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717 terms

World History and Geography to 1500 AD / CE

World History Terms up to the Renaissance
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AD / CE
A.D. = Anno Domini (Latin) or After Death (of Christ) C.E. = Common Era
BC / BCE
B.C. = Before Christ (birth) B.C.E. = Before Common Era
Generalizations
Broad comments or depictions about a group of people or things.
Primary sources
Document or physical object which was written or created during the actual time period
Secondary sources
They interpret and analyze and are one or more steps removed from the event.
Artifacts
"Human made object like a tool, a shard of pottery, etc. Bones are examples also."
Interpret
To give or provide the meaning of something.
Geographic features
"Categories to describe structures and patterns relating to the earth, land, sea and air."
Political boundaries
"A line between counties, states or nations that shows where control ends."
Empires
"Extensive territory comprising a number of territories, city-states or nations and ruled by a single supreme authority."
Kingdoms
"Territory, state, people, or community ruled or reigned over by a king or queen."
Locations of civilizations
Complex grouping of people and where they are located in the world
Cultural interaction
The relationship and sharing of various learned behaviors within a group of people.
Trends in human migration
"Human movement or pattern throughout territories over a time period; due to many different reasons:
Climate changes
Drought, Natural disasters, Exploration, Lack of food and Population growth."
Government spending
To finance or support programs established by the political authority for the good of the citizens.
Impact of economic forces
"The effects of increase or decrease in production, consumption and distribution of goods and services on the state of the county"
Monetary system
System by which goods and services are paid for through the exchange of a token of agreed value.
Resources
A material that is ON or IN the LAND and used for creation of goods and services
Taxation
A sum of money demanded by a government for its support and the public good. [ideally]
Trade
"The ability to buy, sell, or exchange goods and services within a country or between countries or individuals"
Amber from Baltic
Semi-precious gemstone from resin of conifer trees of ancient decayed forests that wash-up along the Baltic Sea.
Buddhism
A major religion that developed out of Hinduism from the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama. He taught and understanding of the Four Noble Truths and following the Eightfold Path.
Compass from China
A magnetic device used to help travel and navigation on water by locating the Northern direction
Cultural interactions
The small and great events that occur when one group makes contact with another.
Gold from West Africa
"A precious metal traded in the Ghana, Mali and Songhai Empires."
Goods & services
Any traded item or work done in exchange for money
Hinduism
A major religion in mainly located in India that believes in many forms of one god and the reincarnation of the soul.
Islam
"A major monotheistic religion that developed after Judaism and Christianity in the Middle East from the teachings of its founder, Muhammed."
Lateen sail from India
A triangular-shaped cloth material used to catch the wind to push ships on water.
Navigation
The process of traveling and actions required to move from one place to another usually on water.
Networks of interdependence
Many different levels of ?give and take? between two or more cultures
New crops from India [make sugar]
Sugarcane is brought from New Guinea to the Indian subcontinent where it was cross-breed with wild sugarcane. Arabs traders brought the hybrid from to Egypt and the Middle East.
Paper from China => Muslims => Byzantines => Europe
The process of making paper spreads from China to the Islamic Empire in the 8th Century CE. From there it migrates to the Byzantine Empire and finally to Europe
Paper money from China
Paper is first used as money in China during the Song Dynasty (960-1279 C.E.)
Porcelain from China & Persia
"Finely crafted ceramic bowls, plates and cups exported from China to the Middle East when gold, silver and copper were forbidden for this use"
Printing from China
The use of a stamping device to place ink on paper started in China
Spices from lands around Indian Ocean
"Aloeswood (aroma therapy), cinnamon, cloves, ginger, Frankincense, cassia (possibly a bean family legume), lemon grass (antiseptic soaps and insect repellant called citronella), nutmeg and mace (both from the same tree) and black pepper."
Spread of religions
These religions stretch out to other areas of the world mainly through trade and missionary efforts.
Technological advances
"An art, skill or craft developed to solve a problem, improve performance or function. It can also mean tools, machines, processes and procedures."
Technological transfers
"The movement of problem-solving tools, machines, ideas, procedures and processes to other parts or the world."
Textiles India then from Europe
A cloth-making process that produces a repetitive pattern (tile). This technology developed in India and was ?transferred? to Europe through trade.
Trade diffusion of goods
"The exchange of spices, metals, cloth, ivory, slaves and ideas."
Waterwheels & Windmills from M.E.
The use of devices to harness wind and water energy cultural diffuses from the Middle East to Europe. [Crusades]
Accounting practices stimulated by Arabic numerals
The use of numerals for bookkeeping helps keep track of business profits.
Church against usury
Catholic Church condemned loaning money to fellow Christians and charging interest.
Economic foundations
"The dominate method for making money in a region that other methods depend on [i.e. farming, mining, etc.]"
Encouraged Credit & Banking
Large purchases of trade goods and the need to protect your money from thieves or robbery.
Expand supply of money
Money placed in banks and loaned allows it to be used more rapidly.
Expedite trade
To help increase commerce
Letters of Credit
A note from a banker in Florence to another banker in Constantinople that would allow the note carrier to buy without paying immediately.
Middle Eastern products
"Peppercorns, nutmeg, mace, and cinnamon all came from lands to the east. Also from the East came precious gems and fine silk, a fabric especially sought after for women's clothing."
Renaissance
Rebirth of Classical culture [Greek and Roman]
Stimulated
"Encouraged trade [I.E. Crusader travels, larger faster ships, compass, better maps?]"
Absolute rule
Autocratic or total control by a monarch or king.
Centers of trade
Commerce Crossroads
"'do good when possible AND evil when necessary"""
The Prince is quoted. [Do whatever is necessary to keep power]
Florence
Italian city-states that grew prosperous by trading and banking.
Genoa
Italian city-states that grew prosperous by trading.
Get and maintain political power
Is the subject of the book [The Prince].
Independent city-states
Italian cities that grow wealthy from trade with the middle east.
Machiavelli
Author of The Prince
Middle East
A region between Europe and India
Northern Europe
"Area containing France, Germany, Scandinavia, Belgium and England"
the ends justifies the means
It is acceptable to do anything as long as the result is what you want.
The Prince
A book that discusses ways to ?Get and maintain political power?
Trade route access
Close to major water or land commerce crossroads.
Venice
Italian city-states that grew prosperous by trading.
Agricultural surplus
Growing more crops than one needs to survive.
Bronze and iron
Two metals that represent technological advancement for humans and were used for tools and weapons.
Centralized Governments
The concentration of the powers of control in the hands of a smaller group or location.
City-states
A mini nation within itself and the surrounding farmlands.
Code of Hammurabi
First written Babylonian law established throughout the empire in ancient Mesopotamian times.
Development of first cities
The most important evidence of civilization.
Dynasties of kings and pharaohs
An unbroken line of related hereditary rulers of a country.
Economic patterns
"The methods which people use to produce, trade, and use goods and services."
Hereditary rulers
A child of a ruler who assumes the role of leader because they were born into nobility
Plows & irrigation
A device used to prepare the soil for planting crops and watering crops in times of insufficient rain.
Political patterns
The ways that people develop social order seems to be similar in different parts of the world and at different times.
Religious Authority
A governing system to ensure conformity for the followers of a belief.
Rigid Class system
A social structure that divides people on the basis of an inherited social status AND social status never changes.
Slavery in most cultures
A system under which people are captured or conquered and are treated as property to be bought and sold to be used in whatever capacity their owner sees fit.
Social patterns
Trends and behaviors of people that develop over time and are learned by succeeding generations.
States or Nation
"A people united by common descent, history, culture, or language, inhabiting a particular country or territory."
Trade on rivers and oceans
The interchange of goods or services among other cultures along coastal ports on the ocean or river banks of a river.
Use of metal
"Elements on the 'Periodic Chart' that possess that make them ideal for tools, building and protection."
Written law codes
Rules that people governed by as the standards of behavior are posted and all are held accountable to it.
Athens
A Greek city and the birthplace of democracy.
Citizenship requirements and duties
"Born in city-state, free, male and at least 18 years old and must serve in war, pay taxes and participate in governing."
Democratic principles
A political form of government in which governing power is derived from the people.
Direct Democracy
System of government in which citizens participated in the day-to-day affairs of government rather than through an elected representative.
Draco
Wrote the first Greek code of laws that were very harsh.
Foreigner's Rights
Non-citizens had very little legal protection under Greek law.
Militaristic Society
Sparta children (at 7 years old) were taken from their families and trained all their lives in military maneuvers.
"Monarchy
Aristocracy, Tyranny, Democracy",The forms of government that Athens had over the centuries.
Oligarchy
"The government is ruled by a few, usually wealthy businessmen or nobles."
Political Rights
"The ability to help make policy, vote, hold offices usually based on gender, freedom and birth place."
Public debate
A formal style of arguing.
Rigid Social Structure
A social class system where there is little or NO upward mobility.
Slave Rights
Slaves in Greece had NO political or personal privileges.
Solon
Political leader in Athens who ended most of Draco's tyranny including debt slavery.
Sparta
A Greek militaristic city-state on the Peloponneseus Peninsula.
Stages of government
Athens had many types or forms of political control.
Tyrants working for reform
A political reformer who uses his power to change laws.
Women's Rights
No political privileges in Greece.
appeals
The right to have your guilty or innocent verdict examined by a higher authority.
Assemblies
The lower representative body in Rome was the Tribal Assembly. [It represents the Plebeians]
Citizenship
Romans born in territories ruled by Rome were citizens. [They were innocent till proven guilty]
Consuls
When the Senators went home the government and army was ruled by TWO of these. [They served one term for one year]
innocent till proven guilty
You do NOT have to prove you did NOT commit a crime. Someone else has to prove you did the crime.
military service
All Roman male citizens served in the military at THEIR own expense?.when needed.
Patrician & Plebeian men only
Only Roman men could vote?sorry ladies.
Patricians
"The upper class of Rome. [rich, large farmer owners]"
pay taxes
Roman citizens pay taxes. [Nothing new here]
Plebeians
The lower class of Rome. [small farmers and merchants]
Republic
A representative democracy. [Senate & Tribal Assembly]
responsibilities
Things you have to do?why are you obligated? What makes you do?
Rights
The special abilities you have as a citizen.
Roman Democracy
Rome is a republic for its first 500 years.
Slaves
One-third of Rome was run by conquered people turned into slaves.
social structure of Rome
Patricians followed by Plebeians and the slaves on the bottom of society.
some foreigners
Few non-native born people were granted citizenship at a great monetary cost.
The Senate
Representative body for the Patricians. [It was the more powerful assembly]
trial
The right to testify in your own defense. The right to prove your innocence or tell your side of the story in court.
Twelve Tables
Roman law written down and placed in the Forum.
worship the gods
Romans were polytheistic. [If you did NOT worship the gods you were considered disloyal]
civil service
Working for the people [civil] in government [bureaucrat]
common currency
Shared form of money. [makes trade easier]
emphasis on family
Rome protects the family unit and values it supports.
expansion
Rome enlarges the territory that is ruled.
Pax Romana
The 200 year period called the Peace of Rome. [Golden Age of Roman Empire]
prosperity
Living a long and financially successful life.
safe roads
Rome guarded its roads so trade could flourish.
social stability
"Keeping upper, lower and middle classes satisfied with their income, their happiness, desires and hopes."
trade expanded
Enlarging the area of exchanged goods and services that the Rome Empire controlled.
uniform rule of law
Rules that are the applied same for all people.
Europe
Continent between Atlantic Ocean and Asia that is North of Africa.
Feudal society
Relationship between Lord and vassal where the Lord gives land in exchange for service [military].
Fiefs
Land and villages given by Lord to a vassal.
Invasions
"Western Europe suffers from waves of attacks by Vikings, Muslims and Magyars."
Manor system
The farm house [big house] located on land given to a vassal by the Lord.
Obligations
Things that one owes to another as part of a contract or relationship. [Feudal dues or duties]
Rigid class structure
Unchanging social organization.
Self-sufficient manors
The Estates of nobles produced all the things they needed to survive.
Serfs
Farm workers that must work the land in exchange for protection. [part of Feudalism]
Vassals
Noble that receives land in exchange for military service to his Lord.
Aphrodite
"Greek goddess of love, beauty and fertility."
Apollo
"Greek god of light, music and prophesy."
Artemis
Greek goddess of hunting/nature.
Athena
"Greek goddess of wisdom, art and war and the patron goddess of Athens."
Greek mythology
"Stories about the Greek gods that explained natural phenomena, human qualities and life events."
Hera
Greek goddess and the wife of Zeus.
"Symbols in art
literature and architecture of the west",Hellenistic culture has influence all aspects of western culture.
Zeus
Greek god who was chief of the gods.
Athens remains independent
The Persian Empire fails to conquer the Greek city-state.
Competition for control
People and nations struggle for ruling power over economic and political areas.
Delian League
Military association of Greek city-states against the Persian Empire.
End of Athens greatness
Athens loses the Peloponnesian War and its control of Greek trade.
Golden Age in Athens
"Time period of greatest economic, political, social, intellectual and militaristic success."
Marathon victories
"A city 26 miles from Athens, it is a Greek victory over the Persians in 490 B.C."
Peloponnesian League
Sparta and its allies.
Peloponnesian Wars
War between the allies of Sparta and Athens.
Persian Wars
A conflict between Greeks and the Persian between 499 to 449 B.C.
Salamis Island victory
The citizens of Athens put their faith in their navy and relocate to an island in salamis bay for protection.
United Sparta & Athens
The Persian Wars brought these two city-states together against a common enemy.
Adult males
"In ancient Greece, older men controlled political, social and economic privileges."
Characterize life in Athens
A generalization of the way people lived together in the city-state
Extended democracy
Anything that increases the ability of people to have more power to control their own government.
Golden Age of Pericles between Persian and Peloponnesian Wars
"50 year period, under the rule of Pericles, of economic prosperity where government becomes more democratic."
Parthenon reconstructed
"After the Persian Wars, Pericles rebuilt the ?Acropolis? buildings."
Rebuilt Athens
"After the Persian Wars, Pericles rebuilt the city-state."
Academy school
A place to teach founded by Plato in 87 B.C. in Athens.
Archimedes
Greek mathematician who explained the math behind the lever and pulley
architecture
Greek style of building has influenced many civilizations through the past present and possibly the future.
Aristotle
"Greek philosopher and student of Plato who wrote about science, art, law, poetry and government."
Contributions of Greeks
"Philosophy, systems of government ( ""democracy""), History (Herodotus, Father of History), Olympics, various forms of literature/culture (e.g. plays and pieces of art, i.e. Red and black figure vases)and underground aqueducts."
Corinthian
A Greek style of column that was very ornate with a top that looked like leaves.
Doric
A Greek style of column that was simple and sturdy with a plain top.
"Drama-Aeschylus
Sophocles","The Greek theatre history began with festivals honoring their gods. Aeschylus was known as The ""Father of Greek Tragedy,"" and Sophocles was to become one of the great playwrights and actor of the golden age"
Euclid-geometry
A Greek philosopher who is credited with inventing Geometry.
Greek columns
A style of architecture that made of use of support pillars for the roof.
Herodotus
"Greek who wrote about the Trojan Wars and is called the ""Father of History."""
Hippocrates
A Greek physician who based his medical practice on observations and on the study of the human body.
History
The story of how humans solved their problems that started when humans learned to write.
Iliad
An epic poem by Homer about the Trojan Wars.
Ionian
A Greek style of column that was more elegant and thin with a curled scroll-like top.
Lever
A simple machine to lift objects using a fulcrum and a long rod.
Mathematics
A science that focuses on using numbers to solve problems.
Oath
A solemn promise.
Odyssey
An epic poem by Homer that tell of the ten-year journey of Odysseus to reach his home in Greece.
Philosophy
"A compound word, composed of two parts: philos (love) and sophia (wisdom), so that literally it means love of wisdom."
Plato
"A Greek philosopher and student of Socrates who started a school called the Academy, wrote ""The Republic"" on his view of a perfect society."
Poetry-Homer
He is the author of the Iliad and the Odyssey (epic poems) and is revered as the greatest ancient Greek epic poet.
Pulley
A simple machine that uses wheels and rope to life objects that was invented and explained mathematically by Archimedes.
Pythagoras
A Greek mathematician who is credited with a formula that explains the
Republic-Utopia
"A book written by Plato about a ""perfect"" society were everybody has a job to do and all are happy and suited for that job."
Right Triangle Theorem
A^2 + B^2 = C^2
Science
Human problem solving techniques that add to understanding of nature laws.
Sculpture - Phidias
An Athenian sculptor who is credited with the Athena statue in the Parthenon and the great statue of Zeus on the Acropolis in Athens.
Socrates-using reason
A Greek philosopher and teacher who taught by asking challenging questions for student discussion.
Who taught Alexander the Great
Aristotle taught Alexander and inspired Alexander?s love of Greek philosophy
Thucydides
"Greek scientific historian who is known for his book ""The History of the Peloponnesian War"" which details the war between Sparta and Athens in the 5th Century B.C. / B.C.E."
Wrote an many topics
"Aristotle wrote many books on science, astronomy, logic, art, law, poetry and government."
Alexander the Great
"A Macedonian king and general that conquered and empire that included Greece, Egypt, Persia and some of India."
"Blend Greek
Egyptian, Persian & India culture",The culture that resulted from the conquests of Alexander the Great.
conquered Greece
"Alexander the Great's father, Philip II of Macedon, defeated the city-states of Greece and ruled them."
Empire from Greece to India
The result of Alexander the Great's military victories.
Extended Greek influence
Alexander the Great loves Greek culture and encourages it within his empire.
Hellenistic Age
Greek culture and learning were predominant in the Mediterranean and the Middle East from the time of conquest by Alexander the Great and though the rule of the Roman Empire.
Philip II of Macedon
"The father of Alexander the Great AND King from North of Greece who built a permanent army and defeated the Greeks"
Trade spread Hellenistic culture
Greek language was becoming more popular thus allowing commerce and ideas to spread among diverse cultures.
architecture
The style of building in a culture. [I.E. Greek columns & Roman arches]
art
"Human expression in any form. [drawing, painting, literature, buildings, etc.]"
based on Greek gods
Ideas that are borrowed from the mythology in ancient Greece.
Diana
Roman Goddess of the moon and the hunt
"explained natural phenomena
human qualities & life events",mythology
Juno
Goddess of marriage and queen of the gods
Jupiter
"King of the gods, god of Thunder."
literature
"Written stories and ideas. [poetry, epics, mythology, war stories, etc.]"
Minerva
"Roman goddess of poetry, medicine, wisdom, commerce, weaving, crafts and magic."
mythology
"The study of old [ancient] stories. [I.E. Epics, creation, beliefs from god stories, battles, etc.]"
religion
The belief in a higher power or spiritual force. A system of worship of a god.
symbols in
"Many Roman ideas in art, architecture and literature are still copied today."
Venus
Roman goddess of love and beauty.
Carthage
City-state of Phoenician origins in North Africa that fights three wars against Rome.
competition for trade
Rome and Carthage will struggle for control of goods and services transported by water.
Domination
The Roman Empire emerges victorious over Carthage.
Hannibal invades
A great Carthaginianÿgeneral attacks the Roman Empire by crossing the Alps with elephants.
Mediterranean basin
All the area around the Mediterranean Sea.
Punic Wars
Rome fights the city-state of Carthage in three wars for control of Mediterranean Sea trade.
Roman domination
The Roman Empire emerges victorious over Carthage in the Punic Wars.
Three wars
The Roman Empire fights three separate wars against the city-state of Carthage.
Western Europe
"The area including: Germany to Italy, from Spain to England. [From the time Diocletian divided the Roman Empire]"
civil war
A fight between people from the same country.
currency
A form of money usually coins in ancient times.
decline
A downward trend.
devaluation
An economic term usually meaning that money has lost value in relationship to other currency.
imperial Rome
Time period when Rome is ruled by ONE man or Caesar.
Julius Caesar
Great Roman general who conquerors Gaul. He becomes dictator of Rome. He is assassinated.
migration to the city
Many small farmers lose their farms because of the overuse of slavery. These people move to the city for work.
slavery
Exploitation of people by buying and selling them like property.
assassination
"The intentional or premeditated (planned) killing of a public figure, which is usually politically motivated."
Augustus Caesar
The first Emperor of Rome who started Imperial Rome and Pax Romana.
dictator
A ruler who assumes sole and absolute power over the empire.
Emperor
God and king together. An absolute ruler.
First Triumvirate
"Julius Caesar, Crassus and Pompey a grouping of three strong Romans who supposedly ran the government."
Marc Anthony
The favorite general of Julius Caesar who fights against Octavian for final control of the Empire and loses. [Cleopatra is envolved]
succession of Emperors
A group of rulers in the last 300 years of the Roman Empire who govern Rome for short time periods.
Apostles
They teach and spread the Christian faith after the death of Jesus.
Christianity
Monotheistic religion based on the teaching of Jesus Christ and spread by Paul.
doctrines of Christianity
Basic beliefs and teaching of Christianity
Jesus of Nazareth
Christians believe Jesus is the Son of God and founder of Christianity.
Judaism
First Monotheistic religion that was founded by Abraham [Hebrew].
Life after death
Christians believe in a Heaven and a Hell.
martyrs
A person who dies for their beliefs or convictions.
Messiah
"A savior or god-king who returns to earth to setup a kingdom that will last for 1000 years. [Jewish term, Christians and Muslims borrow the term]"
missionary
A person who spreads a belief to another country that is NOT their own.
monotheism
Christianity believes in one god.
New Testament
The second half of the Christian Bible. [Matthew to Revelation]
Paul
The missionary or Apostle of Christianity to the non-jews or Gentiles.
popular appeal
Christianity teaches that ALL people can be saved from their sins no matter what.
Roman polytheism vs. Christianity
A struggle between Roman traditions and monotheistic beliefs.
Son of God
Christians believe that Jesus the Christ was the Son of God.
Constantine
Constantine was the 1st Roman emperor to support Christianity and become a Christian. [Issued the Edict of Milan]
converted
A person who changes religious beliefs to a different religion.
legalization
"In 313 AD, the Emperor Constantine, the son of a Christian woman, issued the Edict of Milan announcing toleration of Christianity in the Roman Empire."
moral authority
Christian beliefs of the Catholic Church defined the proper behavior toward religion and society
official religion
Theodosius [Roman Emperor] made Christianity the official religion of Rome
Roman Church
The Christian settled in the Capital and became the leaders of the new faith.
superseded the Emperor
The Church had power over or assumed authority over a kingdom or empire.
unifying force in Western Europe
The Catholic [Universal] Church takes over power after the fall of Rome.
aqueducts
Bridges built to bring water into a Roman city.
arches
"A building technique to create space in a structure. [doorway, hall, dome]"
Christianity as imperial religion
Constantine made Christianity the Roman Empire's official religion.
Colosseum
Entertainment center for Gladiator games.
contributions
Cultural achievements of a civilization to later cultures.
Forum
"A market place, economic, political, and religious hub, town square and center of Rome."
innocent until proven guilty
Legal right of roman citizens in a court
Latin
The language of Rome
medical schools Galen
"A Roman medical researcher whose legacy is a better understanding of human anatomy, physiology, neurology, pharmacology, taking one's pulse and bloodletting."
mythology
The study of legendary stories.
Pantheon
Temple built for the Roman gods in Rome.
Ptolemy's science
"Claudius Ptolemy was a Greek-Roman citizen of Egypt who wrote in Greek. He was a mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet."
"public bath
public water","Water provided through the aqueducts for bath houses, fountains for drinking and flushing of public toilets."
Romance Languages
"Languages that have developed out of Latin [Roman].They include Spanish, Portuguese, French, Italian, Romanian, Catalan, and others."
Twelve Tables
The written laws of Rome written down and placed in the Forum for ALL to see.
Virgil's Aeneid
"Latin epic poem , written by Virgil between 29 and 19 BC, that tells the story of Aeneas, a Trojan who travelled to Italy, where he became the ancestor of the Romans."
476 AD / CE
Fall of Rome!!!
administration
The job of managing people or an area.
army membership
Was a requirement of citizens.
Byzantine Empire continues
"When the Western Roman Empire falls in 476 A.D., the Eastern Roman Empire will survive until 1453 A.D."
Byzantium
Greek name for Constantinople before its became capital of Eastern Roman Empire under Constantine.
civil war
Fighting between people of the same culture or nation.
Constantine
Constantine was the 1st Roman emperor to support Christianity and become a Christian. Issued the Edict of Milan allowing Christians to practice their religion.
Constantinople
Byzantium renamed as the new capital of the Eastern Roman Empire.
corrupt governments
Administration that does Not serve the common good of the people.
cost of defense
Taxes used to pay for armies and fortifications.
decline in discipline
Loss of preparation and training for the purpose of improving skills in battle.
devaluation of roman currency
Money loses its buying power for various reasons
difficulty of defense
Roman Empire was so large it was hard to protect.
invasion
Attack of an area from foreigners.
loss of family unit
Families did not stay together.
Moral decay
Decline in people doing the right or fair behavior.
moved the capital of Rome
Center of government relocated to Constantinople.
too big
The Roman Empire was too large to govern effectively.
Black Sea to Northern Europe
Trade route between these two areas along internal rivers and roads.
Eastern hemisphere
The Eastern half of the Earth divided along the Prime Meridian and the International Dateline
Economic forces
The needs and wants of diverse groups that create markets for goods and services. (like supply and demand)
Government spending
"Tax money and money borrowed by the government to defend, create infrastructure and pay for services like Social Security, Medicare and care of veterans."
Maritime Routes
"Trade paths along rivers, seas, lakes and oceans."
Mediterranean Basin
The area in and around the Mediterranean Sea.
Monetary systems
An agreed upon form of currency that is exchanged for goods and services.
Regional trade patterns
Local pathways for the movement of goods and services.
Resources
Materials grown on the land or pulled out that are made into useful products.
Silk route
The trade of thread from China overland to the Middle East and Europe.
South China Sea
The part of the Pacific Ocean of the Southern coast of China and East of Indonesia.
Southeast Asia
The corner of the continent it describes.
Taxation
"The money collected by the governing authorities for defense, social programs and tribute."
Trans-Saharan Routes
Trade that goes across the Great Desert of North Africa.
Western Europe sea and river trade
"A regional system of exchange of goods and services that travels along local rivers, lakes, seas and coastal harbors."
Andes Mountains
South American mountain range along the western coast from Chile to Venezuela.
Aztec
Native culture in central Mexico when the Spanish came to the New World.
Central Valley of Mexico
Located betweent the Eastern and Western Sierra Madre mountain ranges of Mexico.
Chichen Itza
"A Mayan center of political, economic, religious, and military power in the Yucatan Peninsula where a dramatic pyramid structure called ?El Castillo? stands."
High-altitude agriculture economy
Farming on the sides of mountains [ usually on terraces] and plateaus.
Machu Picchu
"An ancient Incan city in the Andes Mountains of present day Peru holding the ruins of palaces, temples, baths and about 150 dwellings."
Maya
An American Civilization that occupied the Yucatan peninsula as early as 1500 BC.
Mexican & Central American rainforest
"Great forests that live in hot, rainy climates of the Americas."
Western Hemisphere
"Half of the Earth starting at the Prime Meridian in Europe and traveling across the Atlantic Ocean, the Americas and most of the Pacific."
Agricultural revolution
The great change that occurred as people learned to farm.
Early development of mankind
"The progress of humans throughout the years, decades, centuries, or millennia."
East Africa
Speculation that this is were humans first came to be and then moved throughout the continents.
Eurasia
Europe and Asia considered together as one continent
Homo sapiens
Europe and Asia considered together as one continent
Human migration trends
"Human movement or pattern throughout territories over a time period; due to many different reasons: Climate changes, Drought, Natural disasters, Exploration, Lack of food and Population growth."
Hunter-gathers societies
"A specific kind of lifestyle, before the invention of agriculture where peole hunt game and collect plant foods (called foraging) rather than grow or tend crops."
Impact of geographic environment
The effect of climate and landforms on human behavior.
Paleolithic Era
The Stone Age of human prehistory begins with crude stone tool manufacture and ends with fully-modern human hunting and gathering societies.
China
A civilization that emerged along both the Huang He and Yangtze Rivers in the Neolithic Age.
Egypt
A civilization that emerged along the Nile River.
Hebrews
Earliest monotheistic believing civilization who settle in Palestine.
Huang He
A river in China that is considered one of the cradles of civilization.
Indus River Valley
An early cradle of civilization that emerged in Asia.
Jordan River
The central river of the Hebrew civilization in the Western part of the Fertile Crescent.
Locate in time and place
Where and when an event happens.
Mediterranean coast
"The land surrounding the Mediterranean Sea with ports for trade in places like Europe, Asia and Africa."
Mesopotamia
"Between the Tigris and Eu[hrates Rivers, it is considered to be the first cradle of civilization because this is where we find the origins of agriculture, written language, and cities."
Natural barriers
Geographical feature(s) that surround(s) an area making it difficult to penetrate
Nile
A river that creates a fertile green valley across the Sahara Desert in Eastern Egypt.
Nubians
"Once the ancient kingdom of Kush, Nubia is the stretch of land up stream [south] from Egypt."
Phoenicians
Mariners who traded along the Mediterranean Sea in ancient times.
River civilizations
All ancient civilizations started around a river. Good for water source for crops or trade with other civilizations on that river.
Tigris & Euphrates
Two main rivers in Mesopotamia used for irrigation of crops and trade with other city-states.
Upper Nile
The upstream region of the Nile or south along the Nile.
Aegean Sea
A regional body of water that is part of the Mediterranean Sea and positioned between Greece and Turkey.
Arable land in Greece
Rich fertile land with adequate rainfall that is good for growing crops.
Asia Minor
A regional landform at the westernmost protrusion of Asia [also called Anatolia] and corresponds to the eastern two thirds of the Asian part of Turkey.
Athens
A Greek city and the birthplace of democracy.
Balkan and Peloponnesus Peninsula
A regional landform surrounded by water on three side between Italy and Turkey.
Black Sea
"an inland sea with a narrow connection to the Mediterranean Sea, located between Europe and Asia and North of Turkey."
Civic life
The everyday living of citizens as individuals in a community.
Colonization because of overpopulation
The movement of citizens from a homeland to a distant land to solve the problem of too many people to feed.
Commerce spreads culture
"As a result of trade ideas, religion and technologies move around."
Dardanelles
It is a narrow channel of water that connects the Aegean Sea to the Sea of Marmara.
Europe
A continent in the northern hemisphere that is East of the Atlantic Ocean and North of the Mediterranean Sea.
Hellenic Culture
"It represents the blending of mainly Greek but including Persian, Egyptian and Indian learning."
Macedonia
A region and country located in the northeastern part of the Balkan Peninsula
Mediterranean Sea
A large regional body of water between southern Europe and North Africa.
Mountainous terrain
Land with a majority of tall rugged and rocky protrusions.
Shift from barter economy to money economy
A gradual behavioral change from exchange just goods to exchange currency (coins) for goods.
Sparta
A Greek city with a social system that completely focused on military training.
Troy
City-state that is best known for being the setting of the Trojan War described in the Greek epic the Iliad.
Alps as a Natural Barrier
The Alps mountains are positioned on the northern border of Italy making it harder to enter.
impact of geography
"The effect that landforms have on a place, region or nation ie. Italy is less rugged than Greece."
locate Italian Peninsula
Italy is a large peninsula in the shape of a boot in the Mediterranean Sea.
locate Rome
Rome is located near the center of Italy on the Western side.
Mediterranean Sea
"The great body of water surrounding Italy, south of Europe and North of Africa. It is part of the Oceans."
protection
The act of keeping an area safe from harm. [I.E. Some landforms provide natural protection]
Seaborne commerce
"Trade on the oceans, rivers and lakes."
Western Civilization
"The area including: Germany to Italy, from Spain to England. [From the time Diocletian divided the Roman Empire]"
Center of Trade
Constantinople was a cross roads or geographic middle of economic activities.
crossroads of trade
"Most trade between Asia, Europe and North Africa had to pass through the Byzantine Empire.ÿ"
Germanic invasion
Goths or Germans attack the Roman Empire.
Greco-Roman culture
Greek and Roman influences on a society.
natural harbor
A great place to dock ships created by natural forces.
Ottoman conquest
Constantinople is defeated in 1453 AD by the Turks.
peninsula
A mass surrounded by water on three sides.
preserved
To maintain in good condition
Arabic language spreads
As Islam spreads by war and trade so does the writings of the Koran.
Central Asia
The middle of the Asian continent.
"deserts
mountains, great distances",Natural boundaries in the middle east.
Diffusion of Islam
Spread of religion of Muslims
Fertile Crescent
"The arable land between the rivers: Tigris, Euphrates and Jordan."
first Muslim Empire short lived
About 100 years
Iran
Old Persia
slavery not race based
Your side loses the battle you are turned into a slave.
trade
Exchange of goods and services. [Commerce]
trade routes from Mecca
Islamic religious center was also a center for goods and services
weak Byzantine Empire
Over time the Eastern Roman Empire becomes less powerful as trade decreased.
weak Persian Empire
Over time Persian Empire becomes less powerful
Angles
Germanic people from south of Denmark that settled in England after the fall of the Roman Empire.
Castles
Fortified walled structures usually for protecting trade or commerce.
Continental Europe
The part of Europe that is connected to Asia. [NOT Britain or Ireland]
Hungary
Country East of Austria and West of Bulgaria.
Invasions
"Western Europe suffers from waves of attacks by Vikings, Muslims and Magyars."
Magyars
Invaders from Eastern Europe [Hungary]
Migration
"Movement of people for a variety of reasons. [find food, better land for agriculture or escape conflict]"
Russia
Largest country in area located in Europe and Asia
Saxons
Germanic people from south of Denmark that settled in England after the fall of the Roman Empire.
Scandinavia
"Area containing Norway, Finland, Sweden and sometimes Denmark."
Trade disrupted
Commerce stopped usually by War.
Vikings
Invaders from Scandinavia.
Cave art
"Paintings on the walls and ceilings of caves, done in prehistoric times by early humans."
Live in clans
A group of close-knit and interrelated families with a common ancestry.
Make and use fire
A tool and a skill considered to be an achievement in human development.
Nomadic
"A group of people who have no fixed home and move according to the seasons from place to place in search of food, water, and grazing land."
Old Stone Age
Time period in human development before agriculture where tools were made of stone.
Oral language
The spoken word used to communicate
Stone tools
"Tools made from stone and animal bone. [Tools for cutting, chopping, stomping, hunting, etc.]"
Agriculture
Farming
Developed Pottery
"Clay dug from the earth to fashion utensils for use: pots, plates, cups, etc."
Developed Weaving skills
The harvesting of animal fur or plant material to make cloth for blankets or clothing.
Domestication of animals
"Taming animals for human use: for labor (plowing or carrying), raw materials [fibers and leather] and consumption."
Neolithic Era
Time when man didn?t have to be nomadic. Agricultural revolution triggered this age. People settled down in one spot and built a society.
New Stone Age
Time period that begins with the development of agriculture.
Stable or settled communities
"Permanent homes, buildings, market places, roads, public works, etc"
Technological and social advancements
The development of tools to make working easier and changes in ways of governing and living together that create social order and economic prosperity.
Aleppo and Jericho
Two cities in the Fertile Crescent that have been excavated by Archaeologists because of their Bronze Age development.
Archaeologists
Person who studies artifacts or human remains by digging and classifying.
Bronze Age
A time period of human development marked by the use of alloys of tin and copper.
Carbon dating
A method to determine the age of plants and fossils using radioactive materials.
Catalhoyuk in Anatolia
Ancient Bronze Age civilization still being excavated today in south central Turkey.
Fertile Crescent
An ancient area of fertile soil and important rivers stretching in an arc from the Nile to the Tigris and Euphrates.
Fossils
"Remains, impressions, or traces of a living things of a former geologic age, as a skeleton or a footprint."
Scientific testing
The testing of artifacts or fossils to determine the age of it.
Settlements
Places where people built permanent dwellings usually where there was water.
Stonehenge
"A megalithic, or large stone, monument composed of standing stones and earthworks. One of the most famous prehistoric sites in the world."
Monotheism of the Hebrews
The first culture to believe in one God were the ancient Jews.
Polytheism
The belief in more than one god.
Abraham
The founder of Judaism and the first Hebrew.
Customs
Unique traditions from a culture.
Diaspora
The scattering of a race (Jews) to other nations; either escaping or taken into slavery.
Exile
The forced expulsion from one's native land.
Jerusalem
"The religious, economic and governmental hub of the Jews."
Jews
"The people, religion and nation who claim Abraham, Isaac and Jacob as their forefathers or Patriarchs."
Judaism
"The monotheistic religion of the Jews, based on the laws revealed to Moses and recorded in the Torah"
Moral & religious conduct
Human values or ethics of how we ought to live and what is the right behavior; much of our values are guided by our sacred belief systems.
Moses
Leader of the captive Jews from Egyptian slavery and organizer of the Jewish holy book [Torah].
Origins
The beginning or original starting place of an idea or people.
Ten Commandments
A list of moral standards given directly by God himself to Moses in the Jewish and Christian religions.
Torah
The holy book of the Jews.
Traditions
The unique customs from a culture.
Alphabet of Phoenicia
The people where lived along the eastern Mediterranean coast and developed a way of writing a language where each symbol represents a basic sound.
Cuneiform of Sumer
Wedge-shaped writing that developed in Mesopotamia.
Hieroglyphics of Egypt
Pictogram writing of Egyptians used mainly for sacred writing
Pictograms
Writing with pictures or shapes that resemble pictures.
Chronology
The order in which past events occur usually organized on a timeline.
Contributions to later civilizations
The ideas and improvements in technology of one culture that benefits later cultures.
Imperial Bureaucracy
Meaning the Emperor?s administrators that sit behind a desk share the day to day duties of government.
Persia
One of the first great empires in present-day IRAN and AFGHANISTAN.
Road system
A pathway built to ease travel for trade and communication between regions.
Tolerance of conquered people
"Letting conquered people keep their own language, religion, and laws as long as they remained loyal to the empire."
Zoroastrianism beliefs
Persian religion that talked about a good god versus evil in the world.
Aryan migrations
A group of warrior-nomads from Central Asia that migrate into the Indus Valley region
Ashoka
A Mauryan Dynasty Emperor who adopted Buddhism and actively spread it.
Caste System
A social system in Hinduism that separates people along occupational lines to ensure spiritual purity.
Contribution of Maurya
"This dynasty spread of Buddhism, created free hospitals and veterinarian clinics and built good roads"
Contributions of Gupta
"This dynasty is considered the golden age of India in which they developed: mathematics (zero), astronomy (round earth), new textiles and literature."
Describe India
"It is located on a subcontinent, settled by Aryans, mainly Hindu and heavily populated."
Golden Age of Indian Culture
"The Gupta Dynasty the high point of art, literature, learning along the Ganges River."
Gupta Empire
An Indian Dynasty around the Ganges River and coast that reached a very high level of culture.
Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro
These are 4000-year-old cities along the banks of the Indus River in present day Pakistan.
Himalayas
These mountains Form a border between the Indian subcontinent and the rest of Asia.
Hindu Kush
Dominant mountain range between Afghanistan and India.
Indian Ocean
The 3rd largest ocean south of the Indian subcontinent.
Indian Subcontinent
A large landmass that juts out south of the Asian continent.
"Indo-Aryans migration
assertion of dominance",Nomadic warriors who moved through the Hindu Kush Mountains into the Indus Valley and beyond to the Ganges Valley.
Indus and Ganges Rivers
The two major rivers where civilization developed in southern Asia.
Maurya Empire
Most of India was united as a single entity by the great emperor Chandragupta Maurya.
Occupation
Your job or way of making a living.
Physical Barriers
Geographical feature(s) that surround(s) an area making it difficult to travel across.
Dharma
The religious duties of a devout Hindu and later Buddhists.
Hinduism
"A major world religion that accept many forms of one god, reincarnation and rigid spiritual social levels."
Karma
The sum total of your past actions that have an effect on your present life and reincarnation into the next.
Many forms of one god
A major belief of Hinduism.
Reincarnation
The Hindu and Buddhist belief of rebirth of the soul into a new bodily form.
Religion spreads along trade routes
A major cause of cultural diffusion.
Vedas and Upanishads
Two of the many important religious writings of Hinduism.
Ashoka missionaries spread Buddhism to Asia
An effect of the conversion of the emperor.
Buddhism
A major religion in the Far East the evolved out of Hinduism from the teaching of Siddhartha Gautama.
Eightfold Path to Enlightenment
"In order to eliminate their desires for worldly things, and thus end the cycle of rebirths, the Buddha taught his people to follow eight principals."
Founded by Siddhartha Gautama [Buddha]
Buddhism is started from his teaching.
Four Noble Truths
The are: life is full of pain; pain is cause by desire for unimportant things; desire can be removed; by following the eightfold path.
Classical Chinese contributions examples
"Silk-making, paper, compass, porcelain, gunpower, civil service exams, ship's rudder, block printing, etc."
Dynasties
An unbroken line of related hereditary rulers of a country.
Great Wall
The Chinese Emperor Qin Shi Huangdi connected and extended four old fortification walls along the north of China to keep out Mongolian invaders.
Mandate of Heaven
The belief that the gods gave approval to the rulers of China.
Qin Shi Huangdi
He united China under one rule and founded the Qin Dynasty.
Raiders from the North
The Great Wall was built to keep them out.
Silk Road
A trade route that connected China with Mesopotamia.
Ancestor worship
Belief that deceased family members have a continued existence and when people pray to them and ask them to get the gods to take an interest in their affairs and influence the fortune of the living.
Code of politeness
A tradition in China that develops out of Confucianism where people treat each other in a mannerly way.
Confucianism influence
His collected works are greatly respected and followed in China.
Emphasis of education
Confucius taught that to be 'normal' or be able to live peacefully one must learn and be instructed.
Harmony with nature
A basic belief in Daoism [Taoism].
Humanity
The quality or condition all human beings have.
Humans good not bad
Confucius belief that humans were similar by nature.
Respect for elders
A Confucian concept that come out of filial piety or love of parents.
Simple life and inner peace
A goal and life style of Daoism to live in harmony with nature.
Spread of Buddhism
By missionaries from India and trade.
Taoism influence
China has been greatly impacted by this system.
Yin and Yang
"The natural forces in the universe often associated with male and female, light and dark, strength and weakness, etc."
Codification of Roman Law
Written down laws of Rome
Expansion of trade
Pushing out to reach new markets for your goods and services.
impacted European legal codes
Justinian?s laws had an effect on the laws of western countries.
Justinian
Greatest Byzantine Emperor
reconquest
Justinian recaptured the lands of the OLD Roman Empire.
Christian art
Paintings and mosaics patterned after beliefs contained in the Bible.
Greek language
The Byzantines used Greek to speak.
Greek Orthodox Christianity
A form of Christianity that historically came from the Greek speaking Eastern Roman Empire in Constantinople.
Hagia Sophia
Large Christian church built in Constantinople by Justinian.
Icons
Pictures used for worship in Christian churches.
Mosaics
Art created by cementing colored ceramic tiles into patterns or images.
preserved Greco-Roman knowledge in libraries
The Byzantine Empire kept the culture of Greece and Rome alive for later cultures to share and from them learn.
celibacy in West
Clergy in the Roman Catholic Church swear to NOT engage in sex for the purpose of marriage so they may devote themselves to the service of God.
Constantinople
Byzantium renamed as the new capital of the Eastern Roman Empire.
Eastern Church
Orthodox or Greek Orthodox Christian tradition
Greek liturgy
Using Greek language in the worship service
Latin liturgy
Latin language and format of service is Catholic
Patriarch in East
Leader of the Orthodox Church [Eastern or Greek Orthodox Church]
Pope in West
The leader of the Roman Catholic Church [Western Church]
Rome
Capital of the Empire of Rome
Western Church
Roman Catholic
Baltic Sea
Body of water north of Poland and West of Russia used for Trade. [Amber]
Black Sea
Body of water north of Asia Minor and of South of Russia and a Crossroads trade between Asia and Europe
Cyrillic alphabet
Russia writing system developed by Saint Cyril [Orthodox Monk]
influenced by Byzantine
"Russia was inspired, effected, connected to the ideas and culture of Eastern Roman Empire."
Russia
Country in Europe and Asia influenced by the Byzantine Empire.
Slavic languages
"Languages that share a root slavic origin like: Russian, Bulgarian, Ukrainian, Slovakian, Serbian, etc."
trade routes
"Commerce along Roads, waterways [Silk Road, Trans-Saharan]"
Allah
The Islamic name for God in Arabic.
Arabian Peninsula
Land mass that juts out into the Indian Ocean between Asia and Africa.
"Asia
Africa to Spain",Islam spreads across these areas from 800 - 1000 A.D. / C.E.
First Muslim Empire
Located on the Arabian Peninsula and ruled by descendants of Muhammed.
Five Pillars
A good Muslim practices them.
Islam
A monotheistic religion founded by Muhammad in 622 AD.
Judeo-Christian influence
Islam was heavily effected by the religions that came before it.
Mecca
Religious center for Sunni Muslims.
Medina
The city that Muhammad fled to in 622 AD.
monotheism
Belief in one God. Islam is monotheistic.
Muhammad
Founder of the religion of Islam in 622 AD
Qur'an or Koran
Islamic holy book written down by Muhammad's followers after his death.
the Prophet
A man or woman that God uses to tell what the future will be. Muhammad is called the prophet.
Baghdad
The center of Islamic Empire under the Abbasids. [Shi?ite sect]
Battle of Tours
A battle that stops the advance of Islamic [Spanish] Moors into Europe [France].
conquest of Jerusalem
Christian armies capture the city from Islamic forces during the Crusades.
conquest of Damascus
Christian armies capture the city from Islamic forces during the Crusades.
Death of Ali
His assassination causes the Sunni and Shea [Shi?ite] schism.
Mongols
Central Asian invaders. They defeat Baghdad and weaken the Empire of the Abbasids.
Shi'ite
The smaller and more conservative sect of Islam. They desire a Religious descendant of Muhammad as ruler.
Sunni
The larger and more secular sect of Islam.
Algebra
"Arabic for ?restoration? is math that uses rules, operations and relationships to solve problems."
Arabic alphabet
28 letters read from right to left when written.
Arabic numerals [Indian]
Our modern system of counting borrowed from Arabic traders who borrowed from Gupta mathematicians
contributions
Ideas and technology a culture makes to later civilizations.
Dome of the Rock
Islamic shrine over the place where Muhammad arose to heaven. It is a rest place for pilgrims to Mecca.
geographic knowledge
The Arabs created maps and tables for navigation.
Mosaics
Art made using ceramic pieces.
translation of ancient texts to Arabic
The Greek and Roman knowledge was saved for later times by the Arabic Scholars.
Universities
A collection of colleges
800 AD / CE
The year Charlemagne was crowned Holy Roman Empire.
Anointed
Pouring specially scented oil on a person's head by a prophet. It is considered a method of showing the person God has selected to be King.
Charlemagne
Charles the Great. Creator of the Holy Roman Empire in Central Europe.
Christian beliefs
"One God, Jesus as savior from sin, resurrection from the dead, heaven and hell in afterlife."
Classical
"Referring to Greek and Roman ideas, styles and influences."
Customs
traditions
Foundation
The base buildings are built on
Germanic tribes
"Goths, Visigoths, Franks, Saxons, Angles are groups that settle in Northern Europe and England."
Heritage
"Your cultural history?lineage, language, religious traditions."
Latin alphabet
Letters used for writing from the Roman culture.
Medieval
Old English for Middle Ages
Middle Ages
Time between fall of Rome and Crusades. [500 to 1000 A.D. / C.E.]
Missionaries
People who spread a religious faith to other countries.
Monasteries
"Clergy that live separate from most Christians. They devote their lives to prayer, Bible study and service to God. [ i.e. Nuns and Monks]"
Parish priests
Clergy who live and work in local churches in the country side.
Pope
Head of the Catholic Church
Preserved
Kept alive or maintained for the future.
Roman Catholic Church
The dominate religion in Western Europe during the Middle Ages.
Secular authority
Non-religious leadership [separate from Roman Catholic Church]
Franks
Germanic tribes that settled in Central Europe.
Infrastructure built
"Useful technology systems within a nation. [systems that transport clean water, roads, seaport facilities and waste removal systems]"
Reinterpreted
An event that upon reflection is viewed in a different way.
Revival of Roman Empire
An idea that many rulers had in Europe. [Recreation of a long lasting culture like Rome.]
Western Europe
Area that includes England to Germany AND Norway to Greece.
Ancestors
The religion of Shinto from Japan is characterized by the worship of their dead family members.
Archipelago
A string of islands like Japan or Hawaii.
Architecture
The style of construction or look of buildings
Buddhism
Major religion that evolves from Hinduism from its founder Siddhartha Gautama.
Buddhists traditions
"There are many: Buddha, reincarnation, Nirvana, Four Noble Truth, Eightfold Path, Yoga, Dharma and Community of the devote."
Chinese influence
"The style of construction or look of buildings and the form and style of their written word has a huge impact on Japan, Korea and South East Asia."
Coexistence with Buddhism
Confucian and Daoism are beliefs and philosophies that survive with Buddhism.
Ethic religion
The religion of Shinto from Japan is characterized shared cultural traits.
Japanese geography
A string of volcanic islands containing a central mountainous region and coastal lowlands.
Nature forces
The religion of Shinto from Japan is characterized by the worship of their dead family members AND environmental spirits called Kami.
Proximity
Close to another object or area.
Sea of Japan
The body of water between Japan and China.
Shinto traditions
The religion of Shinto from Japan is characterized by the worship of their dead family members AND environmental spirits called Kami.
State Religion
An official or government supported belief in a nation-state.
Worship of Emperor
The acceptance of the ruler as a god.
Writing
"Communication that is expressed on paper, stone, clay, metal, etc."
African Kingdoms
"Usually Ghana, Mali or Songhai in West Africa but it can genrally mean any Kingdom in Africa."
Animism
Belief and worship of spirits in animals and objects.
Axum
City and Kingdom in East Africa along the Upper Nile River.
Christian Kingdom
An area ruled by a King or Queen that has accepted the religion of Christianity. [Axum]
Ghana
Empire along the upper Niger River in Africa.
Gold and salt trade
The exchange of salt and gold usually in the West Africa.
Great Zimbabwe
The South central empire located between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers.
Islam
Religion of Middle East founded by Muhammed.
Mali
West African Kingdom after Ghana and before Songhai located along the Niger River.
Relative to Ethiopia
City and Kingdom West of Ethiopia in East Africa along the Upper Nile River.
Relative to the Niger River
"It means if you start at the Niger River, what direction would you travel."
Relative to Zambezi & Limpopo rivers
"It means if you start at the rivers mention, what direction would you travel."
Songhai
West African Empire after Mali.
Timbuktu city of?
Capital city and trade center of the Empire of Mali in West Africa.
Trans-Saharan trade
Across the Sahara exchange of goods.
West African Empires
"usually is Ghana, Mali and Songhai"
Zimbabwe
Southeastern Kingdom between these two rivers.
Agriculture & trade economy
Farming and exchange of goods and services in order to make a living.
City-states
"A large population living together in a permanent settlement with a centralized government, complex religion and public works."
Emperor ruled
A region governed by one person usually considered to have god-like powers or be considered a god.
Inca
The largest empire in pre-Columbian America located in the Andes Mountains of South America.
Polytheistic
Believing in more than one god.
Pyramids
A building or structure with a pointed top and usually three or four slopping sides down to a base.
Roads system
"Many advanced cultures built large and extended pathways for trade, defense and communication."
Tenochtitlan
"The largest city of the Aztec culture, located in what is now Mexico City."
Tribute and agriculture economy
Some cultures lived by forcing other less powerful groups to pay a tax as well as farming for food.
Centralized power in Moscow
The concentration of ruling authority in this city in Russia.
Charles V expanded empire [Hapsburgs]
King of Spain and Holy Roman Empire enlarged his ruling area.
Common law
A court system in England that tried crimes for both church or state under one system.
England
"Part of the United Kingdom today, it is located on an island west of Europe with Scotland and Wales."
Expanded
To grow and enlarge in size.
Expelled Jews and Moors [Muslims]
King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain ordered these to leave after the ?Reconquista.?
Ferdinand & Isabella unified country
Two rulers who brought the Spanish Peninsula under one government by marriage and conquest.
France
Former Roman province of Gaul in western Europe.
Hugh Capet
Frankish King who starts the Capatian Dynasty in modern day France.
Hundred Years' War
A war from 1337 to 1453 A.D. / C.E. between the Kings of England and the Kings of France for control of France.
Ivan the Great
He becomes Tsar from 1462 to 1505 A.D. / C.E. and expands his rule from Moscow by refusing to pay tribute to the Mongols and wars of expansion.
Joan of Arc
A teenage girl who believes God wants her to help the French King and his armies against the English.
Magna Carta limited kings' power
Meaning 'Great Charter' that made English Kings subject to written law.
Medieval period
Time period in history after the fall of the Roman Empire until the Renaissance or about 500 to 1350 A.D. / C.E.
Mongols expelled
"Control by the central Asian people of Moscow ended, when Tsar Ivan the Great refused to pay tribute and successfully waged war."
Norman Conquest
When William the Conqueror [from western France or Normandy] invades England in 1066 A.D. / C.E. and becomes King.
Orthodox Church helped unify nation
Russia becomes more together as a people by adopting this one religion.
Paris
Capital of France
Parliament evolves
The Advisory Council to the King eventually becomes the Government of England over time.
Russia
A large diverse nation or empire stretching from the Baltic Sea in Europe to the Pacific Ocean of Northern Asia.
Spain
A nation on the Iberian Peninsula south of France in Europe.
Tsar
Russian for Caesar and meaning mopnarch or king.
United England
William the Conqueror brings all of England together under one ruler.
William the Conqueror
King from Normandy [a French Peninsula] that won the Battle at Hastings in 1066 A.D. / C.E. and becomes King of England.
1453 conquest
The year that Constantinople is conquered by the Ottoman Turks.
Byzantine Empire weakened
Crusades and trade disruption caused by constant fighting hurts the power of Constantinople.
Capture of Jerusalem
"Crusaders defeat Islamic defenders of the city in the Holy Lands during 1st Crusade.
Crusader states founded
Four Feudal areas were created in Holy Lands by Christian conquerors.
Crusades
Religious Wars from 1095 to 1291 A.D. / C.E. in Palestine between Christians and Muslims.
Eurasian powers
The location of Russia in both Europe and Asia.
Fall of Constantinople
In 1453 A.D. / C.E. the Ottoman Turks take the Byzantine capital city.
Istanbul not Constantinople
Name change from ?city of? a Christian emperor to the more common word meaning 'the city.?
Legacy of?
The result of OR what you leave to the future after your death.
Mongol conquests
"They defeat Middle Eastern empires [Abbasids], Chinese and Indian Empires and part of Eastern Europe."
Pope Urban's speech
In 1095 A.D. / C.E. the Bishop of Rome calls for a military holy war to liberate Jerusalem from the Seljuk Turks. [This starts the Crusades]
Sack of Constantinople by Crusaders
The city-state of Venice pays members of the 4th Crusade to mislead and steal riches from the Byzantine capital.
Saladin recaptures Jerusalem
"In 1187 A.D. / C.E., this Islamic general forces the Christian held city to surrender."
Stimulated trade
The Crusades will cause commerce to grow because travel encourages the exchange of new ideas and goods.
Strengthened Kings
The Crusades strengthen the power of the Monarchs.
Weakened Pope
The Crusades will eventually lead to less power for the Roman Catholic leader.
Black Plague
A contagious disease that arrived in Europe in the 1347 A.D. / C.E. along trade routes.
Bubonic plague
A contagious disease that arrived in Europe in the 1347 A.D. / C.E. along trade routes.
Church influence declined
The authority of religious leaders diminished because the Catholic Church could NOT explain or stop the Black Plague.
Feudal obligations lifted
Duties and responsibilities were eased as a result of the many deaths from Plague
Population decline
"So many people died from Black Plague that it effected wages, trade and settlement patterns."
Scarcity of Labor
So many people died from Black Plague that workers were harder to hire.
Trade disrupted
So many people died from Black Plague that networks of commerce were slowed and cancelled.
Church scholars
One who studies the beliefs of the Catholic Church.
Laid foundation for university system
Church schools trained the clergy; Church school became colleges.
Monasteries
A place where monks [holy orders] spend their lives serving God. [Christianity]
Translation in Latin from Arabic & Greek
Classical writings were converted from Byzantine and Islamic Empires.
Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel
Area painted by Michelangelo
Celebrate individual
One of the objectives of Humanism
Church
The Roman Catholic Church
Classical literature
Written expression from the Greek and Roman time period.
David
A stone statue by Michelangelo
Humanism
A philosophy that focused on the achievements in the present life NOT the life-after-death.
Humanist
A person who writes or encourages enjoyment of this present life.
Individual focus
A concept of Humanism
Leonardo da Vinci
"A great Renaissance artist. [Mona Lisa, The Last Supper]"
Medieval Art
Art that usually focuses on religious or Catholic Church ideas.
Michelangelo
"Renaissance artist [Sistine Chapel ceiling, David statue, The Last Judgment]"
Mona Lisa
Da Vinci painting of a young woman
Patrons supported
A rich person who pay the living expenses and wages of an artist.
Petrarch
A Italian scholar and poet who is known for his Humanist writings. [Laura]
Renaissance Art
Art that is more secular with classical backgrounds or themes.
Salvation
The Christian concept of being saved from Hell and rewarded with Heaven by believing that Jesus was the Christ.
Scholarship
From Scholastic meaning Study using rational thought and logic to come to agreement on a subject.
Sonnets
A poem with 14 couplets that rhyme in a pattern.
The Last Supper
Famous painting by Leonardo da Vinci
Worldly matters
"Art, literature and study devoted to things other then spiritual or religious in nature."
Books became cheap to make
because of the Printing Press improvements.
Erasmus
Priest and Humanist know for witty satire.
Gutenberg Bible
The first printed book on the improved printing press.
Movable type
An improvement on Johannas Gutenburg.
Northern Renaissance
The ideas of the Renaissance in Italy move into Belgium and Germany over the next 150 years.
Printing press
A device for type setting and printing pages of text.
Secular subjects
Ideas that are NOT religious.
Sir Thomas More
An English Humanist.
The Praise of Folly
Erasmus wrote a satire of high church and government officials in power.
Utopia
The idea that a perfect society is possible. [Plato wrote about his idea in the Republic]