC - 2200 BC. Upper and Lower Egypt kept separate kingdoms, but later built unified government. Developed basic features of its civilization. BUILT THE PYRAMIDS: an eternal resting place for their god-kings.
2050 BC. - 1800 BC.: A new dynasty reunited Egypt. Moved the capital to Thebes. Built irrigation projects and canal between Nile and Red Sea so Egyptian ships could trade along coasts of Arabian Peninsula and East Africa. Expanded Egyptian territory:Nubia, Syria.
(1550 BCE - 1100 BCE) Period in ancient Egyptian history characterized by strong pharaohs who conquered an empire that stretched from Nubia in the south, to the Euphrates River in Mesopotamia.
Ancient language of India , first spoken by the Aryans
ritual suicide committed by women upon the death of the husband, now outlawed in India
a set of rigid social categories that determined not only a person's occupation and economic potential, but also his or her position in society
Another word for the social classes in the Indian Caste system that ranked people from high to low
people of the highest class of Indian society, the priestly class.
second highest caste, warriors and rulers
Caste of the common people (merchants, artisans, and farmers)
Caste that made up most of the Indian population; most were peasants and manual laborers; they had limited rights in society
LOWEST LEVEL OF INDIAN SOCIETY; not considered a real part of the caste system; often given degrading jobs; their life was extremely difficult for them
This was the earliest known dynasty. There is no written evidence of this early time period, but artifacts have been found. The people of this time were farmers and made pottery.
a ruling class of noble families
Second Chinese dynasty (about 1750-1122 B.C.) which was mostly a farming society ruled by an aristocracy mostly concerned with war. They're best remembered for their art of bronze casting.
Third Dynasty after Shang, which believed in the Mandate of Heaven. Expanded to Yangtze river. Standardized spoken language
Mandate of Heaven
A political theory of ancient China in which those in power were given the right to rule from a the gods/god