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Terms in this set (35)
Today most researchers who study personality traits agree that __, and only __, and no fewer than __ dominant traits continue to emerge from factor analytic techniques.
Which biological mechanisms are rated as most influential on the basic tendencies?
genes, hormones, and brain structures
Cattell extracted more traits from his data than Eysenck. This is partially explained by Cattell's
use of oblique (method) rotation.
The essence of basic tendencies is their basis in biology and their ______ over time and situation.
In Cattell's inductive method of research,
no preexisting biases determine the collection of data.
Costa and McCrae first solidified their long research collaboration as colleagues
at the National Institutes on Aging's Gerontology Research Center.
People who score in the direction of agreeableness tend to be
good-natured, yielding, generous, and trusting.
Trait theorists rely mostly on which method of identifying traits?
Cattell attempted to measure human personality from three directions, using L data, Q data, and T data. Which of the following is an example of T data?
aptitude test scores
The trait ______ refers to people who are hard-working, self-disciplined, ambitious and organized.
According to Costa and McCrae, maladjustment occurs when
adaptive responses are inconsistent with personal goals or cultural values.
Which of the following statements best reflects our understanding of the stability of personality traits according to the Five-Factor model?
Basic personality traits change very little beyond the age of thirty.
The fifth factor of the Big Five is _______ and describes people who are ordered, controlled, organized, ambitious, achievement focused, and self-disciplined.
In the Five-Factor theory, behavior, in part, is predicted by three core components. Which of the following is NOT a core component?
The question of how we respond to opportunities and demands of the social situation or context is called
People who consistently seek out different and varied experiences would score high on
openness to experience.
Personality psychologists are more likely to attribute behavior to _________.
Using the NEO-PI (1992) personality inventory, Costa and McCrae revealed two additional trait dimensions. They are
agreeableness and conscientiousness.
Cattell and McCrae and Costa both used an (a) _________ of gathering data.
Which of the following is NOT one of the five trait factors in the Five-Factor model?
McCrae and Costa agree with Eysenck that personality traits are ______ and follow the bell shaped distribution.
Cattell classified traits that refer to how far or how fast one can perform a given activity as ____________ traits.
Although factor and trait theories are difficult to rate on several dimensions for a concept of humanity, they clearly rate very high on
genetic factors and generating research.
Hans J. Eysenck insisted that only __ major factors can be discerned by a factor analytic approach.
A _________ is a classification of things according to their natural relationships while a _______ can both predict and explain behavior.
The total number of primary traits, both normal and pathological, that Cattell and his associates identified is about
McCrae and Costa (1996) objected to earlier personality theories as over-relying on
clinical events and armchair speculation.
______ is defined as "everything the person does, thinks or feels across the whole life span".
Cattell's famous personality scale is called the _______.
16 PF scale
The key, ideal factor that has allowed Costa and McCrae to investigate the trait-structure of personality has been
the large, well-established datasets of adults at the NIH in Baltimore.
The concept of humanity embodied by the Factor and Trait theories is best described as
Characteristic adaptations differ from culture to culture because
they fluctuate over time and context, unlike basic tendencies, which are stable
"A theory organizes findings to tell a coherent story, to bring into focus those issues and phenomena that can and should be explained". This quote can be attributed to
Costa and McCrae.
Individuals who score high on ____________ tend to be anxious, temperamental, emotional and vulnerable to stress-related problems.
McCrae and Costa used the concept of personal myths to equate to which concept(s)?
distorted ego perceptions