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Muscle Imbalance
Alteration of muscle length surrounding a joint.
Obesity
The condition of being considerably overweight, and refers to a person with a body mass index of 30 or greater, or who is at least 30 pounds over the recommended weight for their height. 2. The condition of subcutaneous fat exceeding the amount of lean body mass.
Overweight
Refers to a person with a body mass index of 25 to 29, or, who is between 25 to 30 pounds over the recommended weight for their height.
Blood Lipids
Also known as cholesterol and triglycerides, are carried in the blood stream by protein molecules known as high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL).
Diabetes Mellitus
Chronic metabolic disorder caused by insulin deficiency, which impairs carbohydrate usage and enhances usage of fats and proteins.
Deconditioned
A state of lost physical fitness, which may include muscle imbalances, decreased flexibility, and a lack of core and joint stability.
Proprioception
The cumulative sensory input to the central nervous system from all mechanoreceptors that sense body position and limb movements.
Proprioceptively Enriched Environment
An unstable (yet controllable) physical situation in which exercises are performed that causes the body to use its internal balance and stabilization mechanisms.
Phases of Training
Smaller divisions of training progressions that fall within the three building blocks of training.
Muscular Endurance
1. A muscle's ability to contract for an extended period. 2. The ability to produce and maintain force production over prolonged periods of time.
Neuromuscular Efficiency
1. The ability of the neuromuscular system to enable all muscles to efficiently work together in all planes of motion. 2. The ability of the neuromuscular system to allow agonists, antagonists, and stabilizers to work synergistically to produce, reduce, and dynamically stabilize the entire kinetic chain in all three planes of motion.
Primer Mover
The muscle that acts as the initial and main source of motive power.
Superset
Set of two exercises that are performed back-to-back, without any rest time between them.
Rate of Force Production
Ability of muscles to exert maximal force output in a minimal amount of time.
Integrated Fitness Profile
A systematic problem-solving method that provides the fitness professional with a basis for making educated decisions about exercise and acute variable selection.
Integrated Flexibility Training
A multifaceted approach integrating various flexibility techniques to achieve optimum soft tissue extensibility in all planes of motion.
Integrated Training
A concept that applies all forms of training such as integrated flexibility training, integrated cardiorespiratory training, neuromuscular stabilization (balance), core stabilization, and reactive neuromuscular training (power) and integrated strength training.
Maximal Strength
The maximum force an individual's muscle can produce in a single voluntary effort, regardless of the rate of force production.
Optimal Strength
The ideal level of strength that an individual needs to perform functional activities.
Optimum Performance Training
A systematic, integrated, and functional training program that simultaneously improves an individual's biomotor abilities and builds high levels of functional strength, neuromuscular efficiency, and dynamic flexibility.
Stabilization Endurance
The ability of the stabilization mechanisms of the kinetic chain to sustain proper levels of stabilization to allow for prolonged neuromuscular efficiency.
Strength Endurance
The ability of the body to repeatedly produce high levels of force for prolonged periods.
1950 to 1960
Gyms were a male-dominated environment in which men trained with free weights to increase size, strength, explosive strength, or a combination of all these goals.
1960 to 1970
Figure salons became a popular trend.
1970 to 1980
Joining a health club or exercising outdoors was becoming more socially acceptable.
A proprioceptively enriched environment challenges an individual's
Internal balance and stabilization
The OPT model is broken into which three levels?
Stabilization, strength, and power
The power training level of the OPT model strives to MOST improve
Rate of force production
Which phases of training comprise the strength level of the OPT model?
Strength-endurance training, hypertrophy training, maximal strength training
Which phase of the OPT model supersets a barbell bench press with a medicine ball chest pass?
Power training
Obesity is a condition of being considerably overweight and refers to a person with a body mass index (BMI) of
Greater than 30
A healthy total cholesterol level is
Less than 200 mg/dL
Of the leading causes of death in the United States, _____ was caused by cardiovascular disease and cancer, and nearly 80% of these deaths could have been prevented if a healthy lifestyle was followed.
0.57
At present _____ of Americans older than age 20 are overweight, and of these, 34%, which equates to approximately 72 million Americans, are obese.
0.66
Type 2 diabetes is associated with obesity, particularly abdominal obesity, and accounts for ______ of all diabetes.
90 to 95%
Acidosis
The accumulation of excessive hydrogen that causes increased acidity of the blood and muscle.
Actin
One of the two major myofilaments, actin is the "thin" filament that acts along with myosin to produce muscular contraction.
Action Potential
Nerve impulse that allows neurons to transmit information.
Afferent Neurons
(Also known as sensory neurons) They gather incoming sensory information from the environment and deliver it to the central nervous system.
Agonist
Muscles that are the primary movers in a joint motion; also known as prime movers.
Anaerobic Threshold
The point during high-intensity activity when the body can no longer meet its demand for oxygen and anaerobic metabolism predominates; also called lactate threshold.
Antagonist
Muscles that act in direct opposition to agonists (prime movers).
Appendicular Skeleton
Portion of the skeletal system that includes the upper and lower extremities.
Arthrokinematics
1. Joint motion. 2. The motions of joints in the body.
Articular (Hyaline) Cartilage
Cartilage that covers the articular surfaces of bones.
Articulation
Junctions of bones, muscles, and connective tissue at which movement occurs; also known as a joint.
Axial Skeleton
Portion of the skeletal system that consists of the skull, rib cage, and vertebral column.
Axon
A cylindric projection from the cell body that transmits nervous impulses to other neurons or effector sites.
Bipenniform Muscle Fibers
Muscle fibers that are arranged with short, oblique fibers that extend from both sides of a long tendon. An example would be the rectus femoris.
Central Nervous System
The portion of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord.
Chemoreceptors
Sensory receptors that respond to chemical interaction (smell and taste).
Condyles
Projections protruding from the bone to which muscles, tendons, and ligaments can attach; also known as a process, epicondyle, tubercle, and trochanter.
Condyloid Joint
A joint where the condyle of one bone fits into the elliptical cavity of another bone to form the joint. An example would include the knee joint.
Coronal Plane
An imaginary plane that bisects the body to create front and back halves; also known as the frontal plane.
Dendrites
A portion of the neuron that is responsible for gathering information from other structures.
Depressions
Flattened or indented portions of bone, which can be muscle attachment sites.
Effectors
Any structure innervated by the nervous system, including organs, glands, muscle tissue, connective tissue, blood vessels, bone marrow, and so forth.
Efferent Neurons
Neurons that transmit nerve impulses from the brain or spinal cord to the effector sites such as muscles or glands; also known as motor neurons.
Endocrine System
The system of glands in the human body that is responsible for producing hormones.
Endomysium
The deepest layer of connective tissue that surrounds individual muscle fibers.
Energy-Utilizing
When energy is gathered from an energy-yielding source by some storage unit (ATP) and then transferred to a site that can use this energy.
Epicondyle
Projections protruding from the bone to which muscles, tendons, and ligaments can attach; also known as a condyle, process, tubercle, and trochanter.
Epimysium
A layer of connective tissue that is underneath the fascia and surrounds the muscle.
Epiphyseal Plates
The region of long bone connecting the diaphysis to the epiphysis. It is alayer of subdividing cartilaginous cells in which growth in length of the diaphysis occurs.
Epiphysis
The end of long bones, which is mainly composed of cancellous bone, and house much of the red marrow involved in red blood cell production. They are also one of the primary sites for bone growth.
Diaphysis
The shaft portion of a long bone.
Eversion
A movement in which the inferior calcaneus moves laterally.
Fan-Shaped Muscle
A muscular fiber arrangement that has muscle fibers span out from a narrow attachment at one end to a broad attachment at the other end. An example would be the pectoralis major.
Fascia
The outermost layer of connective tissue that surrounds the muscle.
Fascicle
A grouping of muscle fibers that house myofibrils.
Fast Twitch Fibers
Muscle fibers that can also be characterized by the term type IIA and IIB. These fibers contain fewer capillaries, mitochondria, and myoglobin. These fibers fatigue faster than type I fibers.
Flat Bones
A classification of bone that is involved in protection and provides attachment sites for muscles. Examples include the sternum and scapulae.
Formed Elements
Refers to the cellular component of blood that includes erythrocytes, leukocytes, and thrombocytes.
Fossa
A depression or indented portion of bone, which could be a muscle attachment site; also known as a depression.
Frontal Lobe
A portion of the cerebral cortex that contains structures necessary for the planning and control of voluntary movement.
Fusiform
A muscular fiber arrangement that has a full muscle belly that tapers off at both ends. An example would include the biceps brachii.
Gliding Joint
A nonaxial joint that moves back and forth or side to side. Examples would include the carpals of the hand and the facet joints.
Golgi Tendon Organs
Receptors sensitive to change in tension of the muscle and the rate of that change.
Hemoglobin
Oxygen-carrying component of red blood cells and also gives blood its red color.
Hierarchical Theories
Theories that propose all planning and implementation of movement result from one or more higher brain centers.
Hinge Joint
A uniaxial joint that allows movement in one plane of motion. Examples would include the elbow and ankle.
Human Movement System
The combination and interrelation of the nervous, muscular, and skeletal systems.
Insulin
A protein hormone released by the pancreas that helps glucose move out of the blood and into the cells in the body, where the glucose can be used as energy and nourishment.
Integrative (Function of Nervous System)
The ability of the nervous system to analyze and interpret sensory information to allow for proper decision making, which produces the appropriate response.
Intermuscular Coordination
The ability of the neuromuscular system to allow all muscles to work together with proper activation and timing between them.
Interneurons
Transmit nerve impulses from one neuron to another.
Intramuscular Coordination
The ability of the neuromuscular system to allow optimal levels of motor unit recruitment and synchronization within a muscle.
Irregular Bones
A classification of bone that has its own unique shape and function, which does not fit the characteristics of the other categories. Examples include the vertebrae and pelvic bones.
Joint Receptors
Receptors surrounding a joint that respond to pressure, acceleration, and deceleration of the joint.
Joints
Junctions of bones, muscles, and connective tissue at which movement occurs; also known as an articulation.
Kinetic Chain
The combination and interrelation of the nervous, muscular, and skeletal systems.
Ligament
Primary connective tissue that connects bones together and provides stability, input to the nervous system, guidance, and the limitation of improper joint movement.
Long Bones
A characteristic of bone that has a long cylindric body with irregular or widened bony ends. Examples include the clavicle and humerus.
Longitudinal Muscle Fiber
A muscle fiber arrangement in which its fibers run parallel to the line of pull. An example would include the sartorius.
Lower-Brain
The portion of the brain that includes the brainstem, the basal ganglia, and the cerebellum.
Lumbar Spine
The portion of the spine, commonly referred to as the small of the back. The lumbar portion of the spine is located between the thorax (chest) and the pelvis.
Lumbo-Pelvic-Hip Complex
Involves the anatomic structures of the lumbar and thoracic spines, the pelvic girdle, and the hip joint.
Lumbo-Pelvic-Hip Postural Distortion
Altered joint mechanics in an individual that lead to increased lumbar extension and decreased hip extension.
M-Line
The portion of the sarcomere where the myosin filaments connect with very thin filaments called titin and create an anchor for the structures of the sarcomere.
Mechanoreceptors
Sensory receptors responsible for sensing distortion in body tissues.
Medullar Cavity
The central cavity of bone shafts where marrow is stored.
Mitochondria
The principal energy source of the cell. Convert nutrients into energy as well as doing many other specialized tasks.
Motor (efferent) Neurons
Transmit nerve impulses from the brain and spinal cord to effector sites.
Motor (Function of Nervous System)
The neuromuscular response to the sensory information.
Motor Unit
A motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers it innervates.
Multipenniform
Muscles that have multiple tendons with obliquely running muscle fibers.
Muscle Fiber Arrangement
Refers to the manner in which the fibers are situated in relation to the tendon.
Muscle Fiber Recruitment
Refers to the recruitment pattern of muscle fiber or motor units in response to creating force for a specific movement.
Muscle Spindles
Receptors sensitive to change in length of the muscle and the rate of that change.
Muscular System
Series of muscles that moves the skeleton.
Myofibrils
A portion of muscle that contains myofilaments.
Myofilaments
The contractile components of muscle, actin and myosin.
Myosin
One of the two major myofilaments known as the thick filament that works with actin to produce muscular contraction.
Nervous System
A conglomeration of billions of cells specifically designed to provide a communication network within the human body.
Neural Activation
The contraction of a muscle generated by neural stimulation.
Neuromuscular Junction
The point at which the neuron meets the muscle to allow the action potential to continue its impulse.
Neuron
The functional unit of the nervous system.
Neurotransmitters
Chemical messengers that cross the neuromuscular junction (synapse) to transmit electrical impulses from the nerve to the muscle.
Nociceptors
Sensory receptors that respond to pain.
Nonsynovial Joints
Joints that do not have a joint cavity, connective tissue, or cartilage.
Occipital Lobe
A portion of the cerebral cortex that deals with vision.
Origin
The more fixed, central, or larger attachment of a muscle—compare with insertion.
Osteoblasts
A type of cell that is responsible for bone formation.
Osteoclasts
A type of bone cell that removes bone tissue.
Parietal Lobe
A portion of the cerebral cortex that is involved with sensory information.
Perimysium
The connective tissue that surrounds fascicles.
Periosteum
A dense membrane composed of fibrous connective tissue that closely wraps(invests) all bone, except that of the articulating surfaces in joints, which are covered by a synovial membrane.
Peripheral Nervous System
Cranial and spinal nerves that spread throughout the body.
Photoreceptors
Sensory receptors that respond to light (vision).
Pivot Joint
Allows movement in predominately the transverse plane; examples would include the atlantoaxial joint at the base of the skull and between the radioulnar joint.
Processes
Projections protruding from the bone where muscles, tendons, and ligaments can attach.
Quadrilateral Muscle Fiber
An arrangement of muscle fibers that is usually flat and four-sided. An example would include the rhomboid.
Rate Coding
Muscular force can be amplified by increasing the rate of incoming impulses from the motor neuron after all prospective motor units have been activated.
Remodeling
The process of resorption and formation of bone.
Roll
The joint motion that depicts the rolling of one joint surface on another. Examples would include that of the femoral condyles over the tibial condyles during a squat.
Saddle Joint
One bone is shaped as a saddle, the other bone is shaped as the rider; the only example is in the carpometacarpal joint in the thumb.
Sarcolemma
A plasma membrane that surrounds muscle fibers.
Sarcomere
The functional unit of muscle that produces muscular contraction and consists of repeating sections of actin and myosin.
Sarcoplasm
Cell components that contain glycogen, fats, minerals, and oxygen that are contained within the sarcolemma.
Sensory (Afferent) Neurons
Transmit nerve impulses from effector sites (such as muscles and organs) via receptors to the brain and spinal cord.
Sensory (Function of Nervous System)
The ability of the nervous system to sense changes in either the internal or external environment.
Skeletal System
The body's framework, composed of bones and joints.
Slide
The joint motion that depicts the sliding of a joint surface across another. Examples would include the tibial condyles moving across the femoral condyles during a knee extension.
Sliding Filament Theory
The proposed process by which the contraction of the filaments within the sarcomere takes place.
Slow Twitch Fibers
Another term for type I muscle fibers, fibers that are characterized by a greater amount of capillaries, mitochondria, and myoglobin. These fibers are usually found to have a higher endurance capacity than fast twitch fibers.
Spin
Joint motion that depicts the rotation of one joint surface on another. Examples would include the head of the radius rotating on the end of the humerus during pronation and supination of the forearm.
Stabilizer
Muscles that support or stabilize the body while the prime movers and the synergists perform the movement patterns.
Sulcus
A groove in a bone that allows a soft structure to pass through.
Supination
A triplanar motion that is associated with force production.
Supine
Lying on one's back.
Synarthrosis Joint
A joint without any joint cavity and fibrous connective tissue. Examples would include the sutures of the skull and the symphysis pubis.
Synergist
Muscles that assist prime movers during functional movement patterns.
Synovial Joints
Joints that are held together by a joint capsule and ligaments and are most associated with movement in the body.
Temporal Lobe
A portion of the cerebral cortex that deals with hearing.
Tendons
Connective tissues that attach muscle to bone and provide an anchor for muscles to produce force.
Thoracic Spine
The 12 vertebrae in mid torso that are attached to the rib cage.
Trochanter
Projections protruding from the bone to which muscles, tendons, and ligaments can attach; also known as a condyle, process, tubercle, and epicondyle.
Tubercle
Projections protruding from the bone to which muscles, tendons, and ligaments can attach; also known as a condyle, process, epicondyle, and trochanter.
Unipenniform Muscle Fiber
Muscle fibers that are arranged with short, oblique fibers that extend from one side of a long tendon. An example would include the tibialis posterior.
Vertebral Column
A series of irregularly shaped bones called vertebrae that houses the spinal cord.
The human movement system (kinetic chain) consists of the
Muscular, skeletal, and nervous systems
Neurons are comprised of which three parts?
Cell body, axon, dendrites
What structures are responsible for sensing distortions of body tissue brought about through stretch, compression, traction or tension?
Mechanoreceptors
Which of the following sensory receptors are MOST sensitive to change in length of muscle and the rate of that change?
Muscle spindles
Which of the following sensory receptors will cause a muscle to relax when excited?
Golgi tendon organ
Which of the following is the functional unit of muscle that lies in the space between two Z lines?
Sarcomere
Which of the following muscle fibers are smaller in size and contain a high number of capillaries, mitochondria and myoglobin?
Type I
Which gland is often referred to as the "master" gland of the endocrine system because it controls the functions of the other endocrine glands?
Pituitary
Which of the following neurons transmit nerve impulses from effector sites to the brain or spinal cord?
Sensory (afferent) neurons
Which of the following is an example of a flat bone?
Scapula
Aortic Semilunar Valve
Controls blood flow from the left ventricle to the aorta going to the entire body.
Arteries
Vessels that transport blood away from the heart.
Arterioles
Small terminal branches of an artery, which end in capillaries.
Atmospheric Pressure
Everyday pressure in the air.
Atrioventricular (AV) Node
A small mass of specialized cardiac muscle fibers, located in the wall of the right atrium of the heart, that receives heartbeat impulses from the sinoatrial node and directs them to the walls of the ventricles.
Atrioventricular Valves
Allow for proper blood flow from the atria to the ventricles.
Atrium
The superior chamber of the heart that receives blood from the veins and forces it into the ventricles.
Basal Ganglia
A portion of the lower brain that is instrumental in the initiation and control of repetitive voluntary movements such as walking and running.
Bicuspid (Mitral) Valve
Two cusps control the blood flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle.
Blood
Fluid that circulates in the heart, arteries, capillaries, and veins, carries nutrients and oxygen to all parts of the body, and also rids the body of waste products.
Blood Vessels
Network of hollow tubes that circulates blood throughout the body.
Brainstem
The link between the sensory and motor nerves coming from the brain to the body and vice versa.
Capillaries
The smallest blood vessels, and the site of exchange of chemicals and water between the blood and the tissues.
Cardiac Muscle
Heart muscle.
Cardiac Output (Q)
Heart rate - stroke volume, the overall performance of the heart.
Cardiorespiratory System
A system of the body composed of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems.
Cardiovascular Control Center (CVC)
Directs impulses that will either increase or decrease cardiac output and peripheral resistance based on feedback from all structures involved.
Cardiovascular System
A system of the body composed of the heart, blood, and blood vessels.
Central Controller
Controls heart rate, left ventricular contractility, and arterial blood pressure by manipulating the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.
Cerebellum
A portion of the lower brain that compares sensory information from the body and the external environment with motor information from the cerebral cortex to ensure smooth coordinated movement.
Cerebral Cortex
A portion of the central nervous system that consists of the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, and temporal lobe.
Cervical Spine
The area of the spine containing the seven vertebrae that compose the neck.
Conduction Passageway
Consists of all the structures that air travels through before entering the respiratory passageway.
Diffusion
The process of getting oxygen from the environment to the tissues of the body.
Erythrocytes
Red blood cells.
Excitation-Contraction Coupling
The process of neural stimulation creating a muscle contraction.
Expiration
The process of actively or passively relaxing the inspiratory muscles to move air out of the body.
Generalized Motor Program (GMP)
A motor program for a distinct category of movements or actions, such as overhand throwing, kicking, or running.
Heart
A hollow muscular organ that pumps a circulation of blood through the body by means of rhythmic contraction.
Heart Rate (HR)
The rate at which the heart pumps.
Inspiration
The process of actively contracting the inspiratory muscles to move air into the body.
Intrapulmonary Pressure
Pressure within the thoracic cavity.
Leukocytes
White blood cells.
Maximal Oxygen Consumption (VO2max)
The highest rate of oxygen transport and utilization achieved at maximal physical exertion.
Mediastinum
The space in the chest between the lungs that contains all the internal organs of the chest except the lungs.
Oxygen Uptake
The usage of oxygen by the body.
Plasma
Aqueous liquidlike component of blood.
Pulmonary Arteries
Deoxygenated blood is pumped from the right ventricle to the lungs through these arteries.
Pulmonary Capillaries
Surround the alveolar sacs. As oxygen fills the sacs it diffuses across the capillary membranes and into the bloodstream.
Pulmonary Semilunar Valve
Controls blood flow from the right ventricle to the pulmonary arteries going to the lungs.
Respiratory Passageway
Collects the channelled air coming from the conducting passageway.
Respiratory Pump
Is composed of skeletal structures (bones) and soft tissues (muscles) that work together to allow proper respiratory mechanics to occur and help pump blood back to the heart during inspiration.
Respiratory System
A system of organs (the lungs and respiratory passageways) that collects oxygen from the external environment and transports it to the bloodstream.
Semilunar Valves
Allow for proper blood flow from the ventricles to the aorta and pulmonary arteries.
Sinoatrial (SA) Node
A specialized area of cardiac tissue, located in the right atrium of the heart, which initiates the electrical impulses that determine the heart rate; often termed the pacemaker for the heart.
Stroke Volume (SV)
The amount of blood pumped out of the heart with each contraction.
Tricuspid Valve
Controls the blood flow from the right atrium to the right ventricle.
V·O2 Max
The highest rate of oxygen transport and utilization achieved at maximal physical exertion.
Veins
Vessels that transport blood from the capillaries toward the heart.
Ventilation
The actual process of moving air in and out of the body.
Ventricles
The inferior chamber of the heart that receives blood from its corresponding atrium and, in turn, forces blood into the arteries.
Venules
The very small veins that connect capillaries to the larger veins.
A-Band
The region of the sarcomere where myosin filaments are predominantly seen with minor overlap of the actin filaments.
Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP)
A high-energy compound occurring in all cells from which adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is formed.
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
Energy storage and transfer unit within the cells of the body.
Beta-oxidation (b-oxidation)
The breakdown of triglycerides into smaller subunits called free fatty acids (FFAs) to convert FFAs into acyl-CoA molecules, which then are available to enter the Krebs cycle and ultimately lead to the production of additional ATP.
Bioenergetic Continuum
Three main pathways used by the kinetic chain to produce ATP.
Bioenergetics
The study of energy in the human body.
Carbohydrates
1. Organic compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, which include starches, cellulose, and sugars, and are an important source of energy. All carbohydrates are eventually broken down in the body to glucose, a simple sugar. 2. Neutral compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (such as sugars, starches, and celluloses), which make up a large portion of animal foods.
Energy
The capacity to do work.
Equilibrium
A condition of balance between opposed forces, influences, or actions.
Excess Postexercise Oxygen Consumption (EPOC)
The state in which the body's metabolism is elevated after exercise.
Exercise Metabolism
The examination of bioenergetics as it relates to the unique physiologic changes and demands placed on the body during exercise.
Fat
One of the three main classes of foods and a source of energy in the body. Fats help the body use some vitamins and keep the skin healthy. They also serve as energy stores for the body. In food, there are two types of fats, saturated and unsaturated.
Gluconeogenesis
The formation of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources, such as amino acids.
Glucose
A simple sugar manufactured by the body from carbohydrates, fat, and to a lesser extent protein, which serves as the body's main source of fuel.
Glycogen
The complex carbohydrate molecule used to store carbohydrates in the liver and muscle cells. When carbohydrate energy is needed, glycogen is converted into glucose for use by the muscle cells.
H-Zone
The area of the sarcomere where only myosin filaments are present.
I-Band
The area of the sarcomere where only actin filaments are present.
Insertion
The part of a muscle by which it is attached to the part to be moved—compare with origin.
Kinetic
Force.
Lactic Acid
An acid produced by glucose-burning cells when these cells have an insufficient supply of oxygen.
Metabolism
All of the chemical reactions that occur in the body to maintain itself. Metabolism is the process in which nutrients are acquired, transported, used, and disposed of by the body.
Protein
Amino acids linked by peptide bonds, which consist of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and usually sulfur, and that have several essential biologic compounds.
Pyruvate
A byproduct of anaerobic glycolysis.
Substrates
The material or substance on which an enzyme acts.
Triglycerides
The chemical or substrate form in which most fat exists in food as well as in the body.
The typical heart rate for an adult is between
70-80 beats per minute
Vessels that transport blood away from the heart are known as
Arteries
What are smaller chambers located superiorly on either side of the heart that gather blood returning to the heart much like a reservoir?
Atria
The amount of blood pumped out the heart with each contraction if referred to as
Stroke volume
Which blood vessels collect blood from capillaries and progressively merge with veins to transport blood back to the heart?
Venules
Resting oxygen consumption is approximately
3.5 mL of oxygen per kilogram of body weight per minute
Which bones comprise the respiratory pump?
Sternum, ribs, vertebrae
Which of the following structures is termed the pacemaker for the heart because it initiates the heartbeat?
Sinoatrial (SA) node
Which section of the heart gathers oxygenated rich blood coming from the lungs?
Left atrium
Which section of the heart receives deoxygenated blood from the right atrium?
Right ventricle
What is the primary end product after digestion of carbohydrates?
Glucose
The formation of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources, such as amino acids is called
Gluconeogenesis
The storage form of carbohydrates is called
Glycogen
Which energy system creates ATP from a phosphocreatine molecule?
ATP-PC
Which of the following energy systems occurs without the presence of oxygen?
ATP-PC
The first step in the oxidation of fat is called
Beta-oxidation
Which metabolic pathway produces the most ATP?
Oxidative phosphorylation
A respiratory quotient of 0.7 indicates that fat is supplying
100% of the fuel for metabolism
The anaerobic means of producing ATP through the chemical breakdown of glucose is called
Anaerobic glycolysis
Before glucose of or glycogen can generate energy, it must be converted to a compound called
Glucose-6-phosphate
Abduction
A movement in the frontal plane away from the midline of the body.
Acceleration
When a muscle exerts more force than is being placed on it, the muscle will shorten; also known as a concentric contraction or force production.
Adduction
Movement in the frontal plane back toward the midline of the body.
Advanced Stage
The second stage of the dynamic pattern perspective theory when learners gain the ability to alter and manipulate the movements more efficiently to adapt to environmental changes.
Anatomic Locations
Refers to terms that describe locations on the body.
Anatomic Position
The position with the body erect with the arms at the sides and the palms forward. The anatomic position is of importance in anatomy because it is the position of reference for anatomic nomenclature. Anatomic terms such as anterior and posterior, medial and lateral, and abduction and adduction apply to the body when it is in the anatomic position.
Anterior (or Ventral)
On the front of the body.
Association Stage
Fitt's second stage in which learners become more consistent with their movement with practice.
Augmented Feedback
Information provided by some external source such as a fitness professional, videotape, or a heart rate monitor.
Autonomous Stage
Fitt's third stage of motor learning in which the learner has refined the skill to a level of automation.
Biomechanics
1. A study that uses principles of physics to quantitatively study how forces interact within a living body. 2. The science concerned with the internal and external forces acting on the human body and the effects produced by these forces.
Chain
A system that is linked together or connected.
Cognitive Stage
Fitt's first stage of motor learning that describes how the learner spends much of the time thinking about what they are about to perform.
Concentric Muscle Action
When a muscle is exerting force greater than the resistive force, resulting in shortening of the muscle.
Contralateral
Positioned on the opposite side of the body.
Decelerate
When the muscle is exerting less force than is being placed on it, the muscle lengthens; also known as an eccentric muscle action or force reduction.
Distal
Positioned farthest from the center of the body, or point of reference.
Dorsal
Refers to a position on the back or toward the back of the body.
Dorsiflexion
When applied to the ankle, the ability to bend at the ankle, moving the front of the foot upward.
Dynamic Functional Flexibility
Multiplanar soft tissue extensibility with optimal neuromuscular efficiency throughout the full range of motion.
Dynamic Joint Stabilization
The ability of the stabilizing muscles of a joint to produce optimum stabilization during functional, multiplanar movements.
Dynamic Pattern Perspective (DPP)
The theory that suggests that movement patterns are produced as a result of the combined interactions among many systems (nervous, muscular, skeletal, mechanical, environmental, past experiences, and so forth).
Dynamic Stabilization
When a muscle is exerting force equal to the force being placed on it. Also known as an isometric contraction.
Eccentric Muscle Action
An eccentric muscle action occurs when a muscle develops tension while lengthening.
Endurance Strength
The ability to produce and maintain force for prolonged periods.
Expert Stage
The third stage of the dynamic pattern perspective model in which the learner now focuses on recognizing and coordinating their joint motions in the most efficient manner.
Explosive Strength
The ability to develop a sharp rise in force production once a movement pattern has been initiated.
Extension
A straightening movement in which the relative angle between two adjacent segments increases.
External Feedback
Information provided by some external source, such as a health and fitness professional, videotape, mirror, or heart rate monitor, to supplement the internal environment.
External Rotation
Rotation of a joint away from the middle of the body.
Feedback
1. The utilization of sensory information and sensorimotor integration to aid the kinetic chain in the development of permanent neural representations of motor patterns.2. The use of sensory information and sensorimotor integration to help the human movement system in motor learning.
Flexion
A bending movement in which the relative angle between two adjacent segments decreases.
Force
An influence applied by one object to another, which results in an acceleration or deceleration of the second object.
Force-Couple
Muscle groups moving together to produce movement around a joint.
Force-Velocity Curve
The ability of muscles to produce force with increasing velocity.
Frontal Plane
An imaginary bisector that divides the body into front and back halves.
Functional Efficiency
The ability of the nervous and muscular systems to move in the most efficient manner while placing the least amount of stress on the kinetic chain.
Functional Strength
The ability of the neuromuscular system to perform dynamic eccentric, isometric, and concentric contractions efficiently in a multiplanar environment.
Goniometric Assessment
Technique measuring angular measurement and joint range of motion.
Horizontal abduction
Movement of the arm or thigh in the transverse plane from an anterior position to a lateral position.
Horizontal adduction
Movement of the arm or thigh in the transverse plane from a lateral position to an anterior position.
Human Movement Science
The study of functional anatomy, functional biomechanics, motion learning, and motor control.
Hyperextension
Extension of a joint beyond the normal limit or range of motion.
Inferior
Positioned below a point of reference.
Internal Feedback
The process whereby sensory information is used by the body to reactively monitor movement and the environment.
Internal Rotation
Rotation of a joint toward the middle of the body.
Inversion
A movement in which the inferior calcaneus moves medially.
Ipsilateral
Positioned on the same side of the body.
Isokinetic Muscle Action
When a muscle shortens at a constant speed over the full range of motion.
Isometric Muscle Action
When a muscle is exerting force equal to the force being placed on it leading to no visible change in the muscle length.
Joint Motion
Movement in a plane occurs about an axis running perpendicular to the plane.
Knowledge of Performance (KP)
A method of feedback that provides information about the quality of the movement pattern performed.
Knowledge of Results (KR)
A method of feedback after the completion of a movement to inform the client about the outcome of their performance.
Lateral
Positioned toward the outside of the body.
Lateral Flexion
The bending of the spine (cervical, thoracic, or lumbar) from side to side.
Law of Acceleration
Acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the size of the force causing it, in the same direction as the force, and inversely proportional to the size of the object.
Law of Action-Reaction
Every force produced by one object onto another produces an opposite force of equal magnitude.
Law of Gravitation
Two bodies have an attraction to each other that is directly proportional to their masses and inversely proportional to the square of their distance from each other.
Law of Thermodynamics
Weight reduction can only take place when there is more energy burned than consumed.
Length-Tension Relationship
The resting length of a muscle and the tension the muscle can produce at this resting length.
Limit Strength
The maximum force a muscle can produce in a single contraction.
Medial
Positioned near the middle of the body.
Mode
Type of exercise performed.
Momentum
The product of the size of the object (mass) and its velocity (speed with which it is moving).
Motor Behavior
1. The manner in which the nervous, skeletal, and muscular systems interact to produce an observable mechanical response to the incoming sensory information from the internal and external environments. 2. Motor response to internal and external environmental stimuli.
Motor Control
1. The involved structures and mechanisms that the nervous system uses to gather sensory information and integrate it with previous experiences to produce a motor response. 2. How the central nervous system integrates internal and external sensory information with previous experiences to produce a motor response.
Motor Development
The change in motor skill behavior over time throughout the lifespan.
Motor Learning
The integration of motor control processes with practice and experience that lead to relatively permanent changes in the capacity to produced skilled movements.
Multisensory Condition
Training environment that provides heightened stimulation to proprioceptors and mechanoreceptors.
Muscle Action Spectrum
The range of muscle actions that include concentric, eccentric, and isometric actions.
Muscle Synergies
Groups of muscles that are recruited by the central nervous system to provide movement.
Neural Adaptation
An adaptation to strength training in which muscles are under the direct command of the nervous system.
Neutralizer
Muscles that counteract the unwanted action of other muscles.
Novice Stage
The first stage of the dynamic pattern perspective model in which the learner simplifies movements by minimizing the specific timing of joint motions, which tends to result in movement that is rigid and jerky.
Perception
The integrating of sensory information with past experiences or memories.
Plane of Motion
Refers to the plane (sagittal, frontal, or transverse) in which the exercise is performed.
Plantarflexion
Ankle motion such that the toes are pointed toward the ground.
Posterior (Dorsal)
On the back of the body.
Preprogrammed
Activation of muscles in healthy people that occurs automatically and independently of other muscles before movement.
Pronation
A triplanar movement that is associated with force reduction.
Proximal
Positioned nearest the center of the body, or point of reference.
Reactive Strength
The ability of the neuromuscular system to switch from an eccentric contraction to a concentric contraction quickly and efficiently.
Relative Strength
The maximum force that an individual can generate per unit of body weight, regardless of the time of force development.
Rotary Motion
Movement of the bones around the joints.
Sagittal Plane
An imaginary bisector that divides the body into left and right halves.
Scapular Depression
Downward (inferior) motion of the scapula.
Scapular Elevation
Upward (superior) motion of the scapula.
Scapular Protraction
Abduction of scapula; shoulder blades move away from the midline.
Scapular Retraction
Adduction of scapula; shoulder blades move toward the midline.
Sensation
The process whereby sensory information is received by the receptor and transferred either to the spinal cord for reflexive motor behavior or to higher cortical areas for processing.
Sensorimotor Integration
1. The ability of the nervous system to gather and interpret sensory information to anticipate, select, and execute the proper motor response. 2. The cooperation of the nervous and muscular system in gathering and interpreting information and executing movement.
Sensors
Provide feedback from the effectors to the central controller and cardiovascular control system. They include baroreceptors, chemoreceptors, and muscle afferents.
Sensory Feedback
The process whereby sensory information is used to reactively monitor movement and the environment.
Speed Strength
The ability of the neuromuscular system to produce the greatest possible force in the shortest possible time.
Starting Strength
The ability to produce high levels of force at the beginning of a movement.
Structural Efficiency
The structural alignment of the muscular and skeletal systems that allows the body to be balanced in relation to its center of gravity.
Superior
Positioned above a point of reference.
Torque
1. The ability of any force to cause rotation around an axis. 2. A force that producesrotation. Common unit of torque is the newton-meter or Nm.
Transverse Plane
An imaginary bisector that divides the body into top and bottom halves.
Ventral
Refers to a position on the front or toward the front of the body.
Assessment
A process of determining the importance, size, or value of something.
Gravity
The attraction between earth and the objects on earth.
Hobbies
Activities that a client may partake in regularly, but which may not necessarily be athletic in nature.
Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q)
A questionnaire that has been designed to help qualify a person for low-to-moderate-to-high activity levels.
Posture
Position and bearing of the body for alignment and function of the kinetic chain.
Principle of Overload
Implies that there must be a training stimulus provided that exceeds the current capabilities of the kinetic chain to elicit the optimal physical, physiologic, and performance adaptations.
Principle of Progression
Refers to the intentional manner in which a program is designed to progress according to the physiologic capabilities of the kinetic chain and the goals of the client.
Recreation
A client's physical activities outside of their work environment.
Skin-Fold Caliper
An instrument with two adjustable legs to measure thickness of a skin fold.
Subjective
Information that is provided by a client.
Tendonitis
An inflammation in a tendon or the tendon covering.
What is defined as the science concerned with the internal and external forces acting on the human body and the effects produced by these forces?
Biomechanics
An anatomical location referring to a position above a reference point is known as
Superior
An anatomical location referring to a position on the back or towards the back of the body is known as
Posterior
An anatomical location referring to a position on the same side of the body is known as
Ipsilateral
An anatomical location referring to a position described as being closer to the midline of the body from a reference point is known as
Medial
An anatomical location referring to a position below a reference point is known as
Inferior
What plane divides the body into front and back halves and consists of abduction and adduction movements?
Frontal
What plane divides the body into top and bottom halves and consists of internal and external rotation movements?
Transverse
What plane divides the body into left and right halves and consists of flexion and extension movements?
Sagittal
Which exercise is performed PREDOMINATELY in the frontal plane?
Side lunges
Which exercise is performed PREDOMINATELY in the sagittal plane?
Biceps curl
Which exercise is performed PREDOMINATELY in the transverse plane?
Cable trunk rotations
When a muscle is exerting less force than being placed on it, resulting in the lengthening of the muscle, this is known as what type of contraction?
Eccentric
When a muscle is exerting a force greater than is being placed on it, resulting in the shortening of the muscle, it is known as what type of contraction?
Concentric
When a muscle shortens at a constant speed over the full range of motion, it is known as what type of contraction?
Isokinetic
Which of the following is an example of a first-class lever?
Nodding the head
Which of the following is an example of a second-class lever?
Calf raise
Which of the following is an example of a third-class lever?
Biceps curl
What muscles create a common muscle synergy when performing the shoulder press exercise?
Deltoid, rotator cuff, trapezius
What muscles create a common muscle synergy when performing the shoulder squat exercise?
Quadriceps, hamstring complex, gluteus maximus
Which of the following assessments BEST measures cardiovascular efficiency?
YMCA step test
What is the proper formula to calculate a client's body mass index (BMI)?
Weight (kg) / Height (m2)
If a client demonstrates knees that cave in during the overhead squat assessment what muscle(s) are MOST likely tight (overactive)?
Adductor complex
What muscle(s) are MOST likely tight (overactive) if a client demonstrates an arching low back during the overhead squat assessment?
Hip Flexors
What muscle(s) are MOST likely weak (underactive) if a client demonstrates knees move inward during the overhead squat assessment?
Gluteus medius
If a client demonstrates arms that fall forward during the overhead squat, which muscle(s) are MOST likely weak (underactive)?
Lower trapezius
What muscle(s) are MOST likely weak (underactive) if a client's head protrudes forward during the pulling assessment?
Deep cervical flexors
Which of the following muscles would be the MOST appropriate to strengthen if your client demonstrates feet turning out during the overhead squat assessment?
Medial gastrocnemius
Which of the following muscles would be the MOST appropriate to strengthen if your client demonstrates an arched lower back during the overhead squat assessment?
Gluteus maximus
What is the normal systolic reading when measuring blood pressure?
<120 mm Hg
Which of the following assessments BEST measures lower extremity agility and neuromuscular control?
Shark skill test
Wearing shoes with a high heel can lead to tightness in which muscles?
Gastrocnemius, soleus
Which of the following assessments BEST measures muscular endurance of the upper body, primarily the pushing muscles?
Push-up test
Which of the following assessments BEST measures upper extremity agility and stabilization?
Davies test
What muscle(s) is/are most likely overactive if a client's knee moves inward during the single-leg squat test?
Adductor complex
Active Flexibility
The ability of agonists and synergists to move a limb through the full range of motion while their functional antagonist is being stretched.
Active-Isolated Stretch
The process of using agonists and synergists to dynamically move the joint into a range of motion.
Altered Reciprocal Inhibition
The concept of muscle inhibition, caused by a tight agonist, which inhibits its functional antagonist.
Arthrokinetic Dysfunction
1. A biomechanical and neuromuscular dysfunction in which forces at the joint are altered, resulting in abnormal joint movement and proprioception. 2. Altered forces at the joint that result in abnormal muscular activity and impaired neuromuscular communication at the joint.
Arthrokinetic Inhibition
The neuromuscular phenomenon that occurs when a joint dysfunction inhibits the muscles that surround the joint.
Autogenic Inhibition
The process by which neural impulses that sense tension are greater than the impulses that cause muscles to contract, providing an inhibitory effect to the muscle spindles.
Corrective Flexibility
Designed to improve muscle imbalances and altered arthrokinematics.
Cumulative Injury Cycle
A cycle whereby an injury will induce inflammation, muscle spasm, adhesions, altered neuromuscular control, and muscle imbalances.
Davis's Law
States that soft tissue models along the line of stress.
Dynamic Range of Motion
The combination of flexibility and the nervous system's ability to control this range of motion efficiently.
Dynamic Stretching
1. Uses the force production of a muscle and the body's momentum to take a joint through the full available range of motion. 2. The active extension of a muscle, using force production and momentum, to move the joint through the full available range of motion.
Extensibility
Capability to be elongated or stretched.
Flexibility
The normal extensibility of all soft tissues that allows the full range of motion of a joint.
Flexibility Training
Physical training of the body that integrates various stretches in all three planes of motion to produce the maximum extensibility of tissues.
Functional Flexibility
Integrated, multiplanar, soft tissue extensibility with optimum neuromuscular control through the full range of motion.
Pattern Overload
1. Repetitive physical activity that moves through the same patterns of motion, placing the same stresses on the body over time. 2. Consistently repeating the same pattern of motion, which may place abnormal stresses on the body.
Posterior Pelvic Tilt
A movement in which the pelvis rotates backward.
Postural Distortion Patterns
Predictable patterns of muscle imbalances.
Range of Motion
Refers to the range that the body or bodily segments move during an exercise.
Reciprocal Inhibition
The simultaneous relaxation of one muscle and the contraction of its antagonist to allow movement to take place.
Relative Flexibility
The tendency of the body to seek the path of least resistance during functional movement patterns.
Self-Myofascial Release
Another form of flexibility that focuses on the fascial system in the body.
Static Stretching
The process of passively taking a muscle to the point of tension and holding the stretch for a minimum of 30 seconds.
Synergistic Dominance
1. When synergists take over function for a weak or inhibited prime mover. 2. The neuromuscular phenomenon that occurs when inappropriate muscles take over the function of a weak or inhibited prime mover.
Upper-Extremity Postural Distortion
An individual who exhibits a forward head, rounded shoulder posture.
Cardiorespiratory Fitness
The ability of the circulatory and respiratory systems to supply oxygen rich blood to skeletal muscles during sustained physical activity.
Cardiorespiratory Training
Any physical activity that involves and places stress on the cardiorespiratory system.
Circuit Training System
This consists of a series of exercises that an individual performs on eafter another with minimal rest.
Enjoyment
The amount of pleasure derived from performing a physical activity.
Frequency
The number of training sessions in a given timeframe.
General Warm-Up
1. Consists of movements that do not necessarily have any movement specificity to the actual activity to be performed. 2. Low-intensity exercise consisting of movements that do not necessarily relate to the more intense exercise that is to follow.
Integrated Cardiorespiratory Training
Cardiorespiratory training programs that systematically progress clients through various stages to achieve optimal levels of physiologic, physical, and performance adaptations by placing stress on the cardiorespiratory system.
Intensity
The level of demand that a given activity places on the body.
Overtraining
Excessive frequency, volume, or intensity of training, resulting in fatigue (which is also caused by a lack of proper rest and recovery).
Oxygen Uptake Reserve (VO2R)
The difference between resting and maximal or peak oxygen consumption.
Specific Warm-Up
Low-intensity exercise consisting of movements that mimic those that will be included in the more intense exercise that is to follow.
Time
The length of time an individual is engaged in a given activity.
Type
The type or mode of physical activity that an individual is engaged in.
Ventilatory Threshold
The point during graded exercise in which ventilation increases disproportionately to oxygen uptake, signifying a switch from predominately aerobic energy production to anaerobic energy production.
Static stretching is a form of which of the following?
Corrective flexibility
Which of the following states that prolonged golgi tendon organ stimulation inhibits the muscle spindle of the same muscle?
Autogenic inhibition
What form of flexibility applies gentle force to an adhesion "knot," altering the elastic muscle fibers from a bundled position into straighter alignment with the direction of the muscle or fascia?
Self-myofascial release
The tendency of the body to seek the path of least resistance during functional movement patterns is called
Relative flexibility
A tight psoas decreasing neural drive of the gluteus maximus is an example of what?
Altered reciprocal inhibition
What is the definition of a muscle imbalance?
Alteration of muscle length surrounding a joint
Which forms of flexibility are used in Phase 1 of the OPT model?
Self-myofascial release and static stretching
Which forms of flexibility are used in Phase 2 of the OPT model?
Self-myofascial release and active-isolated stretching
Which forms of flexibility are used in Phase 5 of the OPT model?
Self-myofascial release and dynamic stretching
Increased force output of the hamstrings to compensate for a weakened gluteus maximus for hip extension is an example of what?
Synergistic dominance
Which of the following is a beneficial adaptation to cardiorespiratory exercise?
Decreases resting heart rate
All of the following are benefits of a cool-down EXCEPT
Encourages venous pooling of blood in the lower extremities
The 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines recommends adults should accumulate 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity every week or
75 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic activity every week
What is the target heart rate for a stage I cardiorespiratory training program?
65-75% of HRmax
One metabolic equivalent or MET is equal to 3.5 mL O2 x kg-1 x min-1 or the equivalent of
The average resting metabolic rate for adults
The point during graded exercise in which ventilation increases disproportionately to oxygen uptake, signifying a switch from predominately aerobic energy production to anaerobic energy production is known as
Ventilatory threshold
True or False: Circuit training was found just as beneficial as traditional forms of cardiorespiratory exercise for improving or contributing to improved fitness levels?
True
True or False: Clients who possess an anteriorly rotated pelvis (lower crossed syndrome), the initial use of bicycles or steppers may not be warranted, as the hips are placed in a constant state of flexion, adding to a shortened hip flexor complex.
True
A proper warm-up for a stabilization-level client should consist of self-myofascial release, active-isolated stretching, and 5 to 10 minutes of cardiorespiratory exercise.
False
True or False: For general health requirements, moderate intensity is preferred, of less than 60% maximal oxygen consumption.
True
Bracing
Occurs when you have contracted both the abdominal, lower back, and buttock muscles at the same time.
Co-contraction
Muscles contract together in a force-couple.
Compound-Sets
Involve the performance of two exercises for antagonistic muscles. For example a set of bench presses followed by cable rows (chest/back).
Core
1. The center of the body and the beginning point for movement. 2. The structures that make up the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex (LPHC), including the lumbar spine, the pelvic girdle, abdomen, and the hip joint.
Core Strength
The ability of the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex musculature to control an individual's constantly changing center of gravity.
Drawing-In Maneuver
1. Activation of the transverse abdominis, multifidus, pelvic floor muscles, and diaphragm to provide core stabilization. 2. A maneuver used to recruit the local core stabilizers by drawing the navel in toward the spine.
Stabilization Strength
Ability of the stabilizing muscles to provide dynamic joint stabilization and postural equilibrium during functional activities.
Transfer-of-Training Effect
The more similar the exercise is to the actual activity, the greater the carryover into real-life settings.
Tri-Sets System
A system very similar to supersets, the difference being three exercises back to back to back with little to no rest in between.
Balance
1. The ability to sustain or return the body's center of mass or line of gravity over itsbase of support. 2. When the body is in equilibrium and stationary, meaning no linear orangular movement.
Controlled Instability
Training environment that is as unstable as can safely be controlled by an individual.
Dynamic Balance
The ability to move and change directions under various conditions without falling.
Ground Reaction Force (GRF)
The equal and opposite force that is exerted back onto the body with every step that is taken.
Postural Equilibrium
The ability to efficiently maintain balance throughout the body segments.
The core stabilizers are made up of primarily what type of muscle fiber?
Type I
What is the name of the reflex that helps to maintain the eyes on a level plane?
Pelvo-ocular reflex
Core-stabilization exercises are performed in which phases of the OPT model?
Phase 1
The "reverse crunch" is considered what type of core exercise?
Core-strength
A "floor prone cobra" is considered what type of exercise?
Core-stabilization
A "rotation chest pass" is considered what type of exercise?
Core-power
True or false: The local stabilization system consists of muscles that are predominantly prime movers of the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex (LPHC).
False
True or false: The movement system is predominantly responsible for stabilization and joint support.
False
True or false: Core stabilization training exercises should focus on absolute strength gains, speed, and power.
False
True or false: Core activation techniques used to help create stabilization of the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex include the drawing-in maneuver and bracing.
True
A single-leg balance reach is what type of exercise?
Balance-stabilization
A single-leg squat touchdown is what type of exercise?
Balance-strength
The ability to reduce force at the right joint, at the right time, and in the right plane of motion requires optimal levels of dynamic balance and
Neuromuscular efficiency
Which of the following is a balance-power exercise?
Single-leg box hop-up with stabilization
True or False: Training in a multisensory environment will increase the demand on the nervous system's ability to activate the right muscles at the right time in the right plane of motion.
True
True or False: There is limited research and evidence that a balance-training program influence the ability to improve lower extremity biomechanics.
False
True or false: During a balance-training program, external resistance should be added before an increased proprioceptive demand in any exercise.
False
True or false: The main goal of balance training is to continually increase your client's awareness of their balance threshold by creating controlled instability.
True
True or false: When progressing a client through a balance-training program, the proper progression would be eyes open to eyes closed.
True
True or false: Balance training programs that are performed for at least 10 minutes a day, 3 times per week for 4 weeks, appear to improve both static and dynamic balance ability.
True
Amortization Phase
The electromechanical delay a muscle experiences in the transition from eccentric (reducing force and storing energy) to concentric (producing force) muscle action.
Integrated Performance Paradigm
To move with efficiency, forces must be dampened (eccentrically),stabilized (isometrically), and then accelerated (concentrically).
Plyometric (Reactive) Training
Exercises that generate quick, powerful movements involving an explosive concentric muscle contraction preceded by an eccentric muscle action.
Reactive Training
Exercises that use quick, powerful movements involving an eccentric contraction immediately followed by an explosive concentric contraction.
Agility
The ability to accelerate, decelerate, stabilize, and change direction quickly while maintaining proper posture.
Backside Mechanics
Proper alignment of the rear leg and pelvis during sprinting, which includes ankle plantar flexion, knee extension, hip extension, and neutral pelvis.
Frontside Mechanics
Proper alignment of the lead leg and pelvis during sprinting, which includes ankle dorsiflexion, knee flexion, hip flexion, and neutral pelvis.
Quickness
The ability to react and change body position with maximal rate of force production, in all planes of motion and from all body positions, during functional activities.
Speed
The ability to move the body in one intended direction as fast as possible.
Stride Length
The distance covered with each stride.
Stride Rate
The number of strides taken in a given amount of time (or distance).
Which of the following is NOT true regarding plyometric training?
Increases resting heart rate
Plyometric training is also known as
Reactive training
A squat jump is what type of exercise?
Plyometric-strength
An ice skater is what type of exercise?
Plyometric-power
When performing the squat jump with stabilization exercise, how long should a client hold the landing position?
3-5 seconds
Which of the following is a regression of a box jump-down with stabilization?
Box jump-up with stabilization
True or False: Plyometric (reactive) training involves exercises that generate quick, powerful movements involving explosive eccentric muscle action preceded by a concentric muscle action.
False
The integrated performance paradigm states that to move with precision, forces must be loaded (eccentrically), stabilized (isometrically), and then unloaded or accelerated (concentrically).
True
The first (eccentric) stage of a plyometric movement decreases muscle spindle activity by contracting (shortening) the muscle before activation.
False
The amortization phase involves dynamic stabilization and is the time between the end of the eccentric muscle action and the initiation of the concentric contraction.
True
The ability to move the body in one intended direction as fast as possible is known as
Speed
Which of the following is an accurate description of front side mechanics?
Proper alignment of the lead leg and pelvis during sprinting, which includes ankle dorsiflexion, knee flexion, hip flexion, and neutral pelvis
Which of the following is an accurate description of backside mechanics?
Proper alignment of the rear leg and pelvis during sprinting, which includes ankle plantar flexion, knee extension, hip extension, and neutral pelvis
The ability to start (or accelerate), stop (or decelerate and stabilize), and change direction quickly, while maintaining proper posture is known as
Agility
The ability to react and change body position with maximal rate of force production, in all planes of motion and from all body positions, during functional activities is known as
Quickness
SAQ training for youth is an effective way of providing a variety of exposures to various physiologic, neuromuscular, and biomechanical demands, resulting in the further development of physical ability.
True
High-intensity, short-duration programs have been found inferior for fat and weight loss, and other metabolic adaptations when compared with moderate-intensity, long-duration exercise protocols.
False
When designing SAQ programs for weight loss, the primary focus of the program is to keep the heart rate appropriately elevated to increase fat oxidation and caloric expenditure.
True
Research has determined that properly administered programs requiring an elevated degree of load on the skeletal system such as those found in SAQ protocols are safe and effective in slowing and potentially reversing osteopenia in older adults.
True
A 10% loss of bone density at the hip can result in a 2.5 times greater risk for hip fracture.
True
Adaptive
Capable of changing for a specific use.
Alarm Reaction
The first stage of the General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS), the initial reaction to a stressor.
Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness
Pain or discomfort often felt 24 to 72 hours after intense exercise or unaccustomed physical activity.
Exhaustion
The third stage of the General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS), when prolonged stress or stress that is intolerable produces exhaustion or distress to the system.
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
1. A syndrome in which the kinetic chain responds and adapts to imposed demands. 2. A term used to describe how the body responds and adapts to stress.
Homeostasis
The ability or tendency of an organism or a cell to maintain internal equilibrium by adjusting its physiologic processes.
Horizontal loading
Performing all sets of an exercise or body part before moving on to the next exercise or body part.
Hypertrophy
Enlargement of skeletal muscle fibers in response to overcoming force from high volumes of tension.
Mechanical Specificity
1. The specific muscular exercises using different weights and movements that are performed to increase strength or endurance in certain body parts. 2. Refers to the weight and movements placed on the body.
Metabolic Specificity
1. The specific muscular exercises using different levels of energy that are performed to increase endurance, strength, or power. 2. Refers to the energy demand placed on the body.
Multiple-Set System
The system consists of performing multiple sets of the same exercise.
Muscle Hypertrophy
1. Characterized by the increase in the cross-sectional area of individual muscle fibers and believed to result from an increase in the myofibril proteins. 2. Enlargement of skeletal muscle fibers in response to overcoming force from high volumes of tension.
Neuromuscular Specificity
1. The specific muscular exercises using different speeds and styles that are performed to increase neuromuscular efficiency. 2. Refers to the speed of contraction and exercise selection.
Periodization
Division of a training program into smaller, progressive stages.
Peripheral Heart Action System (PHA)
A variation of circuit training in which the client performs four to six exercises in a row, rests for 30 to 45 seconds, then moves to the next sequence of different exercise and continues the pattern.
Power
Ability of the neuromuscular system to produce the greatest force in the shortest time.
Principle of Specificity or Specific Adaptation to Imposed Demands (SAID Principle)
Principle that states the body will adapt to the specific demands that are placed on it.
Pyramid System
Involves a triangle or step approach that either progress up in weight with each set or decreases weight with each set.
Resistance Development
The second stage of the General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS), when the body increases its functional capacity to adapt to the stressor.
Single-Set System
The individual performs one set of each exercise, usually 8 to 12 repetitions at a slow, controlled tempo.
Split-Routine System
A system that incorporates training an individual's body parts with a high volume on separate days.
Strength
The ability of the neuromuscular system to produce internal tension to overcome an external load.
Vertical Loading
Alternating body parts trained from set to set, starting from the upper extremity and moving to the lower extremity.
Which of the following is an example of a total body power exercise?
Barbell clean
Which of the following is an example of a back strength exercise?
Pull-up
What are the three stages of the general adaptation syndrome?
Alarm reaction, resistance development, exhaustion
During which stage does the body increase its functional capacity to adapt to the stressor?
Resistance development
The ability of the neuromuscular system to produce internal tension to overcome an external load is defined as
Strength
True or false: The SAID principle is defined as "the body will specifically adapt to the type of demand placed on it."
True
True or false: Hypertrophy is characterized by atrophy of individual muscle fibers.
False
True or false: Power is defined as the ability to produce and maintain force for prolonged periods.
False
True or false: The multiple-set system of training has been shown to be superior to single-set training for advanced clients.
True
True or false: A drop set involves performing two exercises in rapid succession with minimal rest.
False
Acute Variables
Important components that specify how each exercise is to be performed.
Annual Plan
Generalized training plan that spans 1 year to show when the client will progress between phases.
Exercise Selection
The process of choosing appropriate exercises for a client's program.
Monthly Plan
Generalized training plan that spans 1 month and shows which phases will be required each day of each week.
Program Design
A purposeful system or plan put together to help an individual achieve a specific goal.
Repetition
One complete movement of a single exercise.
Repetition Tempo
The speed with which each repetition is performed.
Rest Interval
The time taken to recuperate between sets.
Set
A group of consecutive repetitions.
Training Duration
The timeframe of a workout or the length of time spent in one phase of training.
Training Frequency
The number of training sessions performed during a specified period(usually 1 week).
Training Intensity
An individual's level of effort, compared with their maximal effort, which is usually expressed as a percentage.
Training Plan
The specific outline, created by a fitness professional to meet a client's goals, that details the form of training, length of time, future changes, and specific exercises to be performed.
Training Volume
Amount of physical training performed within a specified period.
Weekly Plan
Training plan of specific workouts that spans 1 week and shows which exercises are required each day of the week.
The total amount of work performed within a specified time period is known as
Training volume
Maximal strength adaptations require a repetition range of 1 to 5 at
85-100% of 1RM
The MOST appropriate chest exercise to use during Phase 1 of the OPT model program would be:
Standing cable chest press
Volume is inversely related to what?
Intensity
A rest interval of 20 to 30 seconds replenishes what percentage of ATP/CP stores?
50
Improving muscle imbalances, stabilizing the core musculature, and establishing proper movement patterns are all goals of what training level of the OPT model?
Stabilization
According to research, hypertrophy is achieved by training with what percentage of 1RM?
75-85%
According to research, endurance is best achieved by performing what number of repetitions at 50 to 70% of the 1RM?
12-20
Which phase of the OPT model is a hybrid form of training that promotes increased stabilization endurance, hypertrophy, and strength by using superset techniques in which a more-stable exercise is immediately followed with a stabilization exercise with similar biomechanical motions?
Phase 2: Strength-endurance training
Which phase of the OPT model uses 1 to 5 reps, 4 to 6 sets with heavy loads (85 to100% intensity) during the resistance-training portion of the workout?
Phase 4: Maximal strength training
When performing a cable biceps curl, the cable should be positioned to offer resistance in a
Vertical motion against elbow flexion (pulling the elbow into extension)
When using medicine balls for their explosive power capabilities, high-velocity movements will require
A lighter ball, generally less than 10% an individual's body weight
The kettlebell renegade row can be effectively integrated into which phase(s) of the OPT model?
Phases 1 and 2
Which of the following is an example of a closed-chain exercise?
Squats
The TRX suspension push-up can be effectively integrated into which phase(s) of the OPT model?
Phases 1 and 2
True or False: Strength machines are generally regarded as superior to free weights for improving core stability and neuromuscular efficiency because they offer support for one's core musculature throughout the duration of the exercise.
False
True or False: Strength-training machines primarily work in one plane of motion and can limit one's ability to develop strength in all planes of motion.
True
True or False: Personal trainers should strive to progress individuals into a more proprioceptively enriched environment while emphasizing multiple planes of motion to improve overall stability and multiplanar neuromuscular coordination.
True
True or False: Performing complex exercises requires more energy, enabling individuals to expend more calories in a shorter period.
True
True or False: Vibration training manipulates acceleration, therefore creating an environment in which the body is stimulated to increase strength as a result of higher g-forces, without the need for additional loads being placed on the musculoskeletal system.
True
Arteriosclerosis
A general term that refers to hardening (and loss of elasticity) of arteries.
Arthritis
Chronic inflammation of the joints.
Atherosclerosis
1. Clogging, narrowing, and hardening of the body's large arteries and medium-sized blood vessels. Atherosclerosis can lead to stroke, heart attack, eye problems, and kidney problems. 2. Buildup of fatty plaques in arteries that leads to narrowing and reduced blood flow.
Cancer
Any of various types of malignant neoplasms, most of which invade surrounding tissues, may metastasize to several sites, and are likely to recur after attempted removal and to cause death of the patient unless adequately treated.
Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease
The condition of altered airflow through the lungs, generally caused by airway obstruction as a result of mucus production.
Hypercholesterolemia
Chronic high levels of cholesterol in the bloodstream.
Hyperglycemia
Abnormally high blood sugar.
Hyperlipidemia
Elevated levels of blood fats (e.g., triglycerides, cholesterol).
Hypertension
Consistently elevated arterial blood pressure, which, if sustained at a high enough level, is likely to induce cardiovascular or end-organ damage.
Intermittent Claudication
The manifestation of the symptoms caused by peripheral arterial disease.
Joint Stiffness
Resistance to unwanted movement.
Kyphosis
Exaggerated outward curvature of the thoracic region of the spinal column resulting in a rounded upper back.
Lower-Extremity Postural Distortion
An individual who has increased lumbar lordosis and an anterior pelvic tilt.
Osteoarthritis
Arthritis in which cartilage becomes soft, frayed, or thins out, as a result of trauma or other conditions.
Osteopenia
A decrease in the calcification or density of bone as well as reduced bone mass.
Osteoporosis
Condition in which there is a decrease in bone mass and density as well as an increase in the space between bones, resulting in porosity and fragility.
Peripheral Arterial Disease
A condition characterized by narrowing of the major arteries that are responsible for supplying blood to the lower extremities.
Peripheral Vascular Disease
A group of diseases in which blood vessels become restricted or blocked, typically as a result of atherosclerosis.
Pregnancy
The condition of a female who contains an unborn child within the body.
Restrictive Lung Disease
The condition of a fibrous lung tissue, which results in a decreased ability to expand the lungs.
Rheumatoid Arthritis
Arthritis primarily affecting connective tissues, in which there is a thickening of articular soft tissue, and extension of synovial tissue over articular cartilages that have become eroded.
Valsalva Maneuver
A maneuver in which a person tries to exhale forcibly with a closed glottis(windpipe) so that no air exits through the mouth or nose as, for example, in lifting a heavyweight. The Valsalva maneuver impedes the return of venous blood to the heart.
What two factors contribute to children having less tolerance for temperature extremes, especially when exercising?
Higher submaximal oxygen demand, lower sweating rate
What is caused by degeneration of cartilage within joints, creating a wearing on the surfaces of articulating bones, causing inflammation and pain at the joint?
Osteoarthritis
The average range for healthy blood pressure is
<120/80
Which of the following exercise positions should be avoided in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy?
Prone and supine
Hypertension is defined as blood pressure greater than
140/90
Children are less efficient and tend to exercise at a higher percentage of their peak oxygen uptake during submaximal exercise compared with adults.
True
Research has clearly demonstrated that resistance training is neither safe nor effective in children and adolescents and posses a higher risk of injury when compared with many popular sports including soccer, football, and basketball.
False
Arteriosclerosis is a normal physiological process of aging that results in arteries that are less elastic and pliable, which in turn leads to greater resistance to blood flow and thus higher blood pressure.
True
Approximately 66% of Americans older than age 20 are overweight, and of these, 34%, which equates to approximately 72 million Americans, are obese.
True
Resistance training has been shown to improve bone mineral density by no more than 5%, and some researchers believe that this does not represent a high enough increase to prevent fractures from occurring in clients with osteoporosis.
True
calorie
The amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water 1°C.
Calorie
A unit of expression of energy equal to 1000 cal. The amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of kilogram or lit of water 1°C.
Fructose
Known as fruit sugar; a member of the simple sugars carbohydrate group found in fruits, honey and syrups, and certain vegetables.
Glycemic Index
A ranking of carbohydrate-containing foods based on the food's effect on blood sugar compared with a standard reference food's effect.
Kilocalorie
A unit of expression of energy equal to 1000 calories. The amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of kilogram or litter of water 1°Celsius.
Lipids
A group of compounds that includes triglycerides (fats and oils), phospholipids, and sterols.
Nutrition
The process by which a living organism assimilates food and uses it for growth and repair of tissues.
Sucrose
Often referred to as table sugar, it is a molecule made up of glucose and fructose.
Which of the following is an example of an essential amino acid?
Leucine
Approximately how many amino acids does the body use?
20
Which of the following compounds is considered the CHIEF source of energy for all bodily functions and muscular exertion?
Carbohydrate
Consumption of which of the following is associated with lower incidence of heart disease, lower incidence of cancer, maintaining good intestinal motility, and helping to regulate the body's absorption of glucose?
Fiber
Which of the following nutrients is responsible for acting as transports for vitamins A, D, E, and K?
Fat
How many calories does one gram of fat yield?
9
What is the daily recommend intake of fiber?
25 grams
Amino acids that cannot be manufactured by the body and must be obtained from food or some other source are known as
Essential amino acids
The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for protein is
0.8g/kg/d
Carbohydrate intake should be between
45-65% of total caloric intake
Adequate Intake (AI)
A recommended average daily nutrient intake level, based on observed (or experimentally determined) approximations or estimates of nutrient intake that are assumed to be adequate for a group (or groups) of healthy people; this measure is used when an RDA cannot be determined.
Creatine Phosphate
A high-energy phosphate molecule that is stored in cells and can be used to resynthesize ATP immediately.
Dietary Supplement
A substance that completes or makes an addition to daily dietary intake.
Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)
The average daily nutrient intake level that is estimated to meet the requirement of half the healthy individuals who are in a particular life stage and gender group.
Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)
The average daily nutrient intake level that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all (97 to 98%) healthy individuals who are in a particular life stage and gender group.
Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)
The highest average daily nutrient intake level likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in a particular life stage and gender group. As intake increases above the UL, the potential risk of adverse health effects increases.
Which of the following nutrients (present only as retinol) should be consumed less than 100% of the daily value (DV)?
Vitamin A
Good guidelines for adequate, excessive, and potentially harmful intakes of a nutrient for normal, healthy individuals are known as
Dietary reference intake
The average daily nutrient intake level that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all (97-98%) healthy individuals who are in a particular life stage and gender group is defined as
Recommended daily allowance
The average daily nutrient intake level that is estimated to meet the requirement of half the healthy individuals who are in a particular life stage and gender group is defined as
Estimated average requirement
The highest average daily nutrient intake level likely to pose no risk of adverse health affect to almost all individuals in a particular life stage and gender group is defined as
Tolerable upper intake level
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) need to approve all dietary supplements before being sold or marketed.
False
Although calorie needs generally drop with age, the need for protein, vitamins, and minerals does not decline
True
As a general rule of thumb, the safe level of most nutrients in a multivitamin should be around 100% of the daily value (DV).
True
Calcium should be at low levels or absent in a multivitamin because it would make the supplement pill too large to swallow easily.
True
Creatine supplementation is banned by major sports governing bodies and is on the World Anti-Doping Agency list.
False
Empathy
Action of awareness, understanding, and sensitivity of the thoughts, emotions, and experience of another without personally having gone through the same.
Exercise Imagery
Is the process created to produce internalized experiences to support or enhance exercise participation.
Rapport
Aspect of a relationship characterized by similarity, agreement, or congruity.
Root Cause Analysis
A method of asking questions on a step-by-step basis to discover the initial cause of a fault.
Self-Organization
This theory, which is based on the dynamic pattern perspective, provides the body with the ability to overcome changes that are placed on it.
What percentage of the US population is estimated not to engage in 30 minutes of low-to-moderate physical activity?
75%
Which of the following is not a key predictor of exercise participation and adherence?
Popularity of chain
People in this stage of the Stages of Change Model do not exercise, but are thinking about becoming more active in the next 6 months.
Contemplation
People in this stage of the Stages of Change Model do exercise (occasionally) but are planning to begin exercising regularly in the next month.
Preparation
People in this stage of the Stages of Change Model have formed a change in their behavior for at least six months.
Maintenance
Some of the proposed psychological benefits of exercise include promoting a positive mood, reducing stress, improving sleep, and reducing depression and anxiety.
True
Effective goal setting stems from the acronym SMART; referring to specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, and timely.
True
Self-management skills improve an individual's ability to look at his or her behaviors, thoughts, and emotions and to change whatever is not working, for example, coping with and adapting to lifestyle changes such as those associated with beginning or returning to an exercise program.
True
"I want to look better," is an example of a SMART goal.
False
The Four Ps of Marketing include all of the following:
Place, Price, Product, Promotion
True or False: Personal trainers are expected to adhere to professional and ethical practices including obtaining liability insurance.
True
True or False: The International Health Racquet & Sports Association (IHRSA) recommends earning a certification from an organization that has either received accreditation or is in the process of receiving accreditation of their programs from an accrediting body.
True
Effective marketing requires identifying the customer's needs, developing the appropriate products or services to satisfy those needs, and promoting services and solutions in a cost-effective manner.
True
Personal trainers should strive for a "perfect price"; in which all clients will be able to afford their services.
False