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56 terms

World Music

Vocab
STUDY
PLAY
HIP (human intention and perception) approach
An approach to the study and exploration of world music that privileges inclusiveness over exclusiveness and emphasizes the idea that music is inseparable from people who make and experience it
ethnocentrism
Imposition of one set of culturally grounded perspectives, biases, and assumptions on peoples and practices of other cultures
ethnomusicology
An interdisciplinary academic field that draws on musicology, anthropology, and other disciplines in order to study the world's music; ethnomusicologists are interested in understanding music as a musicultural phenomenon
musiculture
Conception of music in which music as sound and music as culture are regarded as mutually reinforcing and essentially inseparable
vocables
Nonlinguistic syllables that are used in vocal performances (sing,rapping,etc.) in many musical styles, including Native American/First Nations powwow songs
society
A group of persons regarded as forming a single community of related interdependent individuals; defined largely by social institutions
diaspora
An international network of communities linked together by identification with a common ancestral homeland and culture. People in diaspora exist in a condition of living away from their "homeland," often with no guarantee, or even likeihood, of return
field work
In ethnomusicology, a hallmark of research involving living for an extended period of time among the people whose lives and music one studies; often encompasses learning and performing their music as well
rituals
Special events during which individuals or communities enact, through performance, their core beliefs, values, and ideals
composition
A musical work; the process of creating a musical work ; the process of planning out the design of musical work prior to its performance
interpretation
The process through which music performers-or music listeners- take an existing composition and in a sense make it their own through the experience of performing or listening to it
improvisation
The process of composing in the moment of performance; takes different forms in different music traditions
timbre
Sound quality, or "tone color"; what particular notes, instruments, or voices "sound like."
rhythm
In music, the organization of sounds and silences in time
beat
Underlying pulse; fundamental unit of rhythmic organization
meter
The systematic grouping of individuals beats into a larger groupings; a specific pattern of grouped (duple,meter, triple meter)
syncopation
An accent or other note that falls in between main beats
tempo
The rate at which the beats pass in music
melody
A sequence of pitches that defines the identity of a song or other piece of music as it unfolds; a "tune". Every melody has a distinctive features including range, direction, and contour
mode
A comprehensive, multidimensional musical system-based on but not limited to a specific scale of pitches- that guides composers/performers on how to generate musical works and performances in that mode.
tonic
The first, fundamental pitch of scale
key
Term that indicates the fundamental scale from which a piece of music is built
pentatonic
Five-tone scale. The version discussed in the chapter is closely related to the major scale, though there are many different forms of pentatonic scales in the world music traditions as well
interval
The distance in pitch between one note and another
ornamentation
Decoration, or adornment, of the main notes in a melody by additional notes and ornamental figures
staccato
Italian term for a type of articulation in which the notes are performed in a short, clipped manner; opposite of legato
legato
Italian term for a type of articulation in which the notes are sustained; opposite of staccato.
chord
A group of two or more notes of different pitch that are sounded simultaneously
harmony
A chord that "makes sense" within the context of its musical style
crescendo
Getting louder
decrescendo
Getting softer
Hornbostel-Sachs classification
Music instrument classification system (original published in 1914) that classifies the world's instruments into four main categories: chordophones, aerophones, membranophones, and idiophones.
chordophones
Instruments in which the sound is activated by the vibration of a string or strings over a resonating chamber.
aerophones
Instruments in which the sounds are generated from vibrations created by the action of air passing through a tube or some other kind of resonator.
membranophones
Instruments in which the vibration of membrane (natural or synthetic) stretched tightly across a frame resonator produces the sound
idiophones
Instruments in which the vibration of the body of the instrument itself produces the sound
electronophones
Instruments that rely on electronic sound generation/modification to produce their timbres
texture
Musical element defined by the relationships and interactions between the different parts in a musical work or performance
polyphonic
Music with two or more distinct parts
interlocking parts
Division of a single melodic or rhythmic line between two or more instrument/voices
call-and-response
Back-and-fourth alteration between different instrument or voice points
unison
The same part performed by two or more instruments/voices
gamelan
Generic Indonesian term for "ensemble," "orchestra"; used in reference to a diverse class of mainly percussion-dominated music ensembles found in Bali, Java, and serveral other Indonesian islands
gamelan beleganjur
Balinese processional ensembles consisting of multiple gongs, drums, and cymbals, played in ritualistic contexts and in modern music contests
Unity in Diversity
The national slogan of the Republic of Indonesia; important relative to Indonesian polices of cultural diversity, preservation and development of indigenous cultural traditions, and nationalism
Agama Tirta
Balinese Hindu religion, representing a syncretism of Hindu, Buddhist, and indigenous Balinese elements; literally means "Religion of Holy Water"
Bali Aga
The indigenous people pf Bali, whose culture and religion predate the arrival of Hinduism and Buddhism
gamelan gong kebyar
Best- Known type pf Bainese gamelan
paired tuning "the shimmer"
The tuning of the pitches of the male and female instruments of a Balinese gamelan to slightly different frequencies
gong cycle
A recurring sequence of gong strokes (usually employing two or more gongs) that provides the musical foundation of a gamelan piece
gong ageng
"great gong" the largest gong
reyong
A set of four small, hand held gong s played in interlocking styles; main function is to elaborate the musics's core melody
kilitan telu
Set of three interlocking rhythmic patterns that are an integral component of much Balinese music, basis of the interlocking symbol patterns in gamelan beleganjur music and of the interlocking vocal patterns in kecak
Kecakent
Balinese dance -drama that employs a gamelan suara as its musical accompaniment
atma
human soul
banjar
Balinese village ward hamlet neighborhood organization