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Terms in this set (38)

Epidemiology:

discovered in 1981, named AIDS in 1982
1981-1994 - 441,528 total confirmed cases
Estimated number infected in the U.S. 945,000-1,400,000
In 1993 HIV became leading cause of death for persons aged 25-44 in U.S.
Mortality rate: 63% overall
85% for those with symptoms for longer than 3 years
MO:

retrovirus (HIV-1, HIV-2) RNA virus with a reverse transcriptase enzyme
virus was discovered in 1984
possible-monkey virus from Central Africa (not proven)
virus integrates into host cell DNA
virus infects T-cells (control cell-mediated immunity, and regulate Ab production) and
other cells with CD4 receptors (monocytes, macrophages, epithelial cells)
Transmission:

intimate contact with body fluid transfer--blood or semen primarily
contaminated needles (IV drug users)
sexual intercourse (heterosexuals)
blood transfusions
not casual contact (extremely rare) or blood donations or vectors
Risk groups (in the U.S.):
male homosexuals 57%
(bisexuals)
IV drug users 23% (most females in this group-most rapidly expanding group)
heterosexuals 14% (IVD partners) hemophiliacs 1%
other 10% (newborns, transfusions, etc.)
In Africa, AIDS primarily found in heterosexual population
In Central Africa 10-20% urban population infected (27-88% prostitutes)
Symptoms:

Latent period up to 10 years or longer (75% develop disease within 6 years)
Symptoms depend on number of T4 cells with CD4 receptors in blood (the fewer T4 cells, the more severe the symptoms) loss of immunity--very susceptible to infectious disease
Early - skin rashes and itching, oral ulcers, Lymphadenopathy
Late - oral thrush, ulcers, anorexia, weight loss, malnutrition, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, night sweats
Advanced - memory and cognitive impairment, severe malnutrition, wasting, numbness of extremities, difficulty walking, difficulty swallowing, cough, wheezing, shortness of breath, visual problems, Kaposi's sarcoma, pneumocystis and cryptococcus pneumonia, tuberculosis, viral infections, neurological and brain degeneration (virus can infect cells in the brain)
Treatment:

symptomatic, experimental drugs (AZT) gammaglobulin, cancer treatments

Prevention:

avoid contact with infected (intimate contact, needles)
monitor blood donations (done since 1985)
blood screening
condoms