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Arts and Humanities
History of Europe
Chapter 13: Reformation and Religious Warfare in the Sixteenth Century
Terms in this set (44)
Selling of forgiveness by the Catholic Church. It was common practice when the church needed to raise money. The practice led to the Reformation.
Desiderius Erasmus's The Praise of Folly
Erasmus emphasized inner piety and simplicity; Praise of Folly exposed the corrupt practices and abuses of the Church and its members.
Thomas More's Utopia
A satire written as a lesson to society. In it, the citizens find wealth to be meaningless, instead seeking the welfare of their neighbors. The message was that a
corrupt society, not a corrupt individual, was the cause of the world's problems.
Pluralism and Absenteeism
..., In order to increase their revenues high church
officials(bishops, archbishops, and cardinals) took over more then one church office-pluralism-which led to absenteeism:church officials ignored their duties and hired underlings who were sometimes no qualified. Complaints of parish priests became widespread in the fifteenth century.
Thomas a Kempis' Imitation of Christ
book that downplayed religious dogma & stressed the need to follow the teachings of Jesus; said we would be judged by what we've done and how religiously we've lived, not what we've read/how we've spoken
One practice of the Catholic Church that can lead to one's salvation: Baptism, Eucharist, Confession, Holy Orders, Extreme Unction(Last Rites), Marriage
German theologian and leader of the Reformation. His opposition to the wealth and corruption of the papacy and his belief that salvation would be granted on the basis of faith alone rather than by works caused his excommunication from the Catholic Church (1521). Confirmed the Augsburg Confession in 1530, effectively establishing the Lutheran Church.
salvation by faith
Primary doctrine of the Protestant Reformation. Luther believed that humans were not saved by their good works but through faith
priesthood of all believers
Luther said/realized that everyone should follow their calling and find their own faith through scripture, which meant that no one could achieve a higher level of spirituality because of a church position.
Johann Tetzel and indulgences
sold Indulgences with the German slogan ''As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs''then took the money back to Rome to build the St Peter Basilica
Martin Luther's criticisms of the Catholic church arguing against indulgences and for a direct relationship to God.
the Edict of Worms
Luther didn't recant his doctrines before the Reichstag. Charles V made this proclamation that outlawed, burned his works, & ordered his capture
the Peasant's War, 1524
Causes: Peasant's hadn't been helped by the economic improvement, and Lord's continued to suppress them. Also, they began to look toward Luther for help.
Results: Princes in Germany ruthlessly suppress the rebels, and Luther's movement is dependent on the state., A rebellion against the German Princes of the 1500's, the peasants claimed that the German Nobles had levied unfair taxes and duties on them. They cited Luther and his burgeoning movement as backing. Luther didn't agree, he was adverse to anything that disrupted the order of law.
the term used to describe the changing of the bread and wine into the Body and Blood of Christ that takes place during the consecration of the Mass, by the power of the Holy Spirit through the words and actions of the priest
the Protestant minister and family
Martin Luther married Katherina von Bora providing a model of marvied and family life for the new protestant minister
Holy Roman Emperor and Carlos I of Spain, tried to keep Europe religiously united, inherited Spain, the Netherlands, Southern Italy, Austria, and much of the Holy Roman Emperor from his grandparents, he sought to stop Protestantism and increase the power of Catholicism. He allied with the pope to stamp out heresy and maintain religous unity in Europe. He was preocuppied with struggles with Turkey and France and could not soley focus on the rise of Protestantism in Germany.
Pope Clement VII
A Medici pope who refused to grant Henry VIII an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon; his indecisiveness in choosing alliances led to the Sack of Rome by Charles V and marked the end of the High Renaissance in Italy.
Suleiman the Magnificent
The most famous Sultan of the Ottomans, Suleiman the magnificent led the Ottomans into a golden age in 1520-1566. He was a brilliant war general and took the Ottomans on to conquer areas of eastern Europe and a much larger portion of the middle east. He improved their government substantially and assumed the role of absolute power.
Peace of Augsburg
It was turning point to the historic reformation and it ended the German religious warfare in 1555. It declared that Lutheranism was a legal, permanent religion along with Catholicism. It also stated that German princes could determine the religion over his subjects.
He led the Swedish barons to overthrow Christian II of Denmark out of leadership of the Scandnavian kingdoms. He later became king of independant Sweden and established the Lutheran Church in Sweden. The Swedish Lutheran National Church had been created, to ensure the loyalty of the populace and clergy to the crown.
(1484-1531) Swiss humanist, priest and disciple of Erasmus. Founded the reform church in Switzerland. Much like Luther's but differed over nature of Communion. Believed it to be purely a symbolic act - commemorating the last supper and christ's sacrifice for mankind. Luther, on the other hand, believed there was a spiritual presence in the bread and wine at the time of communion. This difference became apparent at the time of the Marburg Colloquy in 1529. Zwingli tried to simplify the Christian belief and practise even more than Luther.
..., Landgrave Philip of Hesse hoped to unite Swiss and German Protestants in a mutual defense pact, a significant political alliance; his efforts were spoiled by Zwingli and Luther's disagreement on Christ's presence within the Eucharist; After both Protestant leaders were brought together at Marburg and disagreed, the Protestant movement splintered theologically and politically
Didn't believe the state had any role in church affairs. Church voluntary believers, adult baptism (re-baptist), chose their own minister, communion just a remembrance done in their homes. Didn't bear arms but were considered dangerous radicals. Protestants and Catholics agreed they should stamp out the antibaptist. Had uprising in the city of Munster, city of powerful Catholic prince-bishop. Even though Munster had converted to Lutherism it became a safehaven for anabaptist. Catholic and Lutherans joined forces and captured the city
Belief that end of the world was at hand and Anabaptists would usher in the kingdom of God with Munster as the New Jerusalem
man responsible for rejuvenating Dutch Anabaptism; stressed separation from world in order to truly emulate life of Jesus; Mennonites spread through Northern Europe and New World
Henry VIII's wives
1st - Catherine of Aragon: failed to produce a male heir, divorced
2nd - Anne Boleyn: mother of Elizabeth, beheaded for adultery
3rd - Jane Seymour: produced male heir, died 12 days later
4th - Anne of Cleeves: less attractive than imagined; divorced
5th - Catherine Howard: more attractive less moral, beheaded for adultery
6th - Catherine Parr: outlived king
Act of Supremacy
Proclaimed King Henry VIII the supreme leader of the Church of England, which meant that the pope was no longer recognized as having any authority within the country, and all matters of faith, ecclesiastical appointment, and maintenance of ecclesiastical properties were in the hands of the king.
Book of Common Prayer
the official prayer and liturgical (worship manual) book of Anglicanism. Charles I and Laud tried to impose it upon all Protestant churches in England- many people resisted. The Scots hated it
(1547-1553) King Henry VIII's only son. Sickly, and became King at 9 years old. Since he wasn't capable of governing his country the Protestant church was soon brought in through his advisors Cromwell and Cranmer.
John Calvin was responsible for founding Calvinism, which was reformed Catholicism. He writes about it in "Institutes of a Christian Religion" published in 1536. He believed God was all knowing and everyone was predestined for heaven or hell.
One of the main points of Calvinism that said that God had already determined if you were damned or saved
Swiss city where John Calvin settled and eventually became a theocracy where citizens were required to attend Reformed Church services and laws forgave certain behaviors/actions
Humanist schools for the elite-Protestants believed all children have the opportunity for education provided by the state-ones in Germany introduced the gymnasium(secondary school) emphasize on liveral arts combined with religious teachings
English protestant dissenters who believed that God predestined souls to heaven or hell before birth. They founded Massachusetts Bay colony in 1629.
Religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church, begun in response to the Protestant Reformation. It clarified Catholic theology and reformed clerical training and discipline.
Saint Theresa of Avila
A nun of the Carmelite order who experienced a variety of mystical visions that she claimed resulted in the estatic union of her soul with God. She believed mystical experience should lead to an active life of service on behalf of her Catholic faith. She founded an order of bare-foot Carmelite nuns to foster their mystical experiences.
(1491-1556) Spanish churchman and founder of the Jesuits (1534); this order of Roman Catholic priests proved an effective force for reviving Catholicism during the Catholic Reformation.
Members of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic order founded by Ignatius Loyola in 1534. They played an important part in the Catholic Reformation and helped create conduits of trade and knowledge between Asia and Europe.
Early Jesuit missionary often called the Apostle to the Indies. He was an associate of St Ignatius of Loyola, with whom he took the vow founding the Society of Jesus (Jesuits). From 1541 he traveled through India, Japan, and the East Indies, making many converts.
Pope Paul III
He promised to summon a council for reform if he was elected pope after the death of Pope Clement VII. Roman aristocrat, humanist, and astrologer, Pope Paul III formed the Council of Trent during the Catholic reformations and the Inquisition in Papal Italy. Noted for ending plurism, secret marriages, and attacking corruption.
Council of Trent
The congress of learned Roman Catholic authorities that met intermittently from 1545 to 1563 to reform abusive church practices and reconcile with the Protestants.
Huguenots and Saint Bartholomew's Day
French Protestants, August 24, 1572 Huguenot leaders from all over France came to celebrate the wedding of Henry and Margaret, but were instead slaughtered by the Guises and their supporters
Henry IV and the Edict of Nantes
A 1598 declaration in which french king Henry IV stated Catholicism as official religion- BUT promised Protestants (Hugs) could live in peace in France and could set up houses of worship in some French cities. & could worship in those places and hold office
The son of CHarles V was born and educated in Spain. He ruled Spain until his death in 1598. Spain's financial problems grew as he pursued his leadership position as head of the Counter Reformation. He sent the Spanish Armada against England in 1588, but it ended in disaster.
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