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Anthropology 205 Final Exam
Terms in this set (63)
"the way of life, especially the general customs and beliefs, of a particular group of people at a particular time."
"that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society"
The systematic study of humankind
the study of the past, particularly how it relates to humans- relies on written records
four subfields of anthropology
Biological/ Physical, Cultural, Archaeology, and Linguistics
Scientific discipline concerned with the biological and behavioral aspects of human beings, their related nonhuman beings, their related non-human primates and their extinct ancestors
scientific discipline concerned with the biological and behavioral aspects of human beings, their related non-human primates and their extinct ancestors
examines the material traces of past societies and informs us about the culture of those past societies
the scientific study of language- specifically language form, language meaning, and language in context
system of rules which govern the form of the utterances in a given language. it encompasses both sound and meaning
formation and composition of phrases and sentences from words
study of the history of specific languages as well as general characteristics of language change
the study of cultural variation among modern humans
the view that cultural traditions must be understood within the context of a particular society's responses to problems and opportunities
judging another culture solely by the values and standards of one's own culture
accepting the value system of a society and not judging it within a moral framework
systemic study of people and cultures, must set aside ones beliefs
the study of the characteristics of various peoples and the differences and relationships between them.
the branch of linguistics that deals with systems of sounds (including or excluding phonetics), especially in a particular language.
the study of the forms of words.
the !Kung are one of the main tribes of
the unrecorded language from which all Indo-European languages are hypothesized to derive.
tend to see "different" cultures as inherently wrong
Sometimes universalists apply universal principles too quickly without studying a culture and asking why they do things the way they do
Can be hostile to change within society and tend towards bigotry, racism, and sexism
most extensively studied group of San people
the healing energy that enables indigenous healers to enter a trance and effect a cure.
relationships - based on "fear" and respect
Manners are more refined and aloof
Relationship between parents and children, parents-in-law
expected when visiting family or in-laws in another band
Hxaro, system of gift exchange
emphasizing shared language, dialect or script — example: Gaels
sources and methods a society uses to obtain its food and other necessities.
between the type of economy and such things as population sizes and densities, social and political systems, scale of warfare, and complexity of science, mathematics, and technology.
a bother, his sister, and her children
a husband, his wife, and kids. nuclear
social group who talk of common ancestry
terms of addresses used in different languages/communities for diff relatives
unlinear descent group that can demonstrate common descent from known ancestry
descent group composed of two or more clans each of whose ancestors are descended from further common ancestry
non-human apical ancestor
individuals belong to fathers descent group
if a society is divided into exactly two descent groups
continues to take view of genetic related ness is key to understanding human kinship patterns
a member of a South American Indian people living in the central Andes before the Spanish conquest.
a large family of American Indian languages spoken in Central America and Mexico
either of the two main categories (male and female) into which humans and many other living things are divided on the basis of their reproductive functions.
the state of being male or female (typically used with reference to social and cultural differences rather than biological ones).
categorized as neither man nor women
varies w form of sociocultural system
culturally distinct gender that describes Indigenous North Americans who fulfils one of many mixed gender roles found traditionally among many Native Americans and Canadian First Nations indigenous groups.
process whereby parental property is distributed to a daughter at her marriage rather than at the holder's death
money, property, other form of wealth paid by a groom or his family to the parents of the women
the rule is that a partner is selected from an individual's own social group
is a marital practice in which one spouse is already married to someone else
a tropical tree or shrub that has a twisted and branched stem, stilt roots, spiral tufts of long, narrow, typically spiny leaves, and fibrous edible fruit
a social or religious custom prohibiting or forbidding discussion of a particular practice or forbidding association with a particular person, place, or thing.
a member of a people of south central Ghana
a member of an African people of South Sudan and Ethiopia, traditionally rearers of cattle.
an Australian Aboriginal language, coast of northern australia
helps people discern the meaning of pain and suffering in the world
the science or practice of farming, including cultivation of the soil for the growing of crops and the rearing of animals to provide food, wool, and other products.
belief in kinship with or a mystical relationship between a group or an individual and a nonhuman
A religion is a system of symbols which acts to establish powerful, pervasive, and long-lasting moods in men by formulating conceptions of a
general order of existance
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