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Chapter 8

As the electron transport carriers shuttle electrons, they actively pump _____________ into the outer membrane compartment setting up a concentration gradient called the proton motive force.

Hydrogen ions

Enzymes that are always present in constant amounts in a cell are called _____________.

Constitutive enzymes

The electron transport system _________________.

Generates a concentration gradient of protons

At what site does oxidative phosphorylation occur in bacteria?

On the cell membrane

Biosynthetic reactions that require energy for the conversion of molecular subunits into larger molecules are called __________.

Anabolic reactions

In the absence of enzymes, most metabolic reactions ______________.

Occur at a very slow rate

In anaerobic respiration, all of the following can serve as the final electron acceptor, except


In Eukaryotes, the krebs cycle takes place ____________________.

In the mitochondria

An enzyme ________________the activation energy required for a chemical reaction


Which of the following are products of aerobic respiration?

All of these

In cellular respiration, which of the following represents the correct order of events?

Food; glycolysis; Krebs cycle; electron transport chain

The Calvin cycle operates during which part of photosynthesis?

Only in the light-independent reactions

The bond between an enzyme and its substrate cannot be broken


What is the starting compound for aerobic respiration?


Where do the light-dependent reaction of photosynthesis occur?

Thylakoids of the chloroplasts

What is the electron source for electron transport in photosynthesis in most cells?


What is the concentration gradient for hydrogen ions that is produced during the electron transport chain called?

Proton motive force

Organic materials that activate enzymes are called ________________?


What is the term for the concept that one molecule can act at multiple places along metabolic pathways?


In the absence of oxygen in human muscle cells, what is pyruvic acid converted to?

Lactic acid

At the end of the Krebs cycle a molecule of ___________________ is produced to restart the cycle.

Lactic acid
Oxaloacetic acid

ATP synthase directly uses _________________ as energy to make ATP.

The proton motive force

What is the active site of an enzyme?

The place on the enzyme where a substrate will bind

Enzymes that are produced only when substrate is present are termed _______________.

Induced enzymes

Enzymes are _________________________.

Proteins that function as catalysts

Catabolism is a form of metabolism in which ____________________ molecules are converted into _________________ molecules.

Large, small

What is another term for the light independent reaction of photosynthesis?

Calvin cycle

A product of glycolysis is ______________.

Pyryvic acid

Important components of coenzymes are _________________.


Enzymes are completely consumed in the chemical reactions they participate in.


What are substances that activate enzymes called?


What is the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain?


As hydrogen ions move through the ______________, ADP is phosphorylated because of a conformational change.

ATP synthase

What process is very similar to a reverse of glycolysis?

Oxidative phosphorylation
Calvin cycle

The breakdown of fats into acetyl CoA that can enter the Krebs cycle is called _______________.

Beta oxidation

A reaction that releases energy as it occurs is called a _______________ reaction.


A holoenzyme is a combination of a protein and one or more substances called ____________.


Photosynthesis converts energy from ______________ into chemical energy.

The sun

How many rounds of the Krebs cycle occur as a result of 1 molecule of glucose entering glycolysis?


What is metabolism?

All of the chemical processes that take place within a living organism

How many molecules of ATP are produced from one molecule of glucose during aerobic respiration?


ATP molecules are catalysts that lower the activation energy needed to initiate a reaction.


How many compounds are involved in carrying out the electron transport that occurs during the respiratory chain?


The process of using energy from the sun to convert carbon dioxide to organic carbon compounds such as glucose is called ____________________.

Carbon Fixation

What process produces most of the ATP needed by cells.

Oxidative phosphorylation

Which sort of energy do cells normally utilize?

Chemical energy

All of the following are exoenzymes, except ______________.

ATP synthase

Oxygenic photosynthesis is the dominant type of photosynthesis on Earth.


Which pigments convert the photons into chemical energy?


Glycolysis forms how many molecules of pyruvic acid from one molecule of glucose?


Photosynthetic organism convert the energy of __________________ into chemical energy.


The compound that enters the Krebs cycle is _________________.

Acetyl coenzyme A

During aerobic cellular respiration, the final electron acceptor is ______________.


Enzymes that are regularly found in a cell are termed _____________.

Constitutive enzymes

What substance acts as an energy repository within cells.


During which of the phases of cellular respiration is the majority of ATP formed?

Electron transport

A substance that will increase the rate of a chemical reaction without being consumed in the reaction is called a ______________..


In addition to oxaloacetate, the products of the krebs cycle are _________________.


What is the energy required to initiate a chemical reaction?

Activation energy

An apoenzyme is where the ___________________ is located.

Active site

In eukaryotes, glycolysis takes place _______________.

In the cytoplasm

What is the term for the disruption of the bonds that maintain the shape of an enzyme?


What is the term for the incomplete oxidation of a carbohydrate in the absence of oxygen?


The most likely place where an exoenzyme participates in a chemical reaction is

Outside of the cell

Intermediaries in ________ can be used to produce amino acids.

Oxidative phosphorylation
Krebs cycle

In the absence of oxygen in human muscle cells, what is pyruvic acid converted to?

ATP synthese
Lactic acid
Oxaloacetic acid
Acetyl acid

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