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The aorta is the largest ____ of the human body.
The ascending aorta serves what?
head, neck, upper extremities
The descending aorta serves what?
abdomen, pelvis, lower extremities
inner layer of the aortic wall
An aneurysm is a permanent focal dilation of an artery to ______ times its normal diameter.
Normal infrarenal aortic diameters in patients older than 50 are ______ in women and ______ in men.
An infrarenal aorta ______ in diameter is considered aneurysmal.
AAAs develop as the tunica ______ thins.
what is the tunica media made of?
smooth muscle cells, collagen, elastin
what are clinical risk factors for the development of an aneurysm?
AAA may be suspected when clinical exam reveals a _____ abdominal mass located at the level of the _____ or slightly cephalic to it.
repair is indicated when the aneurysm becomes greater than ______ in diameter or grows more than ____ to _____ per year.
0.6 _ 0.8 cm
Aortic aneurysms may be ____ or ______ in appearance.
the aorta may have a gradual widening, referred to as _____.
An important part of documentation is the location of the aneurysm relative to _______
the renal arteries
The recommended sonographic surveillance is no further testing for less than _____ and _____ sonography for 3-4cm.
When an aneurysm reaches a diameter of _____ to _____, screening should be performed every 6 months.
Patients with an aneurysm measuring greater than _____ should be referred to counseling for elective surgical options.
What type of grafts are inserted into the aorta instead of exposing the aneurysm surgically?
______ is a frequent occurrence after stent-graft deployment
An endoleak occurs when?
When blood is allowed to flow into the aneurysm sac
Type 1 endoleak:
an attachment site leak, caused when the device is improperly sealed at the proximal or distal endpoint.
Type 2 endoleak:
retrograde flow through collateral branches
Type 3 endoleak:
flow into the aneurysm secondary to an inadequate seal between components of the device or a tear in the fabric of the graft.
Type 4 endoleak:
flow through the fabric of the graft secondary to graft porosity.
Aortic endografts are interrogated in the perioperative period, at _______ intervals.
3 to 6 month
The risk of rupture significantly increases at more than _____ in diameter.
the classic presentation of ruptured AAA includes the triad of:
hypotension, abdominal or back pain, and a pulsatile abdominal mass.
if the AAA expands by more than _____ to ____ per year, the patient should be offered repair.
0.6 - 0.8cm
Aortic dissection occurs with the rupture of the tunica ____ of the aorta, which separates from the tunica _____ with a column of blood between the two layers
name two causes of dissection
Name two classification systems for a dissection
The Stanford classification differentiates between dissections that involve the _______ aorta (Type __) and dissections that do not involve the ______ aorta (Type __).
The DeBakey classification differentiates between dissections that involve __________ (Type __), dissections that involve only the _______ (Type __), and dissections that involve only the ______ (Type __)
entire aorta - Type I
ascending aorta - Type II
descending aorta - Type III
Dissection of the ___ aorta has a much higher mortality rate.
Type __ dissections may be treated conservatively when life-threatening complications are not present, whereas type __ dissections are generally treated surgically.
What is the clinical presentation of dissection usually?
acute onset of chest pain
(may also reveal loss of pulses in the legs)
What does TEE stand for?
(used for evaluation of ASCENDING aorta)
Dissection of the descending aorta may be diagnosed with identification of what?
major risk factors of AAA:
65 or older
smoking at least 100 cigarettes in a lifetime
Guideline recommends one-time screening for who?
men 65-75 who have ever smoked
does the guideline recommend screening women for AAA?
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